NC1183: Mycotoxins in a Changing World
(Multistate Research Project)
NC1183: Mycotoxins in a Changing World
Duration: 10/01/2020 to 09/30/2025
Statement of Issues and Justification
Statement of Issues and Justification
The need, as indicated by stakeholders, and likely impacts from completion of the work
Grain and livestock producers need to minimize mycotoxin contamination of food, forage, and feed to reduce the deleterious effects of mycotoxins on consumers and livestock. The presence of zearalenone in swine feeds has led to serious issues for the industry in recent years. In particular, ingestion of zearalenone contaminated feed can result in uterine prolapse in sows ending their breeding life. Plant breeders have had success in producing plants with some resistance to mycotoxigenic fungi; however, this resistance does not always correlate with reduced mycotoxin contamination. This confounding issue needs to be understood and resolved to improve plant breeding strategies and for seed producers to be able to generate clean viable seed. Additionally, cost-effective methods to predict, monitor, and minimize mycotoxin production in the field, and to detoxify mycotoxins and prevent further deterioration in contaminated feed, are needed by producers of grain and livestock. The lowering of tolerance limits for mycotoxins in overseas markets has increased the burden for grain buyers and food processors; currently, levels of mycotoxins that are acceptable for some US products are unacceptable in European and Asian markets, resulting in non-tariff trade barriers. The EU is considering regulating up to 30 additional compounds. If implemented this will require US grain and livestock producers be able to assess and prevent presence of these mycotoxins above regulatory limits. Finally, workers who are responsible for animal and human health need information about the toxicity, carcinogenicity, modes of action, and biomarkers of exposure and disease for all categories of mycotoxins. This information would be used to train health-care providers to identify exposure and treat related disease, as well as to develop accurate risk assessment
The importance of the work, and consequences if it is not done
Mycotoxins are a serious, chronic problem throughout the cereal- and forage-producing regions of the U.S. If research is not applied broadly to address this problem, serious negative consequences will result. First, the presence of mycotoxins is an important health hazard. Accurate hazard assessments are essential in order to maintain exposures by animal and human consumers within safe limits. We propose basic research to define the toxicity of several important mycotoxins. Without this information, it is impossible to assess the risks associated with these mycotoxins. Additionally, the presence of mycotoxins in grain is an economic concern, especially in the context of global markets. Without an aggressive research program to prevent, treat, and contain outbreaks of mycotoxins in grain, U.S. grain producers suffer the consequences of reduced marketability of their products. Furthermore, the proposed research addresses biosecurity concerns. The natural occurrence of mycotoxins in grain is an important security concern for producers and end-users of the grain globally. Without a proactive research program to find innovative ways to monitor, prevent, and treat mycotoxin contamination of grains and forage, US agriculture will be unprepared to deal effectively with a mycotoxin outbreak, regardless of its origin. Finally, the production of mycotoxins by mycotoxigenic fungi in grains and forage represents a continuing problem in agriculture that reduces food safety and security. Linkages with international efforts will leverage expertise and promote mycotoxin mitigation in developing countries. In a changing world, food security is a component of political stability and in US national security interest. Improving our understanding of factors relevant to allowing these fungi to colonize their hosts, and how mycotoxin biosynthesis is regulated, will not only lead to novel treatment strategies, but will also advance our understanding of fungal pathogenesis in general.
The advantages for doing the work as a multistate effort and the technical feasibility of the research.
The scientists involved in this multistate, multidisciplinary research proposal bring a broad diversity of expertise on mycotoxin issues related to their respective disciplines. Just as agriculture is diverse and varies greatly from state to state (and in many instances, within a given state), the occurrence and severity of mycotoxin outbreaks vary widely across the US. A multistate effort ensures a thorough approach to investigate a complex and highly variable phenomenon that has significant impacts on both producers and consumers. Simultaneously, the differing experiences and expertise of the members are accessible to the whole, facilitating multistate collaborations that result in joint manuscripts and research proposals. Many such collaborations of long standing exist within the body of the research group. Due to the wide range of experience and expertise of the group, the proposed research is technically feasible.
What the likely impacts will be from successfully completing the work
The work will address the needs of the stakeholders. Outputs will include information on the action of mycotoxins in livestock and animal models. This information will be applicable to the risk assessment process. Bio-edited plants and potential biological control agents will be generated to address management of mycotoxin formation in the field. Information will be generated to address the need for management practices that help prevent mycotoxin-related problems during grain and forage production, handling, storage, processing, and consumption. Finally, we will generate important basic knowledge about major groups of mycotoxigenic fungi, and the biochemical and molecular factors that regulate the biosynthesis of aflatoxins, endophyte alkaloid toxins, and Fusarium-associated mycotoxins including deoxynivalenol, fumonisins, and zearalenone. This will reveal critical points in the regulation where targeted controls can be developed. Students trained will contribute to the scientific workforce with expertise in mycotoxicology and a broad perspective through interaction with the multi-state group composed of scientists in multiple disciplines.
Related, Current and Previous Work
The NC-1183 multi-state research group is the only active group that covers a broad range of topics encompassing the disciplinary breadth of mycotoxicology. Topics include impacts on animal health, fungal biology, genetics and ecology, analytical technologies, mycotoxin mitigation strategies for feed, and breeding and engineering resistant plants. Results of the work have been disseminated through publication of over 80 peer-reviewed papers and abstracts, presentations at scientific meetings, and to individual stakeholders during this current project. Some highlights from the work of the group over the past five years follows.
- Objective 1: Develop data for use in risk assessment of mycotoxins in human and animal health.
KS and NE leveraged USAID funds to assess post-harvest losses and mycotoxin contamination in Honduras and Nepal. This work identified chili peppers and soy nuggets in Nepal as a potentially significant source of aflatoxin (AFL) contamination. In Honduras, fumonisin (FB) contamination in maize was notable and a testing lab was established at Zamorano University.
VA conducted a swine feeding study with zearalenone (ZEN) and found this mycotoxin concentrated in certain female reproductive tissues including the cervix. As ZEN has recently become a mycotoxin of concern in the US swine industry additional work is needed to understand the sources of this mycotoxin and to develop strategies to reduce in-field production and to mitigate its presence in feed.
MO is producing mycotoxins in culture, including aflatoxin, fumonisin B1, ochratoxin A, and zearalenone, for use in animal feeding studies. This work has far reaching impacts in terms of assessing toxicity in multiple animal species and in evaluating the efficacy of mitigation solutions such as the addition of clays or other binders to livestock feed (DiGregorio et al., 2017; Dos Anjos et al., 2016; Markovic et al. 2017; Weatherly et al., 2018).
NJ developed a Caenorhabditis elegans system for studying mycotoxin toxicity. This work demonstrated a shortened lifespan of C. elegans when exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON). In work with the Schardl lab at University of Kentucky the system was used to analyze the toxicity of N-formylloline (NFL) from the grass endophyte Epichloe. NFL was found to be more toxic to C. elegans than DON. This works demonstrates the utility of the system for study of other mycotoxins and potentially of mycotoxin degrading microbes as well (Di, et al. 2018).
- Objective 2: Establish integrated strategies to manage and reduce mycotoxin contamination in cereals and in forages.
VA has developed a variety of strategies for detoxification and transport of DON. The Schmale lab also continues to provide DON testing services as part of the US Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative. A recent graduate of the lab, Dr. Nina Wilson, developed and delivered curriculum to high school students in VA and published this in an education journal (Wilson et al., 2018). PA has isolated a set of microbes from a variety of agricultural sources with dual capabilities of inhibiting Fusarium growth and having the ability to tolerate high concentrations of DON. Consultation on methodologies from the Schmale lab (VA) facilitated this work.
Using CRISPR-Cas9 technology in an Arabidopsis model system, NJ has identified three genes conditioning Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) susceptibility. Knockouts of these genes result in FHB resistance. This work has been translated to barley to demonstrate that two of these genes also confer susceptibility to FHB in barley and thus are potential targets for gene editing to produce FHB resistant lines. Similarly, the Schardl group (KY) is using CRISPR-Cas9 to eliminate ergot alkaloid gene function in Epichloe coenophiala for use in produced non-toxic tall fescue forage.
The Shan lab (MS) is using whole genome sequencing in developing maize inbred lines with whole plant resistance to aflatoxin. This work includes identification of major QTLs for resistance.
The Trail lab (MI) has screened plant and fungal extracts to find aflatoxin and deoxynivaleol biosynthesis inhibitors. This led to identification of compounds in black pepper that have been structurally characterized and synthesized and are now under development for commercial application. The Trail group has also isolated three endophytes with capabilities to reduce DON in wheat challenged with FHB.
- Objective 3. Better Understand the Biology and Ecology of Mycotoxigenic Fungi.
NE has found Fusarium boothii associated with wheat head scab in Nebraska for the first time with contributions to the work from the Schmale lab (VA) (Wegulo et al. 2018). This work also identified a F. boothii, F. graminearum hybrid. Documentation of hybridization of FHB pathogens is important for understanding the dynamic nature of this disease which leads to DON contamination of wheat and other small grains.
The Trail and Vaillancourt labs (MI and KY) are seeking additional genetic factors that determine virulence and have evaluated F. graminearum mating-type mutants. Their work shows that these genes are determinants of virulence. This work will extend to impacts on mycotoxin production as well. The Vaillancourt lab is also working with the del Ponte group in Brazil and the Schmale lab (VA) to assess phenotypic variation between two phylogenetic species in the F. graminearum clade that cause Gibberella stalk and ear rot in maize and head blight of wheat.
The Keller lab (WI) is dissecting the role of epigenetic factors including chromatin structure influences mycotoxin production and pathogenesis in Aspergillus and Penicillium. This work has identified the SntB protein as required for aflatoxin synthesis and sclerotia production in A.flavus (Pfannenstiel et al., 2018). This protein is involved in P. expansum virulence on apple and in patulin production (Tannous et al., 2018). Other work in the Keller lab examines polymicrobial interactions and their impact on secondary metabolite production including mycotoxins (Venkatesh and Keller, 2019). This work has important implications for microbe-based treatments for control of mycotoxigenic fungi or in enhancing plant resistance and growth. As industry is embracing and actively pursuing microbe-based approaches this type of fundamental knowledge will be very important. This represents an area of research for further development.
Objective 1: Develop data for use in risk assessment of mycotoxins in human and animal health. a) Perform surveys of food and feed for presence of mycotoxins and characterize the fungi that are responsible for contamination. b) Determine sources of exposure for human and animal populations exhibiting symptoms of mycotoxin intoxication. c) Utilize model systems to evaluate toxicity and identify biochemical pathways and genes expressed in response to mycotoxin exposure.
Objective 2: Establish integrative strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination in food and feed. a) Engineer plants to detoxify mycotoxins or limit infection by mycotoxigenic fungi. b) Leverage breeding nurseries and experimental approaches for evaluation of mycotoxin resistant germplasm. c) Identify and test microbe-based approaches to reducing in-field mycotoxin contamination.
Objective 3: Increase understanding of internal and external factors related to the biology and ecology of mycotoxigenic fungi that determine mycotoxin production potential and outcomes. a) Identify fungal genetic factors determining mycotoxin production including evaluation of epigenetic factors, genes outside of the mycotoxin biosynthetic gene clusters, and using multiple fungal genotypes. b) Assess the role of abiotic factors such as water activity and temperature on mycotoxin production. c) Evaluate the role of microbe-microbe interactions, and host microbiome context on mycotoxin production.
Objective 1: Develop data for use in risk assessment of mycotoxins in human and animal health.
The abundance and nature of mycotoxins present in a commodity or region changes from year to year based on numerous factors, such as local weather, crop genotype and regional cropping patterns, and shifts in populations of mycotoxigenic fungi (e.g., the replacement of 15-ADON with 3-ADON Fusarium graminearum genotypes across two clines in Canada and in portions of Minnesota and the Dakotas; the appearance of Fusarium boothii in Texas, Nebraska, and South Dakota) (Okello et al. 2019, Valverde-Bogantes et al. 2019).
Human and animal health risks are determined by a variety of factors, including abundance of mycotoxins in the diet, other dietary inputs and options, possible synergy between mycotoxins (especially aflatoxin and fumonisin, which often occur in maize), and socioeconomic factors and long-standing tradition (e.g. populations in Central America have a deep cultural association with maize and consume proportionally much more than populations in the US while, conversely, US corn is subject to much more stringent quality regulations – and therefore lower mycotoxin levels – prior to human consumption).
- Perform surveys of food and feed for presence of mycotoxins and characterize the fungi that are responsible for contamination.
Fusarium-infected field samples of wheat and corn in Nebraska and the upper Midwest will be collected, the Fusarium species identified by PCR and the mycotoxin profile by PCR genotyping (3-ADON, 15-ADON, and NIV) and/or GC-MS. The upper Midwest (MN, IA, ND, SD, NE, KS) is an area of interest based on movements of pathogens and mycotoxins over the previous decade. Similar studies are ongoing at the Pennsylvania station to isolate and evaluate Fusarium infecting small grains and corn (in collaboration with Dr. Dilantha Fernando, University of Manitoba.) This work utilizes standard methodologies that can be applied to any area of concern where field samples can be collected. As new methods are developed (i.e. PCR primer development, population genetics methods) they will be disseminated to the community for use or modification.
KS and NE have active and ongoing international survey and surveillance projects through the USAID Feed the Future Innovation Lab for the Reduction of Post-Harvest Losses and Borlaug Fellowships at UNL (e.g. Mendoza et al. 2017).
VA conducts DON testing for several states participating in the US Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative. While methods are standardized for wheat and barley, these methods do not translate satisfactorily to sorghum (matrix effects) so new methods have been developed and validated (McMaster et al. 2019); method development will continue with other host substrates. This testing, and its ongoing improvement, benefits participants in many states.
- Determine sources of exposure for human and animal populations exhibiting symptoms of mycotoxin intoxication.
Work by KS and NE through USAID in Honduras, Nepal, and Guatemala includes working with human populations experiencing chronic exposure to aflatoxins and fumonisins in excess of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (Mendoza et al. 2018). In Honduras, up to 25% of children are considered stunted (diet consists of maize, with high levels of fumonisins), while in one district in Nepal 95% of pregnant women tested positive for aflatoxin exposure. In Nepal, maize and groundnut have high levels of aflatoxin but are irregularly consumed, while chilies and extruded soybean nuggets have intermediate aflatoxin levels but are frequently consumed. Continuing work will tease out the contributions and synergies between mycotoxins, and continue to identify sources that might not initially be suspected (e.g. chili peppers). Preliminary data shows common features across broadly different populations exposed to mycotoxins, and outcomes will guide further international efforts.
Zearalenone (ZEN) has recently emerged as a mycotoxin of concern for the United States swine industry and in terms of sorghum exports to other countries. Work at Virginia Tech has evaluated ZEN in the female swine reproductive track. Questions remain about the sources of ZEN in swine feed and about the identity of the producing fungi. PA will share data with VA regarding potential Fusarium species responsible for ZEN production. Through venues such as the annual NC-1183 meeting, other scientific meetings (the annual Head Blight Forum, biennial Fusarium workshops conducted in conjunction with the Fungal Genetics Conference, meetings of the Mycological Society of America and the American Phytopathological Society, etc.), and peer-reviewed publications, other stations and stakeholders are kept informed of this work and can respond accordingly in their own states and reach out the VA and PA to share data and resources.
- Utilize model systems to evaluate toxicity and identify biochemical pathways and genes expressed in response to mycotoxin exposure
On the plant side, NJ is using Arabidopsis to test candidate mycotoxin response genes by CRISPR-CAS 9 editing before editing those genes in barley and wheat.
The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans and the waxworm caterpillar Galleria mellonella provide inexpensive and easy to rear models of animal response. NJ has expertise in using C. elegans to reveal targets of DON (Di et al. 2018) and will continue work with model systems. The development of comparatively rapid growing and inexpensive plant and animal models will benefit all mycotoxin researchers and will be applicable to other genes, mycotoxins, and host-pathogen systems.
Objective 2: Establish integrative strategies to reduce mycotoxin contamination in food and feed.
- Engineer plants to detoxify mycotoxins or limit infection by mycotoxigenic fungi.
MS is working with corn inbred line Mp313E which confers plant resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection and exhibits low levels of aflatoxins in mature kernels, comparing near-isogenic lines and conducting field trials (Windham et al. 2018).
NJ – three genes likely involved in FHB susceptibility have been edited in Arabadopsis using CRISPR/Cas 9 technology as proof-of-principle, with reduced Fusarium graminearum infection confirmed in two of the three. As genes are validated in Arabidopsis, they are edited in the relevant FHB host plant, barley, and the phenotypes are confirmed. Vectors for CRISPR editing of wheat and rice are also under investigation.
- Leverage breeding nurseries and experimental approaches for evaluation of mycotoxin resistant germplasm.
PA has preliminary data indicating an effect of cover crop treatment on Fusarium ear and stalk rot of corn. This potential strategy for in-field mycotoxin reduction will be further assessed and deployed by other stations as warranted.
PA has conducted a study examining the role of corn genotype in the colonization by Fusarium with a focus on differences in the frequency of fumonisin producers isolated. This work could be extended to different crops and mycotoxins and utilize existing resources of experimental breeding nurseries. This work complements work such as that proposed by NE (above, in Objective 1).
- Identify and test microbe-based approaches to reducing in-field mycotoxin contamination.
VA and MI (see also below) are conducting studies on microbes from grain crop fields. VA has found microbes capable of tolerating, transporting and/or detoxifying DON, and is using a transformed yeast system to identify genes of interest. PA has a collection of microbes with the ability to both inhibit the Fusarium Head Blight pathogen Fusarium graminearum and to reduce DON in culture media. This relates to work by PA and MI described below (Objective 3).
Objective 3: Increase understanding of internal and external factors related to the biology and ecology of mycotoxigenic fungi that determine mycotoxin production potential and outcomes.
There is still much to be learned about the factors influencing mycotoxin production. Work during the 2015-2020 period of NC-1183 by numerous labs has demonstrated clearly that fungal biomass does not correlate tidily with mycotoxin quantity, nor does mycotoxin biosynthetic gene expression. This has very important implications in mycotoxin mitigation suggesting, among other things, that simply trying to reduce or control certain fungi in crops is not the most effective strategy.
- Identify fungal genetic factors determining mycotoxin production including evaluation of epigenetic factors, genes outside of the mycotoxin biosynthetic gene clusters, and using multiple fungal genotypes.
WI is examining genetic and epigenetic controls of pathogenesis and mycotoxin production in Aspergillus flavusand Penicillium expansum, in which deletion of gene for the histone reader protein SntB decreases aflatoxin and patulin production, respectively, while increasing citrinin production in Penicillium. Ongoing transcriptomic studies of A. flavus are revealing genes outside of known mycotoxin biosynthetic pathways that impact mycotoxin production, such as the gene encoding the conidiation protein WetA.
- Assess the role of abiotic factors such as water activity and temperature on mycotoxin production.
NE is studying DON persistence and production, and fungal viability, under long-term storage of wheat grain at different water activities. Initial results show active trichothecene biosynthetic genes and DON production even at 120 days of storage in untreated and strobilurin-treated wheat. These studies have implications nationally and internationally for best practices in grain management.
Conditions for ZEN production need to be better defined in particular in the context of sources of this mycotoxin in swine feed. Multiple stations will be examining this aspect and sharing data.
- Evaluate the role of microbe-microbe interactions, and host microbiome context on mycotoxin production.
MI has been characterizing the root, stalk, leaf, and seed microbiomes of a corn/soy/wheat rotation. Endophytes demonstrating protection against FHB (three identified to date) are being readied for field trials. PA has data on Fusarium species in corn plants differentiated by plant organ and across different cultivars. There is potential to leverage these studies for synergistic activities. The microbiota isolated from different fields may be very site-specific, with novel microbes occurring in each field surveyed; however, there is potential to develop pathogen-inhibiting and mycotoxin-detoxifying microbes for broad application.
KY and WV are collaborating on a project to assess the diversity and roles of defensive alkaloids in wild grasses. These alkaloids are produced by mycotoxigenic endophytic fungi and commonly confer a benefit on the host grass (e.g. drought or stress tolerance) while being detrimental to grazing animals, including domesticated hoofstock.
Measurement of Progress and Results
- • Information disseminated in the form of peer reviewed literature and presentations at scientific meetings. This information will include survey results (what practices elevate or reduce risk of mycotoxin contamination of food and feed? What is the prevalence of mycotoxin-associated morbidity in populations? What can be done to ameliorate the problem?); and data on a wide range of subjects (optimal mycotoxin detection and management strategies in different regions and for different foodstuffs; any movements of mycotoxins or mycotoxin-producing fungi; detailed description of host-mycotoxin interactions; environmental, genetic and epigenetic impacts on mycotoxin production).
- • New methods and protocols, such as rapid detection methods for mycotoxins and mycotoxin-producing fungi.
- • Plant material resistant to mycotoxin accumulation, such as gene-edited plants or plants infected with beneficial endophytes.
Outcomes or Projected Impacts
- Outcomes will include: • Implementation of best practices to prevent post-harvest mycotoxin formation in materials such as grains and improve human and animal health. This may be as simple as adequate drying of grains and secure, moisture-controlled storage in places lacking advanced infrastructure. • Deployment of mycotoxin-resistant and/or -detoxifying cereals for human and animal consumption, and resistant forage grasses. • Genetic resources related to strain diversity and genetic markers, including characterized strain collections, genome sequences, and mapping populations which will be made available to the community. This information will be helpful in developing a protocol for strain profiling that will allow work with different local strains by partners in different states and countries to be more easily compared. Impacts will include: • An appreciation of the existence of mycotoxins, their role in human health, and how to minimize their impact in diverse stakeholders ranging from subsistence farmers in Central America and Africa to US high school students conducting citizen science projects with the VA and KY labs.
Milestones(2025):As each objective and subobjective involves different groups of workers and no objective depends on the completion of any other objective before it can be implemented, all objectives (and subobjectives) will follow a similar timeline, proceeding from experiments or surveys to data collection and data analysis, and write-up and summary of results. It is anticipated that data will give rise to new questions and avenues of exploration, which will fall into the scope of existing objectives. Publications will be generated steadily throughout the life of the project, with the first ones coming from areas with preliminary data (Objective 1, surveys in food and feed and sources of exposure; Objective 2, identify and test microbe-based approaches; Objective 3, assess the role of abiotic factors), and an increase as the project matures in years 3-5.
Projected ParticipationView Appendix E: Participation
The committee will maintain a webpage, and add a twitter account, to provide information to the public. Previous website users have included news organizations, grain industry representatives, and the general public. The site incorporates contact information for members, annual reports, meeting announcements and links to all topics related to mycotoxins. The committee will prioritize creating contributed sessions at appropriate meetings as the group identifies such opportunities. The intersection of mycotoxins and the microbiome is a topic that will be presented for consideration for a special session at a meeting of the American Phytopathological Society. Refereed journal publications will be an important outreach tool for all the listed outcomes. Many of the publications will be on applied research. Also, members who have extension activities (AR, NE, WA) will transfer information to grain and food producers. Citizen science projects involving high school students will continue to inform members of the public who do not fall into traditional stakeholder classes. With respect to the outcomes anticipated for Objective 3, several members will present their findings at the annual Fusarium Forum organized by the USDA Wheat and Barley Scab Initiative (www.scabusa.org). Attendees to the forum include growers, millers, representatives of industry, and scientists. The committee will collaborate with the international Fusarium Workshop (held in Kansas in odd years and at a prominent world site in even years), which provides training on biology, taxonomy, and toxicity of Fusarium species. Members are involved in international programs sponsored by the USDA and USAID, conducting surveys and workshops and training personnel in Central America, Africa, Nepal, and Afghanistan. We will coordinate with other global efforts in Europe and Africa. Furthermore, the outcomes derived from Objective 1 will be reported at the annual meetings of the Institute of Food Technologists and Experimental Biology, which are major venues for communicating on food toxicology and nutrition toxicology.
The executive committee will consist of a chair, vice-chair, secretary and past chair. The executive committee will be elected by the technical committee. Each year a new secretary will be elected and the vice-chair will advance to chair, with the chair; becoming past chair. This committee will conduct business as necessary for the whole committee, between meetings of the technical committee.
The technical committee meeting will be called once a year by the Administrative Adviser. At these meetings, work at the participating stations will be reviewed for progress and for areas needing further effort. When advantageous, efforts will be made to provide for exchange of representatives with other technical committees. Publication of results will be in the form of scientific publications, extension reports or technical bulletins, as appropriate. Attendance at the annual meeting and participation with the group will be monitored on a yearly basis. The committee will discuss with the Administrative Advisor possible remedies for delinquent members.
Duties of Members of the Executive Committee:
Chair - establish location of meeting and coordinate the date with the Administrative Adviser. Notify technical committee members of dates, times and location of meeting and assist members in making accommodations. Call the meetings to order and preside during the
meeting. Will become past Chair following Annual Meeting adjournment.
Vice-Chair - will function as the Chair in his/her absence. Becomes chair immediately following the Annual Meeting. Is responsible for writing, getting approval and disseminating the Annual Report.
Secretary - will take minutes for all meetings of the Executive Meeting and the Annual Meeting at which he/she is elected. Is responsible for disseminating copies of the minutes to all Technical Committee members following approval by the Administrative Adviser. Becomes vice chair for the next Annual Meeting. Maintains website by soliciting and sending updates to website administrator. Maintains twitter account by soliciting and sending updates to account administrator.
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Wilson, N., Dashiell, S., McMaster, N., Bohland, C., and Schmale, D. 2018. Could your food be contaminated with toxins? Educating high school students about mycotoxins in feed and food products. The Science Teacher 86(1):46-52.
Windham GL, Williams WP, Mylroie JE, Reid CX, Womack ED. 2018. A histological study of Aspergillus flavus colonization of wound-inoculated maize kernels of resistant and susceptible maize hybrids in the field. Front Microbiol 9:799.