S294: Quality and Safety of Fresh-cut Vegetables and Fruits
(Multistate Research Project)
S294: Quality and Safety of Fresh-cut Vegetables and Fruits
Duration: 10/01/2017 to 09/30/2022
Statement of Issues and Justification
According to the Produce Marketing Association (PMA, 2014), the U.S. market for fresh-cut vegetables and fruits is estimated at $27 billion annually ($16 billion foodservice and $11 billion retail) with bagged salads representing 61% of the market, other fresh-cut vegetables 27%, and fresh-cut fruit 11%. Fresh-cuts thus account for 16% of total retail produce sales. Postharvest losses of fresh-cut produce are difficult to estimate but given the highly perishable nature of fresh-cuts compared to intact produce, the retail value of fresh-cut produce losses and wastage at all levels may exceed $9-10 billion annually. All previous iterations of this project have worked closely with industry, particularly the United Fresh Produce Association (formed in 2006 by the merger of the United Fresh Fruit & Vegetable Association and the International Fresh-cut Produce Association), meeting annually at their convention and helping to plan and contributing to the convention educational program.
The appearance, convenience, and generally high nutritive value of fresh-cut vegetables and fruits drive sales of fresh produce, but repeat sales of fresh-cuts is dependent upon assurance of its safety and the products having pleasing texture and flavor. The industry primarily relies on established technologies derived mainly from practical experience to maintain visual quality and shelf-life with less consideration of the quality characteristics that drive repeat sales such as good flavor retention, maintenance of an appealing texture (crispness, crunchiness), and increased microbial quality leading to extended shelf stability and food safety. Through interaction with the industry we know that current technologies, especially for fresh-cut fruits, do not provide the shelf stability needed to supply long distance domestic markets with optimum flavor quality.
As a result of physiological and microbial deterioration occurring during storage and marketing of fresh produce, and especially fresh-cut produce, there is a continuing need to develop effective, less-damaging treatments for maintaining the sensory quality (appearance, flavor, texture), nutritional value, and food safety of fresh harvested produce (How, 1990). Most of the sales of fresh-cut produce have been in the vegetable (salad, carrot slice) area (Garrett, 2002) and commercial handling practices for fresh-cut vegetables have been described (Barth et al., 2016). Beginning about a decade ago, research and commercial interest has focused more on fresh-cut fruits and melons (Beaulieu et al., 2004; Beaulieu and Gorny, 2016; Candir, 2017; Kader, 2008; Rojas-Grau and Martin-Belloso, 2008; Soliva-Fortuny and Martin-Belloso, 2003). With over 200 different vegetable and fruit crops with potential for development as fresh-cut products, each with unique physiology and handling requirements, an integrated, scientific approach to research and development including microbiological interactions with these products is critically needed.
The conditions on the cut surface of fresh-cut products, with the presence of water and compounds that can be used for nutrition, are ideal for growth of microbes. Unfortunately, as produce consumption has increased in the U.S. in recent years, so has the number of produce-related outbreaks of foodborne illness. Produce-related outbreaks accounted for 12.3% of all reported foodborne outbreaks from 1990 to 2007, compared to only 0.7% in the 1970s (AFF, 2010, Sivapalasingam et al., 2004). More recently, about 24% of all foodborne illnesses from 2004 to 2013 were due to fresh produce (more than any other category; CSPI, 2015). Between 1996 and 2008, lettuce/leafy greens (32.9%), tomatoes (17.1%), and melons (15.9%) comprised two-thirds of produce-related outbreaks (Gravani, 2009). Pathogens of primary concern are Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Norwalk-like viruses. From 1996 to 2006, 72 foodborne illness outbreaks were associated with fresh produce consumption with 18 of these connected to fresh-cut produce (FDA 2008). The economic yearly losses due to acute foodborne illness are estimated to be $152 billion, with $39 billion of this loss associated with fresh, processed, and canned produce (Scharff, 2010). The continuing nature of such produce-related outbreaks represents a threat to further increases in per capita consumption due to lowered confidence in the microbial safety of the product by the consuming public. Such outbreaks can also be very costly to growers, processors, shippers and restaurants.
It is very difficult to ascertain the efficacy of control measures for food safety as there are no direct measures of the effectiveness of intervention strategies on the rate of occurrence of foodborne illness in the general population. Instead, model systems are used to test the effectiveness of intervention strategies at selected stages of the processing chain. The hope is that by identifying and implementing numerous control strategies along the processing chain that were found to be effective in model systems, that the resulting net risk reduction will effectively reduce the real risk of foodborne illness. There are a number of opportunities to address food safety concerns as part of this project. Quality and safety concerns often overlap. For example, efforts to reduce spoilage organisms should also impact pathogenic organisms, and removing damaged produce prior to production will reduce the risks associated with pathogen colonization of wounds.
The Food & Drug Administration (FDA) in collaboration with the USDA and the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) issued a series of guidelines in 1998 (since updated) referred as Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs) to reduce the risk of foodborne diseases from fresh fruits and vegetables (U.S. FDA, 2008). Since that time, indicative of the importance of fresh fruit and vegetable food safety and security research, USDA has emphasized the enhancement of safety and security in its strategic planning and created the Food Safety and Quality National Education Initiative (FSQ), Special Research Grants for Food Safety, the Food Safety Institute of the Americas, and the National Food Integrated Safety Initiative. Members of S294 have been actively involved in all of these programs and many also are involved in extension food safety programs. The Food Safety Modernization Act of 2011, currently being implemented, “…aims to ensure the U.S. food supply is safe by shifting the focus from responding to contamination to preventing it.” (https://www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/fsma/).
In order to ascertain food safety risks involving fresh and fresh-cut produce, it is critical to be able to determine the survival and persistence of viable or infectious human pathogens under environmental conditions occurring in produce handling and processing facilities, on harvested crops, and on intact or fresh-cut products. Therefore, methods for detection and enumeration of target microbes, including bacteria and viruses, are of core relevancy to this project. Approaches for detection and enumeration of microbes on fresh produce can play an important role in mitigation of fresh produce-associated spoilage or foodborne disease, as well, providing decision makers with timely and actionable data, especially on the presence of human pathogens in these products (Brehm-Stecher et al., 2009). These data could help guide interventions such as: refusal of contaminated product from the field, cessation of processing for line or equipment sanitation, destruction of contaminated product held in inventory pending testing results, or product recall. Due to the relatively short shelf lives of most types of fresh and particularly fresh-cut produce, rapid methods for detection and enumeration are of special relevance to the goals of this work.
Integration of physiological, pathological, food safety, and instrumental and sensory quality measurement concepts is essential for developing the most effective handling procedures and innovative, new technologies for maintaining quality and shelf stability, and safety of fresh-cut products. This multistate project is structured to foster the cooperation and collaboration among AES, ARS and other scientists in multiple disciplines that is necessary to accomplish such outcomes. Much experimental work is needed to optimize and integrate new and emerging treatments in diverse fresh-cut products. This fact supports the proposed integrated approach of having parallel projects in different states and of focusing the research into specific areas of importance. Alternative and emerging technologies for maintaining the quality and shelf stability of fresh-cut produce are being introduced at a rate that often precludes thorough evaluation of instrumental and sensory quality attributes, and their impact on product nutritional value, microbial quality and food safety. To do so, a multidisciplinary approach as proposed herein is needed to optimize the new and emerging treatments.
Related, Current and Previous Work
A search of the CRIS database revealed an absence of multistate project(s) or coordinating committees concerning fresh-cut vegetables and fruits, and collaborative participation involving plant physiologists, food scientists, and microbiologists working together. This multistate project is needed in order to provide coordination and collaboration among scientists working in this field if duplication of effort is to be avoided and the available time and resources are to be effectively applied. In this way, more effective approaches that are globally applicable to different fresh-cut products may be efficiently developed and utilized.
A. Critical Review of Previous Project Accomplishments
This proposal is for a replacement project to S-294, Postharvest Quality and Safety in Fresh-cut Vegetables and Fruits (2011-16), which has resulted in numerous collaborative activities including multiple federally funded grants with multistate collaboration. The project members developed information on postharvest treatment and storage effects on the nutritional value of fresh-cut products; standardized methods for subjectively evaluating postharvest quality-related changes; developed or evaluated new tools, treatments and cultivars to improve the quality and safety of fresh-cut vegetables and fruits; developed new information on the contamination and attachment of microbes to fresh-cut product as well as developing novel approaches to microbial control; developed standard practices for recovery, inoculation, detection, and enumeration of human microbial pathogens on produce; and elucidated the physiological processes underlying both positive and negative quality changes associated with fresh-cut processing.
The new project will emphasize standardization of microbiological procedures and instrumental and subjective methods for sensory quality analysis and flavor-based shelf life measurement and emerging treatments and techniques for assuring fresh-cut quality; similarly, we will consider physiological processes that control quality changes in fresh-cut products. We will develop standard protocols for evaluation of the efficacy of sanitizers and the appropriateness of experimental protocols for microbiological challenge studies with fresh-cut produce. New sanitizers, natural product antimicrobials, and physical treatments to control microbes will be tested. Because of the potential for treatment interactions between vegetable and fruit tissues and microbes, we plan on close coordination between microbiologists and plant/food scientists in all of the above activities.
B. Fresh-cut Product Quality
Pre-harvest conditions that stress the plant will affect the quality and shelf-life of the postharvest crop (Monselise and Goren, 1987; Nigh, 1990). Knowledge of these conditions is important for assessing postharvest potential of fresh-cut products (Blacharski et al., 2001; Borve and Sekse, 2000; Gorny et al., 1998; Kim et al., 1993). The maturity of fruits and vegetables intended for fresh-cut processing is a critical factor determining potential quality and shelf life (Bai et al., 2009; Beaulieu, 2005, 2007; Beaulieu et al., 2004; Soliva-Fortuny et al., 2002, 2004). Integration of cultivar selection, pre-harvest and postharvest conditions and treatments is needed to obtain the best possible quality of the marketed fresh-cut product (Beaulieu and Lea, 2003).
Understanding the components of eating quality involves comparison of instrumental with sensory analysis (Beaulieu and Baldwin, 2002; Jordán et al., 2001a,b; Plotto et al., 2000; Schieberle and Hofmann, 1997). Detailed sensory analysis is required on fresh-cut produce treated in various applications that potentially affect flavor and textural attributes and impact overall eating quality. Many attempts at measuring texture have used sensory analysis coupled with instrumental measurements (Abbott et al., 1984; Beaulieu et al., 2004; DeBelie et al., 2002; Drake, 1962; Harker et al., 2002; Mohamed et al., 1982; Szczesniak, 1963; Vickers, 1981; Vickers and Bourne, 1976; Vincent, 1998). There are no generally accepted definitions of textural attributes applicable to fresh-cut products, sensory scale anchors, or methods for their measurement (Fillion and Kilcast, 2002; Harker et al., 1997). The proposed project will include study of practical methods for measuring flavor and texture of fresh-cut vegetables and fruits, and relating to sensory measurements using modern multivariate statistical techniques.
C. Technologies for Maintaining Quality and Shelf Stability
- Modified atmosphere packaging. Altering the gas mixture surrounding fresh-cut produce to a composition different from that of normal air is an effective tool to prolong quality retention, and this can be achieved by using packaging technologies (Kader et al., 1989). Essentially all fresh-cut products are handled in packages designed to maintain a modified atmosphere surrounding the enclosed product. Importantly however, good temperature control is essential for effective use of this modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; Beaudry et al., 2006).
MAP can reduce or delay the physical, chemical and microbiological changes caused in the produce during preparation (Gorny, 1997; Sandhya, 2010) and is largely used to suppress global metabolic activity through respiratory inhibition (Kaji et al., 1993; Soliva-Fortuny et al., 2005), inhibition of ethylene synthesis and action (Gil et al., 1998; Gorny et al., 1999; Rosen et al., 1989; Soliva-Fortuny et al., 2005), inhibition of oxidative processes (Escalona et al., 2010; Smyth et al., 1998), retention of ascorbic acid (Agar et al., 1999), and suppression of microbial growth (Bai et al., 2001; Gonzalez-Fandos et al., 2006). MAP also provides an enclosed system that minimizes water loss and thereby reduces shriveling, wilting, and the loss of fresh and glossy appearance. Dangers associated with MAP include potential induction of fermentation and resultant off-flavors (Zhang and Watkins, 2005).
- Active packaging. Active packages enhance quality and safety through either the scavenging of compounds that are involved in produce deterioration processes or the release of compounds that can mitigate the effect of factors involved in produce deterioration (Almenar, 2017). Types of active packaging include modified moisture packaging (Chopra et al., 2016; Yue Bi et al., 2014), ethylene-removing packaging (Chopra et al., 2017; Cao et al., 2015), oxygen-removing packaging (Kartal et al., 2012), carbon-dioxide-removing packaging (Wang et al., 2015), and antimicrobial packaging (Almenar et al., 2007c; Almenar et al., 2009; Lopez et al., 2017). Bio-based plastics and biodegradable plastics are the main lines of current research in active packaging (Kuorwel et al., 2011).
The potential exists for the inclusion of additional bioactive compounds in the package or applied to the product that target human and plant pathogens. Such compounds include natural plant volatiles (Utama et al., 2002) such as hexanal and trans-2-hexenal (Kubo et al., 2004; Lanciotti et al.2003, Patrignani et al., 2008; Song et al., 1996; Utama et al, 2002). These volatiles can also be effectively encapsulated in cyclodextrins and their release manipulated (Almenar et al., 2007a; b).
- 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP). 1-MCP blocks ethylene receptors, preventing ethylene effects (Blankenship and Dole, 2003; Sisler and Blankenship, 1996; Sisler and Serek, 1997; Watkins, 2002). Thus, 1-MCP can potentially be used to control ripening and senescence of fresh-cut products (Jeong et al., 2004; Toivonen, 2008; Vilas-Boas et al., 2007), microbiological growth (Zhou, 2006), browning and hydrolysis of ascorbic acid (Buda et al., 2003). Further, the cyclodextrin can be incorporated into polymers to further modify release kinetics (Lee et al., 2006).
- Texture enhancers. Calcium salts have been used to decrease softening of fresh-cut fruits (Soliva-Fortuny et al., 2005). Calcium ions form cross-links between free carboxyl groups of pectin chains, resulting in strengthening of cell walls by formation of calcium pectates (Aguayo et al., 2008). Potassium has been reported to have both positive (Lester and Jifon, 2006) and negative (Pacheco et al., 2008) effects on fruit texture. Texture enhancers can be incorporated into the formulation of edible coatings (Oms-Oliu et al., 2008b; Rojas-Grau et al., 2009).
- Antibrowning agents. Browning caused by polyphenoloxidase (PPO) can be controlled by reducing the O2 content of the surrounding atmosphere or by using antibrowning agents, which can be grouped into different categories: acidulants, reducing agents, chelating agents, complexing agents, enzyme inhibitors, and synergistic combinations (Fan et al., 2005). Son et al. (2001) reported that the antibrowning compounds oxalic acid, oxalacetic acid, ascorbic acid-2-phosphate, cysteine, glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, kojic acid and 4-hexyl resorcinol showed the highest browning inhibitory activity on fresh-cut apples among 36 known antibrowning compounds.
- Naturally occurring compounds. Naturally occurring compounds have been also explored as flavor enhancers, and antibrowning agents. Some honeys and juices have shown antibrowning effects on fresh-cut apple slices (Jeon and Zhao, 2005; Song et al., 2007). Other natural antibrowning agents such as hexylresorcinol, N-acetylcysteine, and glutathione have been reported to reduce the browning of Fuji apple pieces with results significantly better than for ascorbic acid (Rojas-Grau et al., 2008a,b).
- Edible coatings. Edible coatings act via their barrier properties to water and gases (Baldwin et al., 1995a). Benefits of edible coatings on fresh-cut produce are reduced a) browning (Beaulieu and Gorny, 2004, Baldwin et al., 1996), b) respiration (Banks, 1984), c) ethylene production (Wong et al., 1994), d) moisture loss (Avena-Bustillos et al., 1997), and e) surface discoloration (Banks, 1984), as well as enhanced flavor volatiles and texture retention (Baldwin et al., 1995b; Guilbert et al., 1996).
Edible coatings can also extend fresh-cut shelf life by carrying active ingredients such as antibrowning agents, antimicrobial compounds, texture enhancers, and nutraceuticals (Han et al., 2004b; Hernandez-Munoz et al., 2008; Lee et al., 2003; Oms-Oliu et al., 2008a; Perez-Gago et al., 2006; Raybaudi-Massilia et al., 2008a; Rojas-Grau et al.; 2009; Waimaleongora-Ek et al., 2008; Zhao, 2010). New generation edible coatings focus on incorporating and controlling the release of active compounds using nanotechnology (Lopez-Rubio et al., 2006) and multi-layer nanolaminates (Weiss et al., 2006).
- Mild heat stress. Wounding of plant tissues results in degradative oxidative processes including browning, lipid peroxidation, and flavor changes (Hodges et al., 2004; Toivonen, 2003). However, plants also respond to abiotic and biotic stresses by up-regulation of their antioxidant system (Baker and Orlandi, 1995; Bray et al., 2000; Wang et al., 2003), which serves to protect against those processes by acting as reducing agents, free radical terminators, metal chelators, and singlet oxygen quenchers and by mediating the activity of various oxidizing enzymes (Ho, 1992; Okuda, 1993; Toivonen, 2004). Nonlethal heat stress has been shown to stimulate production of bioactive compounds (Lemoine et al., 2009), delay senescence, and improve quality of fresh-cut products (Sgroppo et al., 2009).
D. Physiology of Fresh-cut Products
The physiology of fresh-cut vegetables and fruits is typical of that observed in plant tissues that have been wounded or exposed to stress conditions (Brecht et al., 2004). This includes increased respiration and ethylene production. Other consequences of wounding include oxidative browning, lipid oxidation, and enhanced water loss. Minimizing negative consequences of wounding in fresh-cut products can result in increased shelf-life and greater maintenance of nutritional, appearance, and taste quality.
- Appearance versus flavor-based shelf life. Shelf life is generally based on appearance, but internal quality characteristics may deteriorate faster than external characteristics. There are three main reasons for the general decline in flavor of fresh produce: genetics, harvest maturity, and postharvest handling (Baldwin and Plotto, 2007). Both harvest maturity and postharvest handling techniques are often directed toward extending the shelf life of fresh produce after harvest, sometimes with negative impacts on flavor quality. This is especially problematic for fresh-cut products, for which flavor loss may be due to metabolic changes related to wounding, off-gassing of volatile compounds due to removal of diffusion barriers, and altering of atmosphere through necessary packaging (Forney, 2008).
Quality and quantity of flavor components have been shown to vary among varieties of fruits and vegetables. Preharvest factors, including environmental influences, during the production season can affect flavor quality (Baldwin et al. 1995c; Beaulieu, 2005; Romani et al. 1983; Thybo et al., 2006; Wright and Harris 1985). Harvest maturity, especially for climacteric fruits that ripen after harvest, strongly affects flavor life (Bai et al., 2009; Beaulieu, 2005, 2007; Beaulieu et al., 2004; Soliva-Fortuny et al., 2002, 2004). Even nonclimacteric fruits like citrus have an optimal harvest maturity window for flavor (Obenland et al., 2009).
Quality of fresh-cut products is highly dependent on minimizing injury to the product. Wounding of plant tissues may cause elevated ethylene production and membrane lipid degradation (Deschene et al., 1991; Picchioni et al., 1994; Rolle and Chism, 1987; Zhuang et al., 1997). Extensive enzymatic degradation occurs in damaged membrane systems (Marangoni et al., 1996). Discoloration occurs when the products of phenylpropanoid metabolism and possibly other substrates (e.g., anthocyanins) are oxidized by phenolases such as polyphenoloxidase (PPO) or peroxidases. Wounding also induces synthesis of enzymes involved in browning reactions (Martinez and Whitaker, 1995) or substrate biosynthesis (Ke and Saltveit, 1989). It has been clearly shown that the degree of injury incurred during the cutting process has a tremendous influence on slice quality and shelf-life (Portela and Cantwell, 2001; Toivonen et al., 2005).
- Nutritional components in fresh-cut produce. Intact and fresh-cut vegetables and fruits are important dietary sources of vitamin A, C and E, minerals, carotenoids, polyphenols (flavonoids), and other antioxidant phytochemicals. However, little is known of the effects of fresh-cut processing technologies on the nutritional quality of fresh-cut products. Cutting increased the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of fresh-cut lettuce and other vegetables (Heredia and Cisneros-Zevallos, 2009). This suggests that stressful treatments such as fresh cutting can increase nutrient levels in some commodities under certain circumstances. More information is needed relating to phytonutrient levels in fresh-cut produce and how emerging fresh cutting technologies are impacting phytonutrients. Measurement of antioxidant capacity will also be important in order to better understand the potential health implications of these changes. This can most expediently be accomplished by measuring changes in the two most important antioxidant functionalities: 1) reducing capacity, and 2) peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (Toivonen and Hampson, 2010).
E. Microbiology and Food Safety of Fresh-cut Products
- Methods for recovery, inoculation, detection, and enumeration/quantification of fecal contamination, biofilms, and human pathogens. Pre-analytical sample preparation: Although numerous rapid detection methods are available commercially or are being developed, detection methods alone are inadequate. As detection is a final downstream event, the value of the information that it provides is dependent on critical upstream inputs such as effective separation of target cells from the food matrix and their subsequent concentration to analytically suitable volumes (Brehm-Stecher et al., 2009; DSouza et al., 2009). Therefore, development of methods for effective pre-analytical sample preparation will play an integral role in the work proposed here.
Enumeration: Although presence/absence testing for pathogens serves a vital role in food safety surveillance, quantitative information on pathogen loads is required to understand pathogen behavior in foods or in processing environments, to explore kinetic phenomena such as pathogen growth or inactivation and to provide critical input for microbial risk analyses (Brehm-Stecher et al., 2009). Therefore, methods capable of providing enumerative data on target organisms, especially human pathogens, are expected to be of special importance to the proposed work.
Biofilms and inoculation studies: The dominant microbial phenotype in nature is the biofilm, not individual, free-living cells (Bisha and Brehm-Stecher, 2009a; Fett et al., 2006). Understanding the complex microbial interactions on produce surfaces will be an important focus of the proposed project. Approaches for artificial inoculation of microbes onto produce surfaces, with the goal of more accurately representing processes occurring in the field or in processing environments, will also be a focus of this work.
Microbial interactions on produce or processing surfaces: Tape-based sampling methods have recently been combined with whole-cell molecular identification via fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), to enable rapid, visual identification of specific pathogens on produce surfaces (Bisha and Brehm-Stecher, 2009b). Because tape-based sampling approaches preserve the spatial relationships of microflora present on plant surfaces, they could enable characterization of competitive or metabiotic interactions between plant saprophytes or spoilage organisms on these surfaces or on inanimate processing surfaces (Bisha and Brehm-Stecher, 2009b).
Viruses: Human noroviruses remain the leading cause of viral gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide (Siebenga et al., 2009). Newly emergent strains are highly virulent and can be life threatening, especially to the elderly and immuno-compromised (Siebenga et al., 2009). Other viruses, such as hepatitis A, are significant because of the severity of disease they cause. Outbreaks of foodborne viruses have been linked to fresh produce such as green onions, lettuce, raspberries or frozen strawberries and raspberries. Methods for rapid and sensitive detection of viruses are needed. Promising approaches include real-time reverse-transcriptase-PCR, nucleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA), and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays.
- Sanitizers; alternatives/natural products; antimicrobial efficacy and sensory effects. Washing fresh-cut produce after cutting and prior to packaging is an important process in reducing microbial populations. Different washing chemical agents have been studied to determine their efficacy in the inactivation of pathogenic bacteria (Fan et al., 2009; Narciso and Plotto, 2005; O’Conner-Shaw et al., 1996; Ukuku and Fett, 2004; Ukuku et al., 2004; Yuk et al., 2005). Combining levulinic acid with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) dramatically increased the bactericidal activity against both Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7 populations (Zhao et al., 2009). However, lettuce treated with levulinic acid and SDS developed sogginess and loss of texture (Guan et al., 2010). Organic acids have shown to be effective in reducing bacteria populations on some fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.
Formation of chlorine by-products is a concern due to their potential adverse health effects. Scientists at ARS-PA studied the formation of trichloromethane (a chlorine by-product) in water, fresh-cut produce and as affected by the presence of citric acid. Results showed that trichloromethane was formed in chlorinated water, but not in ClO2 solution. Higher amount of trichloromethane (up to 280 ng/mL) was produced in the chlorine solution used for washing cut-lettuce than for diced onions while levels of trichloromethane in the final products (cut vegetables) were much lower (14-22 ng/g) than in the water. Citric acid reacted with chlorine, producing more than 1,000 ng/mL of trichloromethane in chlorine solution, suggesting that replacements should be explored for citric acid for pH adjustment.
Gaseous antimicrobials such as chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and ozone (O3) can penetrate to sites that liquid sanitizer can’t. This makes gaseous antimicrobials attractive for fresh-cut applications. Chlorine dioxide has been successfully applied to a number of crops (Du et al. 2003, Han et al. 2001; 2004a; Lee et al., 2004; Sapers et al. 2003), but ClO2 gas can have a negative impact on visual quality of leafy vegetables (Mahmoud and Linton 2008). Therefore, processing conditions would likely need to be altered for consumer acceptance and commercial applications. Gaseous O3 has been found to be effective in reducing S. enteritidis on tomatoes (Da_ et al., 2006) and Salmonella on cantaloupe melons (Selma et al., 2008).
Ionizing irradiation is effective in inactivating pathogens either on the surface or inside of fresh produce (Fan et al., 2008). Other new food processing technologies such as cold plasma, in-packaging sanitization, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, and high hydrostatic pressure need to be investigated for their feasibility on fresh and fresh-cut produce. Tree-ripe fruit such as apricots and peaches cannot be washed with chemical sanitizers due to their softness. Non-aqueous technologies are needed to minimize the risk of human pathogens on this type of fruit. Scientists at ARS-PA evaluated the efficacy of UV-C light for inactivation of Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 on apricot. A short (10 sec) UV-C treatment could result in immediate reduction of 99% on apricot surface. During post-UV storage, pathogen populations on UV-C exposed fruit continue to decrease: compared with the non-treated fruit, up to 99.999% of pathogens could be reduced after post-UV-C storage.
Unlike chemical sanitizers that only affect the surface of produce, hot water can inactivate bacteria below the produce surface (Breidt et al. 2000), and thus, is potentially more effective than chemical washes (Annous et al. 2004, Breidt et al. 2000, Lichter et al. 2000). Treatment of whole cantaloupes with 85°C water for 60 sec reduced Salmonella spp. by ca. 4.6 log CFU per cm2 of rind (Solomon et al., 2006). Hot water pasteurization of cantaloupes reduced native bacteria, yeast and mold populations, which also frequently resulted in lower microbial loads on fresh-cut fruit (Fan et al., 2008). No negative effect by the hot water treatment on sensory quality or vitamin C content of fresh-cut cantaloupes was observed.
Natural products and generally regarded as safe (GRAS) substances that often have antimicrobial/antioxidative activities or otherwise maintain the freshness and quality of the fresh-cut produce are of interest (Tiwari et al., 2009). In many cases, the concentration of the antimicrobial compound in its natural form is too low to be successfully used without damaging the sensory characteristics of the final product (Bagamboula et al., 2004). However, recent research (ARS-PA) showed that Salmonella typhimurium population on tomato fruit could be reduced by more than 99.99% without negatively impacting fruit quality after treatment with the certain naturally occurring plant extracts and their major constitutes. Also, cyclic sopholipids extracted from yeast were shown to inactivate Salmonella and Listeria spp.
Most chemical sanitizers are oxidants that can cause bleaching and other discoloration of fresh and fresh-cut produce. Because of their oxidative nature, these chemicals may not be able to be applied directly with antioxidants. However, treatment with oxidative sanitizers followed by treatment with an antioxidant may effectively maintain microbial quality of fresh-cut fruits. Several classes of surface active agents approved for food use can aid penetration of substances within apples (Saftner et al., 1997) and other produce, but their compatibility with fresh-cuts and their efficacy when combined with sanitizers have not been well studied.
- Antimicrobial edible coatings. Diverse coating materials have antimicrobial functions (Chien et al., 2007; Iverson and Ager, 2003; Park et al., 2005; Vargas et al., 2006; Zhang and Quantick, 1998) and antimicrobial agents may be incorporated into edible coatings (Du Plooya et al., 2009; Franssen and Krochta, 2003; Garcia et al., 2001; Lee et al., 2003; Park et al., 2004; 2005; Raybaudi-Massilia et al., 2008a; b; Rojas-Grau et al., 2007) to extend shelf-life and enhance microbial safety of fresh-cut produce (Lin and Zhao, 2007; Vargas et al., 2006). A patented edible film comprising organic acids, protein, and glycerol can inhibit human pathogen growth, including L. monocytogenes, S. gaminara, and E. coli 0157:H7 (Hettiarachchy and Satchithanandam, 2007). A novel class of phenolic fatty acids has shown potential for use as antimicrobials against Gram-positive bacteria (ARS-PA). The function and application of some antimicrobial coatings in fresh and fresh-cut produce have been discussed extensively in several review articles including Lin and Zhao (2007), McHugh et al., (2009), and Rojas-Grau et al. (2009).
- Antimicrobial packaging. Antimicrobial packaging involves incorporating an active compound with an antimicrobial capacity into the package in order to retard, reduce, or inhibit microbial growth during a desired period of time (Almenar, 2017). Antimicrobial packaging has been shown to improve shelf life of many fruits and vegetables by lowering microbial load, retaining color, and maintaining firmness and weight (Almenar et al., 2007c; Almenar et al., 2009; Muriel-Galet et al., 2013; Rodriguez-Lafuente et al., 2010).
Note that while we will not be conducting research on HACCP, the results from our project may help strength HACCP programs, such as development of rapid and sensitive detection methods for the identification of biological hazards (foodborne pathogens), and also development of new sanitizers, treatments and technologies for controlling pathogens.
1. Evaluate methods of sampling and measuring flavor and nutrition of fresh-cut products to facilitate comparison to traditional shelf life factors.
2. Develop new strategies to improve and maintain inherent fresh-cut product quality and nutrition.
3. Improve understanding of physiological mechanisms that affect fresh-cut product quality.
4. Determine critical factors in controlled inoculation studies with human pathogens and surrogates that influence the outcome of quantitative microbial risk assessments.
5. Development and validation of novel diagnostic methods to determine presence of human pathogens and chemical hazards associated with fresh and fresh-cut products.
All produce will be appropriately prepared and cut under highly sanitary conditions at refrigerated temperatures where the processing area, tools, and gloved hands are appropriately sanitized and personnel wear proper clothing to protect cut produce from contamination. Standard sanitation procedures to be used in conducting experiments will be determined by consensus of the participants. Any post-cutting treatments and packaging will also be performed using good manufacturing practices. After treatment, fresh-cut products, with intact control samples, will be stored using appropriate refrigerated temperatures and durations depending on commodity, stage of maturity at harvest or upon treatment, and storage temperature of the intact produce prior to processing.
Standard sensory and instrumental measures of flavor quality to be used in work encompassing the first three objectives will be developed by project members in CA, FL, and ARS-FL. Visual quality of fresh-cut products will be evaluated by applying standard hedonic scoring systems, reflectance color measurements, and spectrophotometric analysis of chlorophyll, anthocyanin, carotenoid, and phenolic pigments. Textural alterations will be analyzed using mechanical measurements of tissue firmness.
Since apparent responses to temperature, ethylene, etc. can be strongly affected by different fresh-cut preparation procedures, certain basic preparation procedures such as slicing procedures, slice or chunk sizes, and sanitation methods will need to be agreed upon, especially by those participants working with the same or similar types of products. The participants will agree on standard anti-browning and texture stabilizing treatments for products being studied at different stations. Similarly, standard hedonic scoring systems and physical measurement methods for color and texture for each common product will be used as much as possible. Flavor-related factors will be measured upon sampling or removal from packages or storage containers after a standard, specified period of time at a specified temperature.
Objective 1 - Evaluate methods of sampling and measuring flavor and nutrition of fresh-cut products to facilitate comparison to traditional shelf life factors.
Procedures: 1) We propose to compare methods currently used by project members for consumer and sensory panel testing of fresh-cut products and develop standard procedures. 2) We will conduct coordinated shelf life tests and develop standard procedures for measuring the shelf life of fresh-cut products in terms of retention of acceptable flavor versus physicochemical properties, including nutritionally important constituents. 3) We will relate instrumental with sensory measurements of fresh-cut product quality using newly developed instruments and statistical techniques.
For comparison of techniques between laboratories, fresh-cut products will be shared among participants and quantitative descriptive analysis, flash profiling, ranking, or sensory discrimination analysis in conjunction with signal detection theory will be used, depending on respective resources. Standardized preparation protocols for each product being tested will be used at all participating locations, and comparison between laboratories made for descriptive analyses.
Quality evaluations comparing sensory data with physicochemical analyses will be conducted with standard and novel instrumentation. Shelf life in terms of appearance, texture, nutritional value, and flavor will be compared and, specifically, interactions between volatile and non-volatile components of flavor will be determined. The chemical data for flavor compounds will be combined with sensory data to determine what type of aroma profile and sugar/acid ratios give the highest flavor quality (preference) or off-flavor (low preference) ratings for fresh-cut products.
Standardized sensory evaluation methods and objective methods of measuring color, texture, and composition of fresh-cut products will be proposed. Compositional measurements will include constituents related to flavor (sugars, organic acids, aroma volatiles) and nutritional value [ascorbic acid (vitamin C), carotenoids, polyphenols (flavonoids), and other antioxidant phytochemicals]. Potential methods will be discussed, agreed upon, and revisions made, and the procedures finalized and distributed within and outside the multistate project. The updated sensory analysis guide will be a collaborative effort between, and not exclusive to, participants from AL, CA, FL, ARS-FL, MI, ARS-PA, and TX.
Objective 2 - Develop new strategies to improve and maintain inherent fresh-cut product quality and nutrition.
Procedures: 1) We will work with public and private entities to identify germplasm with outstanding sensory quality. 2) We will identify optimum initial (whole product) quality factors relating to improved flavor-based shelf life. 3) We will investigate improved processing and packaging strategies to better maintain fresh-cut product quality as compared to standard commercial practices.
Genotype selections will be based on reduced or delayed ripening characteristics, better appearance and flavor, enhanced texture retention, and higher nutritional value. Sensory evaluations will be conducted by untrained panelists and by trained judges depending on the nature of the evaluation. Both intensity and overall acceptability characteristics of the fresh-cut products will be evaluated and later standardized. Work in this area will be conducted in BC, FL, ARS-FL, ARS-LA, MI, and Spain.
Selection of optimal quality produce for fresh-cut processing is another important consideration. Since fresh-cut products are intended for immediate consumption, fresh-cut fruit should be ripe or nearly ripe and vegetables should be fresh and showing no signs of senescence. Studies on initial product quality including optimal fruit maturity, preconditioning, and trait targeting will be emphasized; non-destructive instrumental measurements of vegetable and fruit quality will also be evaluated. Work in this area will be conducted in CA, FL, ARS-FL, MI, Italy and Spain.
Pre-cutting treatments of intact produce destined for fresh-cut products will target ethylene synthesis or action, undesirable enzyme activities, and/or microbial loads of the fresh-cut products. We will evaluate 1-MCP and heat treatments and coordinate with the microbiologists in testing emerging sanitizers. Post-cutting treatments to be tested will include MAP; 1-MCP, natural products, and edible coatings (with or without food additives, antimicrobials and preservatives). Pectinesterase application with and without calcium in order to firm the tissue by creating pectin crosslinking will be evaluated for its effect on fresh-cut fruit tissue softening and watersoaking development during storage. Rinsing the cut fruit with buffered alkaline solution will also be tested to determine if hyper-acidification of the cut surface due to vacuole rupture might play a role in the development of watersoaking and softening due to activation of hydrolases in the cell wall and membrane.
New alternatives for fresh-cut produce packaging will be developed based on testing and evaluating the effect of emerging packaging materials (bio-based films and others), and technologies (active and intelligent packaging) on fresh-cut product quality and safety. New and current packaging systems will be compared to evaluate improvements in quality and safety of the fresh-cut products. The behavior of different packaging systems in the cold chain will be evaluated for improvement of safety and quality of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Consumers’ acceptance for some of these novel packaging technologies for fresh-cut produce will be evaluated using surveys and sensory evaluations.
Quality evaluations to assess the effects of product selection, pre- and post-cutting treatments, packaging technologies, and changes during storage include physicochemical analyses and sensory evaluations. Our strategy will be to first evaluate the effects of chemical and physical treatments on visual quality to determine whether the treatments are worth further study in terms of more complex physicochemical analyses and sensory evaluations during post-treatment storage periods at 1 to10°C depending on commodity and commercial practices. Physicochemical techniques will include mostly instrumental measurements of surface pH, phytonutrient levels, surface color, firmness, sugar and acid levels, aromatic volatile abundance, microbial loads, and dissolved solid/electrolyte contents. Standardized methods developed in our previous project or in Objective 1 will be used.
The effects of various pre- and post-cutting treatments on fresh-cut vegetable and fruit quality attributes including microbe levels is an area that will involve interaction between the physiologists and microbiologists in the project. Work in those areas described above will be conducted in AL, BC, CA, ARS-FL, FL, IA, LA, ARS-LA, MI, ARS-PA, TX, Italy and Spain.
Objective 3 - Improve understanding of physiological mechanisms that affect fresh-cut product quality
Procedures: In this objective, we will concentrate on investigating the role of ethylene and stress physiology in fresh-cut product quality and shelf life.
We propose to determine the effects of wounding and heat stress on the tissue antioxidative capacity and concentrations of bioactive components during storage of fresh-cut vegetables and fruits. We will measure the levels of active oxygen species and other free radicals in response to fresh-cut processing and investigate how postharvest treatments such as MAP and heat can be used to enhance the plant antioxidant system in order to prevent the accumulation of those damaging compounds (FL). Ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent wound responses in fresh-cut vegetables and fruits will be investigated in CA and FL by utilizing inhibitors of ethylene binding such as 1-MCP.
Standard spectrophotometric and HPLC analyses of chlorophyll, anthocyanins, carotenoids, flavonols, tocopherols, ascorbates, and phenolic pigments (Tomás-Barberán et al., 1997) will be used. Antioxidant capacity will be measured using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. Contents of cysteine, reduced and oxidized glutathione and activities of dehydroascorbate reductase, ascorbate peroxidase, peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, will be measured as previously described (Soto-Zamora et al., 2005). Lipid class analysis will be conducted as previously described by Picchioni et al. (1996), and lipid degrading enzyme activity as described by Todd et al. (1992).
Objective 4 - Determine critical factors in controlled inoculation studies with human pathogens and surrogates that influence the outcome of quantitative microbial risk assessments.
Procedures: 1) We propose to develop research best-practice guidance and standardized methods for food safety risk assessments of fresh-cut product quality enhancing treatments or efficacy of interventions and disinfection measures. 2) We will evaluate the influence of inoculum production, method of application, rate of drying, potential for sub-lethal injury on quantitative and qualitative recovery of pathogens, duration and condition of storage, biofilm development, and method of viable recovery. 3) We will validate culture-based and non-cultural methods for improved sensitivity and specificity of detecting fecal contaminants on fresh-cut products and processing environments. 4) We will determine the potential for fresh-cut product/modified atmosphere packaging combinations and conditions to influence pathogen gene expression related to virulence following consumption.
Whole and fresh-cut produce will be inoculated with the appropriate pathogen of interest or its surrogate to give an initial microbial load of circa 106 CFU/g. The potential for reducing the transfer of microorganisms of interest from the peel to the flesh of produce during fresh-cut preparation will be evaluated by testing resulting fresh-cut pieces for pathogen contamination. The potential for injured cells of interest to grow following storage will be also evaluated after 1 to 21 days in storage by plating to selective and nonselective media. Subtracting populations enumerated on selective media from those on nonselective media gives an estimate of the number of injured cells present.
Research under this objective will simultaneously involve testing of various intervention strategies compared to standard commercial practices for effects on produce quality and naturally occurring and inoculated microorganisms. Factors such as concentrations, treatment time, intensity, power strength, storage condition (temperature, atmosphere, duration, etc.), and synergistic interactions of sanitizers and/or intervention technologies will be evaluated. Interventions may include hot water immersion (FL, ARS-PA), ClO2 and O3 gas (CA, FL, ARS-PA), chemical sanitizers (acids, chlorine, peroxiacetic acid, and hydrogen peroxide) combined with surfactants and other treatments (hurdle technology), such as ultrasonic and UV (ARS-PA), and other novel chemical approaches, including potentially synergistic systems containing mixtures of functional food ingredients and antimicrobial packaging and coatings (FL, MI, ARS-PA). Natural antimicrobial compounds (phyto and bacto antimicrobials) to inactivate food borne pathogens in fresh and fresh-cut produce will also be evaluated (IA, ARS-PA). The impact of novel methods such as cold plasma and plasma-infused water will be compared to more conventional methods (O3 and electrolyzed water) on the reduction of pathogens in fresh and fresh-cut produce and in water for quarantine treatment of specific commodities (TX).
New approaches for selective concentration of target pathogens from fresh produce or processing effluents will be developed, including exploration of alternative binders for selective pathogen capture (IA). Additional approaches for pre-analytical sample preparation (capture, physical or chemical detachment and concentration of pathogens, removal of inhibitors, etc.) will be developed for use on intact and fresh-cut produce (IA).
Data will be collected and analyzed by mathematic models developed by USDA-ARS and incorporated into Pathogen Modeling Program (PMP). Models will be developed to predict suitability and applicability of technology or combinations.
Objective 5 - Development and validation of novel diagnostic methods to determine presence of human pathogens and chemical hazards associated with fresh and fresh-cut products
Procedures: Studies will evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of new or currently used tools to determine the presence of biological and chemical hazards that are associated with fresh and fresh-cut products. Research under this objective will be put into two areas: 1) Real-time PCR and 2) biosensor platform in CA, TX, and MS. Studies will include development and evaluation of selective detection and quantification of target pathogen cells (Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and other target foodborne pathogens) in processing waters of fresh-cut produce.
Real-time RT-PCR methods for the detection of food safety organisms from intact and fresh-cut produce will be developed and (CA, TX). Real-time RT-PCR methods and rapid alternatives to direct nucleic acid sequencing for the detection or fingerprinting of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and other human pathogens like noroviruses from intact or fresh-cut produce, including leafy greens, tomatoes, and peppers, will be developed (CA). Development of multiplex RT-PCR methods will be developed and optimized for simultaneously detecting Salmonella, STEC and L. monocytogenes on produce to simplify pathogen testing for the produce industry (TX). In addition, commercially available automated detection systems will be evaluated comparatively to provide the industry with alternatives for choosing the best system for the produce industry needs (TX).
Biosensor platforms will be tested for selective detection and quantification of target pathogen cells in processing waters of fresh-cut produce (MS). Biosensor surface will be functionalized using specifies-specific and genus-specific antibodies raised against Salmonella, E. coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and other target foodborne pathogens. The selective biosensor surfaces will be exposed to water samples from the processing lines of fresh-cut produce to capture target pathogen cells. For the real time label-free detection, the optical spectrum of the biosensor surfaces will be measured for changes in signal due to the binding of target cells to specific antibodies. These novel biosensor surfaces will be evaluated for their sensitivity by directly exposing to processing water samples from fresh-cut produce with and without pre-enrichment for a reliable fast real-time detection of target pathogen cells. These novel biosensor assays will be standardized using spiked pathogen cells and will be confirmed by real-time PCR and culture methods. Strong adherent foodborne bacterial cells to fresh produce and to food-contact processing surfaces and the resulting biofilm formation will be determined in the presence of traces of residue from fresh-cut produce. Samples collected before and after appropriate cleaning and sanitization chemicals will be tested for efficient removal of strongly adherent biofilms of target pathogen cells from produce and from different food-contact processing surfaces by culture and novel biosensor methods (MS, CA).
Data will be collected and analyzed for commercialization of technology for produce industry use.
Measurement of Progress and Results
- The S-294 Technical Committee will issue annual project reports highlighting the results for the previous year, which will be made generally available on the project website.
- Participants will submit research findings for publication in peer reviewed and non-refereed journals and trade publications.
- Fruit and vegetable germplasm with outstanding sensory quality for use as fresh-cut products will be identified.
- Improved processing and packaging strategies to better maintain fresh-cut product quality will be identified or developed.
- Effects of wounding and heat stress on the tissue antioxidative capacity and concentrations of bioactive components during storage of fresh-cut vegetables and fruits will be determined.
- Ethylene-dependent and ethylene-independent wound responses in fresh-cut vegetables and fruits will be identified.
- Research best-practice guidance and standardized methods for food safety risk assessments of fresh-cut product treatments will be developed.
- We will validate culture-based and non-cultural methods for improved sensitivity and specificity of detecting fecal contaminants on fresh-cut products and processing environments.
- We will determine the potential for fresh-cut product/modified atmosphere packaging combinations and conditions to influence pathogen gene expression related to virulence following consumption.
- Novel produce packaging made from renewable resources and by-products will be developed.
- We will investigate consumers’ acceptance for novel packaging technologies for whole and fresh-cut produce.
- The tolerance at different whole and fresh-cut products to hot water immersion and effects on pathogen populations will be determined.
- The efficacy of ClO2 and O3 gas in reducing microbial populations on whole as well as fresh-cut fruits and vegetables will be determined.
- Potentially synergistic systems containing mixtures of functional food ingredients will be evaluated for the control of human pathogens on produce.
- Natural antimicrobial compounds to inactivate food borne pathogens in fresh and fresh-cut produce will be evaluated.
- Novel antimicrobial packaging and coating for fresh-cut fruits and vegetables will be developed.
- Novel diagnostic methods will be developed and tested to determine presence of human pathogens and chemical hazards associated with fresh and fresh-cut products.
- A final report will be issued at the conclusion of the project.
Outcomes or Projected Impacts
- Relevant information will be available to fresh-cut processors to assist in selection of optimal harvest maturity, processing procedures, handling and packaging conditions to best maintain fresh-cut product quality and safety.
- The fresh-cut industry will achieve considerable savings (potentially millions of dollars a year) from reductions of product losses and recalls.
- Consumers will benefit from increased availability of fresh-cut products with improved sensory quality and higher nutritional value through improvements in cultivars and more effective preparation and handling practices.
- Incidence of fresh-cut products at retail with insufficient shelf life for consumer satisfaction will decrease.
- Human health will be improved as a result of increased consumption of vegetables and fruits.
- Availability of best-practice guidance and standardized methods for food safety risk assessments of fresh-cut product treatments will reduce the likelihood of food safety events by replacing ineffective food safety practices with science-based procedures.
- Food safety risk will be reduced through availability of new, more efficacious, strategies for controlling human pathogens.
- Researchers will have standard protocols for quantifying shelf life and standard microbiological methods.
- Fastest and most accurate diagnostic methods available for detecting presence of pathogens and chemical hazards will be identified and made available.
- Longer-term scientific benefits will be derived from obtaining a better understanding of ethylene and stress physiology of wounded plant tissues.
Milestones(2018):Redesign, expand and update the content of the project website. Compile methods used by project members for consumer and sensory panel testing of fresh-cut products. Organize a task force to develop the procedures for assessing food safety risks in fresh-cut processing. Identify the most promising intervention strategies to reduce microbial populations on fresh-cut products. Identify the most promising diagnostic methods to determine presence of human pathogens and chemical hazards.
(2019):Identify fruit and vegetable cultivars that possess the highest levels of flavor-based quality factors and nutritionally important components for use in further project research efforts. Identify the critical factors in controlled inoculation studies with human pathogens and surrogates. Initiate collaborations between participating institutions for multi-station coordinated testing of sanitizers for fresh-cut products and for measuring shelf life of fresh-cut products. Obtain stakeholder feedback on quality and safety procedures and activities planned so far.
(2020):Establish collaborations between participating institutions for research on new pre-cutting and post-cutting treatments including packaging to better maintain fresh-cut product quality. Establish collaborations for developing and testing diagnostic methods to determine presence of human pathogens and chemical hazards.
(2021):Identify additional or alternative intervention strategies to investigate for controlling human pathogens on fresh-cut produce; prioritize the approaches and conduct collaborative studies. Identify other pre-cutting and post-cutting treatments to better maintain fresh-cut product quality; prioritize the approaches and conduct collaborative studies.
(2022):Develop research best-practice guidance and standardized methods for food safety risk assessments of fresh-cut product, quality enhancing treatments, and efficacy of disinfection measures; present the recommendations to the industry. Issue final project report.
Projected ParticipationView Appendix E: Participation
We will work closely with produce industry professionals, specifically the UFPA Food Safety & Technology Council, to identify industry issues to be addressed in our research and outreach activities. Educational materials will be created related to fresh-cut processing best practices in terms of both product quality and safety. Training programs will be developed using the educational materials. Several project members will conduct training of growers and handlers on food safety and preventive controls to satisfy the FSMA Produce Safety Rule requirement. Knowledge developed in this project will inform their trainings. We will also conduct directed studies to evaluate the food safety behavioral changes, attitudes, and knowledge changes of produce industry members as a result of educational materials and trainings developed by project members for fresh and fresh cut products.
Results from the proposed research activities will be disseminated via presentations at scientific and industry meetings and conventions (especially the United Fresh Produce Association convention, Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting and Food Expo, and American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Meeting), and will be published as project reports posted to the project web site, as well as in peer-reviewed and non-refereed (popular) publications. Participation by project members involved in undergraduate teaching, graduate student advisement, and extension activities associated with Land Grant Universities will promote the general dissemination of knowledge developed in the proposed project.
The offices of the Technical Committee will be the chair, vice-chair, secretary, and past-chair and will serve as the Executive Committee. The first three officers will be elected for two-year terms at the organizational meeting for the Technical Committee. Thereafter, a secretary will be elected biennially at the Technical Committee meeting. All voting members of the Technical Committee will be eligible for office. The officers will be promoted biennially in the following sequence: secretary to vice-chair, vice-chair to chair, chair to past-chair. These four officers will then constitute the Executive Committee to provide leadership and continuity and/or immediate action. The duties of the chair, vice-chair, and secretary will be as prescribed in the Guidelines for Multistate Research Activities; that of the past-chair will be to serve as a resource for the other committee members in carrying out their duties.
The project will have two subcommittees with chairs appointed by the Executive Committee chair. These will be the 'Quality and Physiology Subcommittee' and the 'Microbiology Subcommittee'. Members of each subcommittee will be those Technical Committee members whose research falls under the subcommittee area. The purpose of the subcommittees is to coordinate research activities within each research area, foster grant-writing activities, and create reports as directed by the Executive Committee.
Abbott, J.A., Watada, A.E., Massie, D.R. 1984. Sensory and instrument measurement of apple texture. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 109: 221-228.
AFF (Alliance for Food and Farming). 2010. Analysis of produce related foodborne illness outbreaks. Available http://www.perishablepundit.com/docs/foodborne-illness-outbreaks.pdf. (accessed July 12, 2017).
Agar, I. T., Massantini, R., Hess-Pierce, B., Kader, A. A. 1999. Postharvest CO2 and ethylene production and quality maintenance of fresh-cut kiwifruit slices. Journal of Food Science, 64: 433-440.
Aguayo, E., Escalona, V.H., Artes, F. 2008. Effect of hot water treatment and various calcium salts on quality of fresh-cut Amarillo melon. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 47: 397-406.
Almenar, E. 2017. Chapter 10: Innovations in Packaging Technologies for Produce. Part 1: Basic Principles of CA/MA and Future Trends In: Controlled and Modified Atmosphere for Fresh and Fresh-Cut Produce. Eds. R. M. Beaudry and M. I. Gil. Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA (USA) (In press).
Almenar, E., Auras, R., Rubino, M., Harte, B. 2007a. A new technique to prevent main post harvest diseases in berries during storage: Inclusion complexes ß-cyclodextrin-hexanal. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 118: 164-172.
Almenar, E., Auras, R., Wharton, P., Rubino, M., Harte, B. 2007b. Release of acetaldehyde from ß-cyclodextrins inhibits postharvest decay fungi in vitro. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55: 7205-7212.
Almenar, E., Del Valle, V.; Catala, R., Gavara, R., 2007c. Active packaging for wild strawberry fruit (Fragaria vesca L.). J. Agric. Food Chem., 55, 2240–2245.
Almenar, E., Catala, R., Hernandez-Muñoz, P., Gavara, R., 2009. Optimization of an active package for wild strawberries based on the release of 2-nonanone. LWT- Food Sci. Technol., 42, 587–593.
Alvarez-Parrilla, E., De la Rosa, L., Escobedo, R., Mercado, G., Moyer, E., Vasques, A., Gonzalez, G. 2007. Dual effect of ß-cyclodextrin on the inhibition of apple polyphenol oxidase by 4-hexylresorcinol and methyl jasmonate. Food Chemistry, 101: 1346-1356.
Annous, B.A., Burke, A., Sites, J.E. 2004. Surface pasteurization of whole fresh cantaloupes inoculated with Salmonella Poona or Escherichia coli. J. Food Prot. 67: 1876-1885.
Avena-Bustillos, R.J., Krochta, J.M., Saltveit, M.E. 1997. Water vapor resistance of red delicious apples and celery sticks coated with edible caseinate-acetylated monoglyceride films. Journal of Food Science, 62: 351-354.
Ayala-Zavala, J.F., Oms-Oliu, G., Odriozola-Serrano, I., Gonzalez-Aguilar, G.A., Alvarez-Parrilla, E., Martin-Belloso, O. 2008a. Bio-preservation of fresh-cut tomatoes using natural antimicrobials. European Food Research and Technology, 226: 1047-1055.
Ayala-Zavala, J.F., Soto-Valdez, H., Gonzalez-Leon, A., Alvarez-Parrilla, E., Mart1n-Belloso, O., Gonzalez-Aguilar, G.A. 2008b. Microencapsulation of cinnamon leaf (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) and garlic (Allium sativum) oils in betacyclodextrin. Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry, 60: 359-368.
Bagamboula, C.F., M. Uyttendaele, J. Debevere. 2004. Inhibitory effect of thyme and basil essential oils, carvacrol, thymol, estragol, linalool and p-cymene towards Shigella sonnei and S. flexneri. Food Microbiology 21: 33-42.
Bai, J., Pinshan, W.U., Manthey, J.A., Goodner, K.L., Baldwin E.A. 2009. Effect of harvest maturity on quality of fresh-cut pear salad. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 51: 250-256.
Bai, J.H., Saftner, R.A., Watada, A.E., Lee, Y.S. 2001. Modified atmosphere maintains quality of fresh-cut cantaloupe (Cucumis melo L.). Journal of Food Science, 66: 1207-1211.
Baker, C.J., Orlandi, E.W. 1995. Active oxygen in plant pathogenesis. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 33: 299-321.
Baldwin, E.A., Nisperos, M.O., Chen, X., Hagenmaier, R.D. 1996. Improving storage life of cut apple and potato with edible coating. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 9: 151-163.
Baldwin, E.A., Nisperos-Carriedo, M.O., Baker, R.A. 1995a. Use of edible coatings to preserve quality of lightly (and slightly) processed products. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 35(6): 509-552.
Baldwin, E.A., Nisperos-Carriedo, M.O., Shaw, P.E., Burns, J.K. 1995b. Effect of coatings and prolonged storage conditions on fresh orange flavor volatiles, degrees Brix, and ascorbic acid levels. J. Agric. Food Chem. 43: 1321-1331.
Baldwin, E.A., Plotto, A. 2007. Shelf-life versus flavour-life for fruits and vegetables: How to evaluate this complex trait. Stewart Postharvest Rev. http://ucanr.edu/datastoreFiles/608-298.pdf. (Accessed July 2, 2017)
Baldwin, E.A., Scott, J.W., and Shewfelt, R.L. 1995c. Quality of ripened mutant and transgenic tomato cultigens. Proc. Tomato Quality Workshop 503: 47-57.
Banks, N.H. 1984. Some effects of TAL Prolong coating on ripening bananas. Journal of Experimental Botany, 35(150): 127-137.
Barth, M.M., Zhuang, H., Saltveit, M.E. 2016. Fresh-cut vegetables. In: K.C. Gross, C.Y. Wang, and M.E. Saltveit (eds.). The commercial storage of fruits, vegetables, and florist and nursery stocks. USDA Handbook No. 66. 3rd Edition. Washington D.C.: Agricultural Research Service. Available at: https://www.ars.usda.gov/ARSUserFiles/oc/np/CommercialStorage/CommercialStorage.pdf. (Accessed May 30, 2017)
Beaudry, R., V. Luckanatinvong, and T. Solomos. 2006. Maintaining quality with CA and MAP. Acta Hort. 712: 245-252.
Beaulieu, J.C. 2005. Within-season volatile and quality differences in stored fresh-cut cantaloupe cultivars. J. Agric. Food Chem. 53: 8679-8687.
Beaulieu, J.C. 2007. Quality changes in cantaloupe during growth, maturation, and in stored fresh-cuts prepared from fruit harvested at various maturities. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 132(5): 720-728.
Beaulieu, J., Baldwin, E. 2002. Flavor and aroma of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, p. 391-425. In: O. Lamikanra (ed.). Fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Science, technology and market. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL USA
Beaulieu J.C., Gorny, J.R. 2016. Fresh-cut fruits. In: K.C. Gross, C.Y. Wang, and M.E. Saltveit (eds.). The commercial storage of fruits, vegetables, and florist and nursery stocks. USDA Handbook No. 66. 3rd Edition. Washington D.C.: Agricultural Research Service. Available at: https://www.ars.usda.gov/ARSUserFiles/oc/np/CommercialStorage/CommercialStorage.pdf (Accessed May 30, 2017)
Beaulieu, J.C., Lea, J.M. 2003. Aroma volatile differences in commercial orange-fleshed cantaloupes, the inbred parental lines and stored fresh-cuts. Acta Hort. 628: 809-815.
Bisha, B., Brehm-Stecher, B.F. 2009a. Flow-through imaging cytometry for detection of Salmonella spp. in alfalfa sprouts, a microbiologically complex food system. Biotechnol. J. 4: 880-887.
Bisha, B., Brehm-Stecher, B.F. 2009b. Simple adhesive-tape-based sampling of tomato surfaces combined with rapid fluorescence in situ hybridization for Salmonella detection. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 75: 1450-1455.
Blacharski, R.W., Bartz, J.A., Xiao, C.L., Legard, D.E. 2001. Control of postharvest Botrytis fruit rot with preharvest fungicide applications in annual strawberry. Plant Dis. 85: 597-602.
Blankenship, S.M., Dole, J.M. 2003. 1-Methylcyclopropene: A review. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 28, 1-25.
Borve, J., Sekse, L. 2000. Cuticular fractures promote postharvest fruit rot in sweet cherries. Plant Dis. 84: 1180-1184.
Bray, E.A., Bailey-Serres, J., Weretilnyk, E. 2000. Responses to abiotic stresses, p. 11581249. In: W. Gruissem, B. Buchannan, and R. Jones (eds.). Biochemistry and molecular biology of plants. Amer. Soc. Plant Physiol., Rockville, MD USA.
Brecht, J.K., Saltveit, M.E., Talcott, S.T. Schneider, K.R., Felkey, K. 2004. Fresh-cut vegetables and fruits. Hort. Rev. 30: 185-251.
Brehm-Stecher, B.F., Young, C., Jaykus, L.-A., Tortorello, M.L. 2009. Sample preparation: The forgotten beginning J. Food Prot. 72: 1774-1789.
Breidt, E., Hayes, J.S., Fleming, H.P. 2000. Reduction of microflora of whole pickling cucumbers by blanching. J. Food Sci. 65: 1354.
Buda, A.S., Joyce, D.C. 2003. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on the quality of minimally processed pineapple fruit. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 43: 177-184.
Candir, E. 2017. Fresh-cut fruits, p. 327-384. In: F. Yildez and R.C. Wiley (eds.), Minimally Processed Refrigerated Fruits and Vegetables. Part II. Springer
Cao, J., Li, X., Wu, K.; Jiang, W., Qu, G., 2015. Preparation of a novel PdCl2-CuSo4-based ethylene scavenger supported by acidified activated charcoal power and its effects on quality and ethylene metabolism of broccoli during shelf life. Postharvest Biol. Technol., 99, 50–57.
Chien, P.J., Sheu, F., Yang, F.H. 2007. Effects of edible chitosan coating on quality and shelf life of sliced mango fruit. J Food Eng., 78: 225-229.
Chopra, S., Dhumal, S., Abeli, P., Beaudry, R., Almenar, E. 2017. Metal-organic frameworks have utility in sorption and release of ethylene and 1-methylcyclopropene in fresh produce packaging. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 130:48-55.
Chopra, S., Dhumal, S., Abeli, P., Ryser, E.T., Beaudry, R., Almenar, E., 2016. Moisture regulation to control microbial growth on packaged produce. FreshTech Learning Center of the 2016 United Fresh Convention. Chicago, Illinois, USA http://www.unitedfreshshow.org/food-safety-posters (Accessed November 25, 2016).
CSPI (Center for Science in Public Interest). 2015. A review of foodborne illness in the U.S. from 2004-2013. Outbreak Alert! 2015. Available at Center http://cspinet.org/reports/outbreak-alert-2015.pdf. Accessed May 30, 2017.
Das, E., Gürakan, G.C., Bayindirli, A. 2006. Effect of controlled atmosphere storage, modified atmosphere packaging and gaseous ozone treatment on the survival of Salmonella enteritidis on cherry tomatoes. 23: 430-438.
DeBelie, N., Harker, F.R., De Baerdemaeker, J. 2002. Crispness judgement of Royal Gala apples based on chewing sounds. Biosystems Eng. 81: 297-303.
Deschene, A., Paliyath, G., Loughheed, E.C., Dumbroff, E.B., Thompson, J.E. 1991. Membrane deterioration during postharvest senescence of broccoli florets: Modulation by temperature and controlled atmosphere storage. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 1: 19-31.
Drake, B. 1962. Automatic recording of vibrational properties of foodstuffs. J. Food Sci. 27: 182-188.
D’Souza, D.H., Critzer, F.J., and D.A. Golden. 2009. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for the rapid detection of Salmonella using invA primers. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 6: 1097-1106.
Du, Y.H., Linton, R.H. 2003. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 on apple surfaces, Food Microbiology 20: 583591.
Du Plooya, W., Regnierb, T., Combrinck, S. 2009. Essential oil amended coatings as alternatives to synthetic fungicides in citrus postharvest management. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 53: 117-122.
Escalona, V.H., Verlinden, B.E., Geysen, B.M., Nicolai, B.M. 2010. Quality Changes of fresh-cut butterhead lettuce under sub- and super-atmospheric oxygen condition. Acta Horticulturae 857: 137-144.
Fan, X., Annous, B.A., Beaulieu, J.C., Sites, J.E. 2008. Effect of hot water surface pasteurization of whole fruit on shelf life and quality of fresh-cut cantaloupes. Journal of Food Science. 73(3): M91-M98.
Fan, X., Annous, B.A., Keskinen, L.A., Mattheis, J.P. 2009. Use of chemical sanitizers to reduce microbial populations and maintain quality of whole and fresh-cut cantaloupe. Journal of Food Protection. 72(12): 2453-2460.
Fan, X., Niemera, B.A., Mattheis, J.P., Zhuang, H., Olson, D.W. 2005. Quality of fresh-cut apple slices as affected by low-dose ionizing radiation and calcium ascorbate treatment. Journal of Food Science, 70: 143-148.
Fan, X., Niemira, B.A., Prakash, A. 2008. Irradiation of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. Food Tech. 3: 36-43.
FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2004. Produce safety from production to consumption: 2004 action plan to minimize foodborne illness associated with fresh produce consumption. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/buystoreservesafefood/ucm129487.htm. (Accessed May 30, 2017)
Fett, W.F., Fu, T.-J., Tortorello, M.L. 2006. Seed sprouts: The state of microbiological safety, p. 167-219. In: K.R. Mathews (ed.), Microbiology of Fresh Produce. ASM Press, Washington, D.C.
Fillion, F., Kilcast, D. 2002. Consumer perception of crispness and crunchiness in fruits and vegetables. Food Qual. Pref. 13: 2329.
Forney, C.F. 2008. Flavour loss during post harvest handling and marketing of fresh-cut produce. Stewart Postharvest Review. http://ucanr.edu/datastoreFiles/608-348.pdf. (Accessed July 24, 2017)
Franssen, L.R., Krochta, J.M. 2003. Edible coatings containing natural antimicrobials for processed foods, p. 250-262. In: S. Roller (ed.), Natural antimicrobials for minimal processing of foods. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Garcia, M.A., Martino, M.N., Zaritzky, N.E. 2001. Composite starch-based coatings applied to strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa). Nahrung/Food, 45: 267-272.
Garrett, E.H. 2002. Fresh-cut produce: Tracks and trends, p. 1-10. In: O. Lamikanra (ed.). Fresh-cut fruits and vegetables: Science, technology and market. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL USA.
Gil, M.I., Gorny, J.R., Kader, A.A. 1998. Responses of Fujiapple slices to ascorbic acid treatments and low-oxygen atmospheres. HortScience, 33: 305-309.
Gonzalez-Fandos, E., Jimenez, A.S., Tobar, V. 2006. Quality and shelf life of packaged sliced mushrooms stored at two different temperatures. Journal of Food Science, 15: 414-422.
Gorny, J. 1997. A summary of CA and MA requirements and recommendations for the storage of fresh-cut (minimally processed) fruits and vegetables, p. 30-66. In: J. Gorny (ed.). Proc. Seventh Intl. Controlled Atmosphere Res. Conf., Davis, CA, July 1318. Vol. 5: Fresh-cut fruits and vegetables and MAP. Univ. Calif. Postharvest Hort. Ser. 19.
Gorny, J.R., Hess-Pierce, B., Kader, A.A. 1998. Effects of fruit ripeness and storage temperature on the deterioration rate of fresh-cut peach and nectarine slices. HortScience 33: 110-113.
Gorny, J.R., Hess-Pierce, B., Kader, A.A. 1999. Quality changes in fresh-cut peach and nectarine slices as affected by cultivar storage atmosphere and chemical treatments. Journal of Food Science, 64: 429-432.
Gravani, R.B. 2009. The role of good agricultural practices in produce safety, p. 101-117. In: Fan, X., Niemira, B.A., Doona, C.H., Feeherry, F.E., Gravani, R.B. (eds.). Microbial Safety of Fresh Produce. IFT Press/Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, IA.
Guan, W., Huang L., Fan, X. 2010. Acids in combination with sodium dodecyl sulfate caused quality deterioration of fresh-cut Iceberg lettuce during storage in modified atmosphere. J. Food Science. 75: S435-S440.
Guilbert, S., Gontard, N., Gorris, L.G.M. 1996. Prolongation of the shelf- life of perishable food products using biodegradable films and coatings. Lebensmittel- Wissenschaft und Technologie, 29: 10-17.
Han, Y., Linton, R.H., Nielsen, S.S., Nelson, P.E. 2001. Reduction of Listeria monocytogenes on green peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) by gaseous and aqueous chlorine dioxide and water washing and its growth at 7 1C. J. Food Prot. 64: 1730-1738.
Han, Y., Selby, T.L., Schultze, K.K., Nelson, P.E., Linton, R.H. 2004a. Decontamination of strawberries using batch and continuous chlorine dioxide gas treatment. J. Food Prot. 67: 2450-2455.
Han, C., Zhao, Y., Leonard, S.W., Traber, M.G. 2004b. Edible coatings to improve storability and enhance nutritional value of fresh and frozen strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) and raspberries (Rubus ideaus). Postharvest Biology and Technology, 33: 67-78.
Harker, F.R., Maindonald, J., Murray, S.H., Gunson, F.A., Hallett, I.C., Walker, S.B. 2002. Sensory interpretation of instrumental measurements 1: Texture of apple fruit. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 24: 225-239.
Harker, F.R., Redgwell, R.J., Hallett, I.C., Murray, S.H. 1997. Texture of fresh fruit. Hort. Rev. 20: 121-224.
Heredia, J.B., Cisneros-Zevallos, L. 2009. The effects of exogenous ethylene and methyl jasmonate on the accumulation of phenolic antioxidants in selected whole and wounded fresh produce. Food Chem. 115: 1500-1508.
Hernandez-Munoz, P., Almenar, E., Del Valle, V., Velez, D., Gavara, R. 2008. Effect of chitosan coating combined with postharvest calcium treatment on strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) quality during refrigerated storage. Food Chemistry, 110: 428-435.
Hettiarachchy, N.S., Satchithanandam, E., inventors; The Board of Trustees for the Univ. of Arkansas, assignee. 2007 Jan 1. Organic acids incorporated edible antimicrobial films. U.S. patent 7,160,580.
Ho, C.T. 1992. Phenolic compounds in food: An overview, p. 2-7. In: M.T. Huang, C.T. Ho, and C.Y. Lee (eds.). Phenolic compounds in food and their effects on health. II. Antioxidants and cancer prevention. ACS Symp. Series 507. Amer. Chem. Soc., Washington, D.C. USA.
Hodges, D.M., Lester, G.E., Munro, K.D., Toivonen, P.M.A. 2004. Oxidative stress: Importance for postharvest quality. HortScience, 39: 924-929.
How, B.R. 1990. Marketing fresh fruits and vegetables. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. 336 p.
Iverson, C.E., Ager, S.P., inventors; CH.sub.2 O Incorporated, assignee. 2003 Jul 1. Method of coating food products and a coating composition. U.S. patent 6,586,029.
Jeon, M., Zhao, Y. 2005. Honey in combination with vacuum impregnation to prevent enzymatic browning of fresh-cut apples. International Journal of Food Science and Nutrition, 56: 165-176.
Jeong, J., Brecht, J.K., Huber, D.J., Sargent, S.A. 2004. 1-MCP for maintaining texture quality of fresh-cut tomato. HortScience, 39: 1359-1362.
Jordán, M.J., Shaw, P.E., Goodner, K.L. 2001a. Volatile components in aqueous essence, fresh fruit of Cucumis melo cv. Athena (muskmelon) by GC-MS and GC-O. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49: 5929-5933.
Jordán, M.J., Tandon, T., Shaw, P.E., Goodner, K.L. 2001b. Aromatic profile of aqueous banana essence and banana fruit by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). J. Agric. Food Chem. 49: 4 813-4817.
Kader, 2008. Fresh-cut mangos as a value-added product (literature review and interviews). Available at http://ucanr.edu/datastoreFiles/608-653.pdf (Accessed May 30, 2017)
Kader, A.A., Zagory, D., Kerbel, E.L. 1989. Modified atmosphere packaging of fruits and vegetables. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 28: 1-30.
Kaji, H., Ueno, M., Osajima, Y. 1993. Storage of shredded cabbage under a dynamically controlled atmosphere of high oxygen and high carbon dioxide. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, 57: 1049-1052.
Kartal, S., Aday, M.S., Caner, C. 2012. Use of microperforated films and oxygen scavengers to maintain storage stability of fresh strawberries. Postharvest Biol. Technol., 71, 32–40.
Ke, D., Saltveit, M.E. 1989. Wound-induced ethylene production, phenolic metabolism and susceptibility to russet spotting in iceberg lettuce. Physiol. Plant. 76: 412-418.
Kim, D.M., Smith, N.L., Lee, C.Y. 1993. Quality of minimally processed apple slices from selected cultivars. J. Food Sci. 58: 1115-1117, 1175.
Kubo, I., Fujita, K., Nikei, K., Kubo, A. 2004. Anti-Salmonella activity of 2-(E)-alkenals. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 96: 693-699.
Kuorwel, K.K., Cran, M.J., Sonneveld, K., Miltz, J. Bigger, S.W., 2011. Antimicrobial activity of biodegradable polysaccharide and protein-based films containing active agents. J. Food Sci., 76 (3), R90–R102.
Lanciotti, R., Belletti, N., Patrignani, F., Gianotti, A., Gardini, F., Guerzoni, M.E. 2003. Applications of hexanal, E-(2)-hexenal and hexyl acetate to improve the safety of fresh sliced apples. J. Agric. Food Chem. 51: 2958-2963.
Lee, J.Y., Park, H.J., Lee, C.Y., Choi, W.Y. 2003. Extending shelf-life of minimally processed apples with edible coatings and antibrowning agents. Lebensmittel Wissenschaft und Technologie, 36: 323-329.
Lee, S.Y., Costello, M., Kang, D.H. 2004. Efficacy of chlorine dioxide gas as a sanitizer of lettuce leaves. J. Food Prot. 67: 1371-1376.
Lee, Y.S., Beaudry, R., Kim, J.N., Harte, B.R. 2006. Development of a 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) sachet release system. J. Food Sci. 71(1): 0-6.
Lemoine, M.L., Civello, P., Chaves, A., Martinez, G. 2009. Hot air treatment delays senescence and maintains quality of fresh-cut broccoli florets during refrigerated storage. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 42: 1076-1081.
Lester, G.E., Jifon, J.L. 2006. Foliar fertilization: Improving the human wellness attributes of melon. Proc. Great Plains Soil Fertility Conf. 11: 1-6.
Lichter, A., Dvir, O., Rot, I., Akerman, M., Regev, R., Wiesblum, A., Fallik, E., Zauberman, G., Fuchs, Y. 2000. Hot water brushing: An alternative method to SO2 fumigation for color retention of litchi fruits. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 18: 235-244.
Lin, D., Zhao, Y. 2007. Innovations in the development and application of edible coatings for fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables. Comprehensive Review Food Sci. Food Safety, 6: 60-75.
Lopez, K., Fehlberg, J. A., Ghasemlou, M., Oglesby, M.B., Ryser, E., Harte, J., Cho, S., Rubino, M., Almenar, E. Development of a novel antimicrobial pouch made of polyethylene terephthalate coated with a UV-curable formulation containing 2-(E)-hexenal and its effects on blueberry shelf life. Institute of Food Technologists Annual Meeting and Food Expo (IFT 2017). June 25-28, 2016. Las Vegas, NV, USA.
Lopez-Rubio, A., Gavara, R., Lagaron, J.M. 2006. Bioactive packaging: Turning foods into healthier foods through biomaterials. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 17: 567-575.
Marangoni, A.G., Palma, T., Stanley, D.W. 1996. Membrane effects in postharvest physiology. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 7: 193-217.
Martinez, M.V., Whitaker, J.R. 1995. The biochemistry and control of enzymatic browning. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 6: 195-200.
McHugh, T.H., Avena-Bustillos, R.J., Du, W-X. 2009. Extension of shelf-life and control of human pathogens in produce by antimicrobial edible films and coatings, p. 225-239. In: X. Fan, B.A. Niemira, C.T. Doone, F.E. Feeherry, and R.B. Gravani, (eds.), Microbial Safety of Fresh Produce. Wiley-Blackwell.
Mahmoud, B.S.M., Linton, R.H. 2008. Inactivation kinetics of inoculated Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica on lettuce by chlorine dioxide gas. Food Microbiology, 25: 244-252.
Mohamed, A.A.A., Jowitt, R., Brennan, J.G. 1982. Instrumental and sensory evaluation of crispness. II. In high moisture foods. J. Food Eng. 1: 123-147.
Monselise, S.P., Goren, R. 1987. Preharvest growing conditions and postharvest behavior of subtropical and temperate zone fruits. HortScience 22: 1185-1189.
Muriel-Galet, V., Cerisuelo, J.P., Lopez-Carballo, G., Aucejo, S.; Gavara, R., Hernandez-Muñoz, P., 2013. Evaluation of EVOH-coated PP films with oregano essential oil and citral to improve the shelf life of packaged salads. Food Control, 30, 137–143.
Narciso, J., Plotto, A. 2005. A comparison of sanitation systems for fresh-cut mango. HortTechnology 15: 837-842.
Nigh, E.L. 1990. Stress factors influencing Fusarium infection in asparagus. Acta Hort. 271: 315-322.
Obenland, D., Collin, S., Mackey, B., Sievert, J., Fjeld, K., Arpaia, M.L. 2009. Determinants of flavor acceptability during the maturation of navel oranges. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 52: 156-163.
OConnor-Shaw, R.E., Roberts, R., Ford, A.L., Nottingham, S.M. 1996. Changes in sensory quality of sterile cantaloupe dice stored in controlled atmospheres. J. Food Sci. 61: 847-851.
Okuda, T. 1993. Natural polyphenols as antioxidants and their potential use in cancer prevention, p. 221-235. In: A. Scalbert (ed.). Polyphenolic phenomena. INRA Editions, Paris.
Oms-Oliu, G., Soliva-Fortuny, R., and Martín-Belloso, O. 2008a. Edible coatings with antibrowning agent maintain sensory quality and antioxidant properties of fresh-cut pears. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 50: 87-94.
Oms-Oliu, G., Soliva-Fortuny, R., and Martín-Belloso, O. 2008b. Using polysaccharide-based edible coatings to enhance quality and antioxidant properties of fresh-cut melon. LWT food Sci. Technol. 41: 1862-1870.
Pacheco, C., Calouro, F., Vieira, S., Santos, F., Neves, N., Curado, F., Franco, J., Rodrigues, S., Antunes, D. 2008. Influence of nitrogen and potassium on yield, fruit quality and mineral composition of kiwifruit. Intl. J. Energy Environ. 1(2): 9-15.
Park, S.I., Daeschel, M.A., Zhao, Y. 2004. Functional properties of antimicrobial lysozyme-chitosan composite films. Journal of Food Science 69: 215221.
Park, S., Stan, S., Daeschel, M., Zhao, Y. 2005. Antifungal coatings on fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) to control mold growth during cold storage. J. Food Sci. 70(4): M202M207.
Patrignani, F., Iucci, L., Belletti, N., Gardini, F., Guerzoni, M.E., Lanciotti, R. 2008. Effects of sub-lethal concentrations of hexanal and 2-(E)-hexenal on membrane fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteritidis and Escherichia coli. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 123: 1-8.
Perez-Gago, M.B., Serra, M., Del Rio, M.A. 2006. Color change in fresh-cut apples coated with whey protein concentrated-based edible coatings. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 39: 84-92.
Picchioni, G.A., Watada, A., Roy, S., Whitaker, B.D., Wergin, W.P. 1994. Membrane lipid metabolism, cell permeability, and ultrastructural changes in lightly processed carrots. J. Food Sci. 59: 597-601.
Picchioni, G.A., Watada, A.E., Whitaker, B.D., Reyes, A. 1996. Calcium delays membrane lipid changes and increases net synthesis of membrane lipid components in shredded carrots. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 9: 235-245.
Plotto, A., Mattheis, J.P., McDaniel, M.R. 2000. Characterization of changes in Galaapple aroma during storage using OSME analysis, a gas chromatography-olfactometry technique. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 125: 714-722.
Portela, S.I., Cantwell, M.I. 2001. Cutting blade sharpness affects appearance and other quality attributes of fresh-cut Cantaloupe melon. J. Food Sci. 66: 126570.
Raybaudi-Massilia, R.M., Mosqueda-Melgar, J., Martin-Belloso, O. 2008a. Edible alginate-based coating as carrier of antimicrobials to improve shelf-life and safety of fresh-cut melon. Intl. J. Food Microbiol. 121: 313-327.
Raybaudi-Massilia, R.M., Rojas-Grau, M.A., Mosqueda-Melgar, J., Martin-Belloso, O. 2008b. Comparative study on essential oils incorporated into an alginate-based edible coating to assure the safety and quality of fresh-cut Fuji apples. J. Food Protect. 71: 1150-1161.
Rodriguez-Lafuente, A., Nerin, C., Batlle, R., 2010. Active paraffin-based paper packaging for extending the shelf life of cherry tomatoes. J. Agric. Food Chem., 58, 6780–6786.
Rojas-Grau, M.A., Martin-Belloso, O. 2008. Current advances in quality maintenance of fresh-cut fruits. Stewart Postharvest Review Available: http://ucanr.edu/datastoreFiles/608-364.pdf. (Accessed July 24, 2017)
Rojas-Grau, M.A., Raybaudi-Massilia, R.M., Soliva-Fortuny, R.C., Avena-Bustillos, R.J., McHugh, T.H., Mart1n-Belloso, O. 2007. Apple puree alginate edible coating as carrier of antimicrobial agents to prolong shelf-life of fresh-cut apples. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 45: 254-264.
Rojas-Grau, M.A., Soliva-Fortuny, R., Martin-Belloso, O. 2008a. Effect of natural antibrowning agents on color and related enzymes in fresh-cut Fuji apples as an alternative to the use of ascorbic acid. Journal of Food Science, 73: S267-S272.
Rojas-Grau, MA, Soliva-Fortunya, R, Martín-Bellos, O. 2009. Edible coatings to incorporate active ingredients to fresh-cut fruits: A review. Trends in Food Sci. Technol. 20: 438-447.
Rojas-Grau, M.A., Tapia, M.S., Martin-Belloso, O. 2008b. Using polysaccharide-based edible coatings to maintain quality of fresh-cut Fuji-apples. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 41: 139-147.
Rolle, R. S., Chism, G. W. 1987. Physiological consequences of minimally processed fruits and vegetables. J. Food Qual. 10: 157177.
Romani, R., Labavitch, J., Yamashita, T., Hess, B., and Rae, H. 1983. Preharvest AVG treatment of Bartlett pear fruits: Effects on ripening, color change, and volatiles. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 108: 1046-1049.
Rosen, J.C., Kader, A.A. 1989. Postharvest physiology and quality maintenance of sliced pear and strawberry fruits. Journal of Food Science, 54: 656-659.
Saftner, R.A., Buta, J.G., Conway, W.S., Sams, C.E. 1997. Effect of surfactants on pressure infiltration of calcium chloride solutions into Golden Delicious apples. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 122: 386-391.
Sandhya, 2010. Modified atmosphere packaging of fresh produce: Current status and future needs. Lebensmittel Wissenschaft und Technologie, 43: 381-392.
Sapers, G.M., Walker, P.N., Sites, J.E., Annous, B.A., Eblen, D.R. 2003. Vapor-phase decontamination of apples inoculated with Escherichia coli. Journal of Food Science 68: 1003-1007.
Scharff, R.L. 2010. Health-related costs from foodborne illness in the United States. Produce Safety Project. Georgetown University, Washington, D.C. 29pp. Available at: http://www.pewtrusts.org/~/media/legacy/uploadedfiles/phg/content_level_pages/reports/pspscharff20v9pdf.pdf (Accessed on July 24, 2017)
Schieberle, P., Hofmann, T. 1997. Evaluation of the character impact odorants in fresh strawberry juice by quantitative measurements and sensory studies on model mixtures. J. Agric. Food Chem. 45: 227-232.
Selma, M.V., Ibáñez, A.M., Cantwell, M., Suslow, T. 2008. Reduction by gaseous ozone of Salmonella and microbial flora associated with fresh-cut cantaloupe. Food Microbiology, 25: 558-565.
Sgroppo, S.C., Pereyra, M.V. 2009. Using mild heat treatment to improve the bioactive related compounds on fresh-cut green bell peppers. Intl. J. Food Sci. Technol. 44: 1793-1801.
Siebenga, J.J., Vennema, H., Zheng, D.P., Vinjé, J., Lee, B.E., Pang, X.L., Ho, E.C., Lim, W., Choudekar, A., Broor, S., Halperin, T., Rasool, N.B., Hewitt, J., Greening, G.E., Jin, M., Duan, Z.J., Lucero, Y., ORyan, M., Hoehne, M., Schreier, E., Ratcliff, R.M., White, P.A., Iritani, N., Reuter, G., Koopmans, M. 2009. Norovirus illness is a global problem: Emergence and spread of norovirus GII.4 variants, 2001-2007. J. Infect. Dis. 200: 802-812.
Sisler, E., Blankenship, S. 1996. Method of counteracting an ethylene response in plants. U.S. Patent No. 5,518,988 (May 21, 1996). U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Wash. D.C.
Sisler, E.C., Serek, M. 1997. Inhibitors of ethylene responses in plants at the receptor level-recent developments. Physical Plant, 100: 577-582.
Sivapalasingam, S., Friedman, C.R., Cohen, L., Tauxe, R.V. 2004. Fresh produce: A growing cause of outbreaks of foodborne illness in the United States, 1973 through 1997. J. Food Prot. 67: 2342-2353.
Smyth, A.B., Song, J., Cameron, A.C. 1998. Modified atmosphere packaged cut iceberg lettuce: Effect of temperature and O2 partial pressure on respiration and quality. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46: 4556-4562.
Soliva-Fortuny, R.C., Alos-Salz, N., Espachs-Barroso, A., Martin-Belloso, O. 2004. Influence of maturity at processing on quality attributes of fresh-cut Conference pears. J. Food Sci. 69: 290-294.
Soliva-Fortuny, R.C., Martin-Belloso, O. 2003. New advances in extending the shelf-life of fresh-cut fruits: A review. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 14: 341-353.
Soliva-Fortuny, R.C., Oms-Oliu, G., Martin-Belloso, O. 2002. Effects of ripeness stages on the storage atmosphere, color, and textural properties of minimally processed apple slices. J. Food Sci. 67: 1958-1963.
Soliva-Fortuny, R.C., Ricart-Coll, M., Martín-Belloso, O. 2005. Sensory quality and internal atmosphere of fresh-cut Golden Delicious apples. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 40: 369-375.
Solomon, E.B., Huang, L., Sites, J.E., Annous, B.A. 2006. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella on cantaloupes using hot water. Journal of Food Science. 71(2): M25-M30.
Son, S.M., Moon, K.D., Lee, C.Y. 2001. Inhibitory effects of various antibrowning agents on apple slices. Food Chemistry, 73: 23-30.
Song, J., Leepipattanawit, R., Deng, W., Beaudry, R.M. 1996. Hexanal vapor is a natural, metabolizable fungicide: Inhibition of fungal activity and enhancement of aroma in apple slices. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 121: 937-942.
Song, Y., Yao, Y-X., Zhai, H., Du, Y.P., Chen, F., Shu-wei, W. 2007. Polyphenolic compounds and the degree of browning in processing apple varieties. Agricultural Science of China, 6: 607-612.
Soto-Zamora,G., Yahia, E.M., Brecht, J.K., Gardea, A. 2005. Effects of postharvest hot air treatments on the quality and antioxidant levels in tomato fruit. Lebensm.-Wiss. u.-Technol. 38: 657-663.
Szczesniak, A.S. 1963. Classification of textural characteristics. J. Food Sci. 28: 385-389.
Thybo, A.K., Edelenbos, M., Christensen, L.P., Sorensen, J.N., Thorup-Kristensen, K. 2006. Effect of organic growing systems on sensory quality and chemical composition of tomatoes. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft und Technologie, 39: 835-843.
Tiwari, B.K., Valdramidis, V.P., O Donnell C.P., Muthukumarappan K., Bourke, P., Cullen P.J. 2009. Application of Natural Antimicrobials for Food Preservation. J. Agri. Food Chem. 57(14): 59876000.
Todd, J.F., Paliyath, G., Thompson, J.E. 1992. Effect of chilling on the activities of lipid degrading enzymes in tomato fruit microsomal membranes. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 30: 517-522.
Toivonen, P.M.A. 2003. Effects of storage conditions and postharvest procedures on oxidative stress in fruits and vegetables, p. 225-246. In: D.M. Hodges (ed.). Postharvest Oxidative Stress in Horticultural Crops. Food Products Press, New York.
Toivonen, P.M.A. 2004. Postharvest storage procedures and oxidative stress. HortScience 39: 938-942.
Toivonen, P. M.A. 2008. Application of 1-methylcyclopropene in fresh-cut/minimal processing systems. HortScience 43: 102-105.
Toivonen, P.M.A., Hampson, C.R. 2010. Understanding total antioxidant and bioavailable antioxidant assay protocols for fruits and vegetables: What they tell us and their limitations. Acta Hort. 858: 31-36.
Toivonen, P.M.A., Hampson, C., Stan, S. 2005. Apoplastic levels of hydroxyl radicals in four different apple cultivars are associated with severity of cut-edge browning. Acta Horticulturae. 682: 1819-1824.
Tomás-Barberán, F.A., Loaiza-Velarde, J., Bonfanti, A., Saltveit, M.E. 1997. Early wound- and ethylene-induced changes in phenylpropanoid metabolism in harvested lettuce. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 122: 399-404.
UFPA (United Fresh Produce Association). 2004. Fresh-cut produce fuels an America on-the-go. UFPA, Washington, D.C., 56 pp.
UFPA (United Fresh Produce Association). 2010. http://www.unitedfresh.org/
Ukuku, D.O., Fett, W.F. 2004. Method of applying sanitizers and sample preparation affects recovery of native microflora and Salmonella on whole cantaloupe surfaces. J. Food Prot. 67: 999-1004.
Ukuku, D.O., Pilizota, V., Sapers, G.M. 2004. Effect of hot water and hydrogen peroxide treatments on survival of Salmonella and microbial quality of whole and fresh-cut cantaloupe. J. Food Prot. 67: 432-437.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2008. Guidance for Industry: Guide to Minimize Microbial Food Safety Hazards of Fresh-cut Fruits and Vegetables. Available at: https://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/ProducePlantProducts/ucm064458.htm. (Accessed July 24, 2017)
Utama, I. M. S., Wills, R. B. H., Ben-Yehoshua, S., Kuek, C. 2002. In vitro efficacy of plant volatiles for inhibiting the growth of fruit and vegetable decay microorganisms. J. Agric. Food Chem. 50: 6371-6377.
Vargas, M., Albors, A., Chiralt, A., GonzalezMartinez, C. 2006. Quality of cold-stored strawberries as affected by chitosan-oleic acid edible coatings. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 41: 164171.
Vickers, Z.M. 1981. Relationships of chewing sounds to judgments of crispness, crunchiness and hardness. J. Food Sci. 47: 121-124.
Vickers, Z.M., Bourne, M.C. 1976. A psychoacoustical theory of crispness. J. Food Sci. 41: 1158-1164.
Vilas-Boas, E.V., Kader, A.A. 2007. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on softening of fresh-cut kiwifruit, mango and persimmon slices. Postharvest Biology and Technology, 43: 238244.
Vincent, J.F.V. 1998. The quantification of crispness. J. Sci. Food Agric. 78: 162-168.
Waimaleongora-Ek, P., Herrera-Corredor, J. A., No, H. K., Prinyawiwatkul, W., King, J. M., Janes, M. E., and Sathivel, S. 2008. Selected quality characteristics of fresh-cut sweet potatoes coated with chitosan during 17-d refrigerated storage. J. Food Sci. 73: S418-S423.
Wang, H.J., An, D.S., Rhim, J-W., Lee, D-S., 2015. A multi-functional biofilm used as an active insert in modified atmosphere packaging for fresh produce. Packag. Technol. Sci., 28, 999–1010.
Wang, W., Vinocur, B., Altman, A. 2003. Plant responses to drought, salinity and extreme temperatures: Towards genetic engineering for stress tolerance. Planta 218: 1-14.
Watkins, C.B. 2002. Ethylene synthesis, mode of action, consequences and control. In: M. Knee (ed.) Fruit quality and its biological basis. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 279 p.
Weiss, J., Takhistov, P., McClements, D.J. 2006. Functional materials in food nanotechnology. J. Food Sci. 71: 107-116.
Wong, D.W., Tillin, S.J., Hudson, J.S., Pavlath, A.E. 1994. Gas exchange in cut apples with bilayer coatings. J. Agric. Food Chem. 42: 2278-2285.
Wright, D.H., Harris. N.D. 1985. Effect of nitrogen and potassium fertilization on tomato flavor. J. Agric. Food Chem. 33: 355-358.
Yue Bi, C.Y., Yao, B.N., Konan, H.K., Tano, K., 2014. Modified atmosphere and humidity packages of mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus) and tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculenttum var. petomech) to avoid water condensation. J. Chem., Biol., Phys. Sci., 4, 3247–3260.
Yuk, H.G., Bartz, J.A., Schneider, K.R. 2005. Effectiveness of individual or combined sanitizer treatments for inactivating Salmonella spp. on smooth surface, stem scar, and wounds of tomatoes. J. Food Sci. 70(9): M409-M414.
Zhang, D., Quantick, P.C. 1998. Antifungal effects of chitosan coating on fresh strawberries and raspberries during storage. J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol. 73: 763767.
Zhang, J., Watkins, C.B. 2005. Fruit quality, fermentation products, and activities of associated enzymes during elevated CO2 treatment of strawberry fruit at high and low temperatures. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 130: 124-130.
Zhao, Y. 2010. Edible coatings for enhancing quality and health benefits of berry fruits. p. 281-292. In: Flavor and health benefits of small fruits. Chapter 18. ACS Symposium Series. Vol. 1035.
Zhao, T., Zhao, P., Doyle, M.P. 2009. Inactivation of Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce and poultry skin by combinations of levulinic acid and sodium dodecyl sulfate. J. Food Protect. 72: 928936.
Zhou, B., McEvoy, J.L., Luo, Y.G., Saftner, R.A., Feng, H., Beltran, T. 2006. 1-methylcyclopropene counteracts ethylene-induced microbial growth on fresh-cut watermelon. J. Food Sci. 71: M180-M184.
Zhuang, H., Hildebrand, D.F., Barth, M.M. 1997. Temperature influenced lipid peroxidation and deterioration in broccoli buds during postharvest storage. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 10: 49-58.