NC140: Improving Economic and Environmental Sustainability in Tree-Fruit Production Through Changes in Rootstock Use
(Multistate Research Project)
Date of Annual Report: 12/27/2017
Period the Report Covers: 10/01/2016 - 09/30/2017
ParticipantsAutio, Wesley (email@example.com) – University of Massachusetts; Black, Brent (firstname.lastname@example.org) – Utah State University; Blatt, Suzanne (Suzanne.Blatt@agr.gc.ca) – Agr. Agri. Food Canada (AAFC); Bradshaw, Terence (email@example.com) – University of Vermont; Carter, Kathryn (Kathryn.Carter@Ontario.ca) – Ontario Ministry of Agriculture; Chavez, Dario (firstname.lastname@example.org) – University of Georgia; Cheng, Lailliang (LC89@Cornell.edu) – Cornell University; Clements, Jon (email@example.com) – University of Massachusetts; Cochran, Diana (firstname.lastname@example.org) – Iowa State University; Cramer, Maria (Mariacramer5610@gmail.com) - Pennsylvania State University; Crassweller, Rob (email@example.com) – Pennsylvania State University; Dhingra, Amit (firstname.lastname@example.org) – Washington State University; DuPont, Tianna (email@example.com) – Washington State University; Einhorn, Todd (firstname.lastname@example.org) – Michigan State University; Elkins, Rachel (email@example.com) – University of California; Evans, Kate (firstname.lastname@example.org) – Washington State University; Fallahi, Esmaeil (email@example.com) – University of Idaho; Fazio, Gennaro (firstname.lastname@example.org) – Cornell University; Francescatto, Poliana (email@example.com) – Cornell University; Harper, Hirst, Peter (firstname.lastname@example.org) – Purdue University; Hoover, Emily (email@example.com) – University of Minnesota; Kalcsits, Lee (firstname.lastname@example.org) – Washington State University; Kushad, Mosbah (email@example.com) – University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Lang, Gregory (firstname.lastname@example.org) – Michigan State University; Lordan-Sanahuja, Jaume (email@example.com) – Cornell University; Marini, Richard (firstname.lastname@example.org) – Pennsylvania State University; McFerson, Jim (email@example.com) – Washington State University; Minas, Ioannis (firstname.lastname@example.org) – Colorado State University; Moran, Renae (email@example.com) – University of Maine; Musacchi, Stefano, (firstname.lastname@example.org) –Washington State University; Neilsen, Denise (email@example.com) – Agri Food of Canada; Parker, Michael (firstname.lastname@example.org) – North Carolina State University; Perry, Ron (email@example.com) – Michigan State University; Reighard, Gregory (firstname.lastname@example.org) – Clemson University; Roper, Teryl (email@example.com) – Utah State University; Serra, Serra (firstname.lastname@example.org) – Washington State University; Sherif, Sherif (email@example.com) – Virginia Polytechnic Institute; Schwallier Philip (firstname.lastname@example.org) – Michigan State University; Stanaker, Frank (email@example.com) – Colorado State University; Stasiak, Matt (firstname.lastname@example.org) – University of Wisconsin; Willett, Mike (email@example.com) – Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission; Wolfe, Dwight (firstname.lastname@example.org) – University of Kentucky; Xu, Hao (email@example.com) – Agriculture of Canada; Yao, Shengrui (firstname.lastname@example.org) – New Mexico State University; Yoder, Keith (email@example.com) Virginia Tech University;
Brief Summary of Minutes
- Based on recommendations from rootstock researchers in the UK in the 1960s, NC-140 rootstock trials have included 10 single-tree replications and data have been collected for 10 years. In the early 1990s, NC-140 members estimated that the cost of a 10—year multi-state rootstock trial was about $1 million.
- Data from several multi-state trials were used to estimate the number of replications needed to identify superior rootstocks and to determine how many years were required to classify the vigor of new rootstocks. By modifying new trials, the cost of completing these trials will be reduced by more than 20%.
- Apple rootstock trials carried out in Michigan proved that rootstocks may reduce bitter pit incidence in ‘Honeycrisp’ apple production and could have a significant positive impact on attaining the full potential orchard profitability of this high value variety.
- Over 99% of new apple trees planted in New Jersey have been on size controlling (dwarfing) rootstocks since 1992. In the past 15 years, over 1000 acres of new high density plantings have been established.
- The precocious yields and labor efficiencies of novel high density “fruiting wall” training systems for sweet cherries have stimulated commercial orchard trials across North America as well as worldwide, since availability of adequate farm labor is becoming increasingly problematic.
- The sweet cherry planting (Nova Scotia) is being considered by growers with U-Picks as part of their farm. Uptake of these recommendations and results has been realized within the past few years for Honeycrisp and is anticipated for sweet cherry within the next five.
- In Georgia, historical low chill accumulation occurred in 2017. No bloom data and fruit yield were available for this year. P. persica rootstocks had survival rates above 75% after seven to eight years of establishment. ‘Guardian’ and ‘Controller 8’ (HBOK10) are the only rootstocks sustaining 100% survival.
New Facilities and Equipment
At WCRC-OM in Colorado a walk-in cold room with temperature and humidity control for postharvest fruit quality analysis was installed. This cold room is currently used for postharvest quality analysis of the effect of rootstocks in tree fruit production. Specially constructed equipment that utilizes thermoelectric modules (TEM) and a Tenney Jr programmable freezer (-80 to +200 °C) for differential thermal analysis (DTA) to estimate cold hardiness of ‘Red Haven’ peach floral buds from trees grafted to different rootstocks and tested under the frame of the NC-140 rootstock trials. Sophisticated and modern regular atmosphere cold storage facilities were completed at the University of Idaho Parma Research and Extension Center for our apple project, including several NC-140 projects in 2017. We now have five large rooms to conduct research on postharvest physiology of various fruits. Five new coordinated rootstock evaluation trials were established for sweet cherries, tart cherries, and peaches in Michigan. Evaluation of potted nursery trees for root establishment and canopy growth were initiated. Due to the severe late frosts in northern New Mexico, the research group installed an over canopy sprinklers in Sept 2017 for frost protection in later years. Land at the Rutgers University Snyder Research and Extension Farm in Pittstown, NJ is being pursued for use in new NC-140 trials. In Utah a GPS-based trailer mounted ceptometer that was initially constructed in 2016 has been used to map light interception in the 2010 Fuji planting as well as the 2010 HD tart cherry experiment.
Unique Project Related Findings
In NY the NC-140 plantings were used as a demonstration, visiting growers, nurserymen, visiting scientists, and graduate students. The NC-140 comparative plantings have helped speed the testing and commercialization of the disease resistant stocks CG rootstocks. Rootstock trials on grower’s farms have yielded invaluable information on adaptability that was not known from experiment station trials. In particular for evaluation of cold hardiness.
Objective 1. To evaluate the influence of rootstocks on temperate-zone fruit tree characteristics grown under varying environments using sustainable management systems.
Projects in various stages of data collection, evaluation and planning include the following in association with years of plot establishment and identification of trial coordinators:
2009/2014 Peach Physiology (Rich Marini)
2009 Peach Rootstock (Greg Reighard)
2010 Apple Rootstock (Wes Autio)
2010 Sweet Cherry Rootstock and Training Systems (Greg Lang)
2013 Pear Training/Rootstock/Spacing (Todd Einhorn)
2014 Apple Rootstock (John Cline)
2015 Organic Apple Rootstock (Terence Robinson)
2017 Peach rootstock Trial (Greg Reighard/Minas Ioannis)
2017 Sweet cherry Rootstock trial (Greg lang)
2017 Tart cherry Rootstock Trial (Greg Lang)
2018 Apple Rootstock Trial (Todd Einhorn/Stefano Musacchi)
2018 Apricot Rootstock Trial (Gregg Lang)
2019 Pear Rootstock Trial (Todd Einhorn)
Future plantings for all crops for 2018 and beyond, are in various stages of planning at this time.
Apple Sub-Committee (Chair, Stefano Musacchi, WA)
The 2010 Apple Rootstock trial was established at 13 locations with Honeycrisp and six locations with Fuji. It includes 28 Budagovsky, Cornell-Geneva, and Pillnitz rootstocks and three commercial controls. After seven growing seasons, largest trees were on B.70-20-20 and B.64-194; the smallest were on B.71-7-22. Greatest cumulative yield were from trees on CG.4004; the least from trees on B.71-7-22 (Honeycrisp) and B.67-5-32 (Fuji). Most cumulatively yield efficient trees were on G.11 and G.4003 for Honeycrisp and on B.9, G.935N, and CG.5087 for Fuji. The largest fruit on average were from trees on B.64-194 for Honeycrisp and from trees on G.41N for Fuji. Trees on PiAu 9-90 had the highest chlorosis in BC and trees on B.73-150 had the lowest chlorosis. The 2014 Apple rootstock planting was established in 15 locations in the United States (AL, ID, IN, MA, ME, MI, MN, GA, NJ, NY, PA, UT, VA, WA, WI), two in Canada, and one in Mexico (http://bit.ly/1zv3wCc). The trial consists of the following rootstocks: B.10, G.11, G.202, G.214, G.30, G.41, G.5890, G.935, G.969, M.26 EMLA, M.9 T337, V.1, V.5, V.6, V.7. The trial is being coordinated by John Cline who has also agreed to analyze the data. This trial has two cultivars: Aztec Fuji (AL, ID, GA, NJ, ON, PA, UT) and Honeycrisp (ID, IN, MA, ME, Mexico, MI, MN, NJ, NY, Ontario, PA, VA, WA, WI), planted to a ‘tall spindle’ systems at a 5 x 12 feet, and 4 x12 feet spacing, respectively. Trees are planted using a randomized block design with single trees serving as experimental units. Each site selected a pollinizer variety since some sites are very limited in adapted varieties. Trees were established in the spring of 2014. The trees were propagated by Willow Drive Nursery, WA. Data protocols have been established for 2014 and 2015. This is a young trial with no significant findings being reported at this time. The 2015 Organic Apple Rootstock Trial, was established in 2015 in 13 US and 1 Mexican state and will evaluate 9 Geneva rootstocks and M.9 NAKBT337 as a control. All trees are managed organically and trained as Tall Spindles. Modi is the cultivar and Liberty is the pollinizer. The design is five blocks in two-tree sets and will require 1/10 acre. Organic certification is optional, but orchard management must be organic. After two seasons, trees on G.41 and G.202 had larger trunks than trees on G.16 and G.222.
Cherry Sub-Committee (Chair, Greg Lang, MI)
The 2010 Sweet Cherry Rootstock x Canopy Training System Coordinated Trial began with 13 sites; these have diminished to 5 due to diseases, cooperator retirements or transitions, deer damage, etc. Sweet cherry performance has varied widely by site and scion cultivar in on-going coordinated trials examining diverse canopy architectures matched with rootstocks of varying vigor levels. Work has begun on the first trial paper (Training Systems Establishment, Years 1-4) with adequate data expected from CA, MI, NY-Geneva, NY-New Paltz, NS, and BC. Since most training systems under test are new and novel, information about proper training and pruning is being developed respect to tree spacing and the range of rootstock vigor in the trial – in some system x rootstock combinations, excessive shading may be causing yields to diminish. The focus of canopy management is to optimize light distribution and minimize shade, promote balanced cropping and renew the structural fruiting sites. Gi3 combined with Upright Fruiting Offshoots system was insufficiently vigorous for 1.5 x 4 m spacing in British Columbia. Conversely, trees on Gi6 trained to the SSA system in Michigan has been overly vigorous at 0.75 m x 3.5 m. Two 2010 Tart Cherry Rootstock x Canopy Training System Independent Trials were established in UT and MI. The focus is on examining rootstock x canopy training interactions to develop hedgerow-type trees for over-the-row mechanical harvest. Trees were mechanically harvested in 2016. The 2017 Sweet Cherry Rootstock trial, coordinated by Greg Lang (MI), will have 5 Michigan State rootstocks, 3 Gisela stocks (3, 5, 12), Krymsk 6, and MxM14. Trial sites include OR, CA, WA, ID, MI, NY, and BC with Benton as a scion. Trees will be trained as 2 or 3 systems at each site. MSU-developed cherry rootstock selections exhibit vigor reduction and precocity comparable to Gisela 3 and Gisela 5 rootstocks for tart and sweet cherry scion varieties in preliminary trials in WA and MI. Preparations have begun to include these in 2017 NC140 coordinated comparative trials for high density sweet and tart cherry production.
Pear Sub-Committee (Chairs, Todd Einhorn, OR; Rachel Elkins, CA)
The 2005 pear Rootstock Trial was terminated in 2014 and results were published in ACTA Hort. However the trees in California are being used for crop load adjustment experiments and only trees on 708-36 and Pyrodwarf had larger fruit following fruit thinning after June drop.The 2013 pear training/rootstock/spacing trial coordinated by Todd Einhorn was designed to evaluate the main effects and interactions among rootstock (OH×F 87, OH×F 69 and Pyro 2-33), training system (single axe V, single axe tall spindle, bi-axe vertical), and intra-row spacing (3, 4.5 and 6 ft.) on pear production. Cooperators are OR (Anjou), NY (Bosc), and CA (Bartlett). Across all sites, trees were smallest on Pyro 2-33. For Bartlett and Bosc, trees on OHxF87 were smaller than on OHxF69. Trunks of bi-ais trees were half the size of single axis trees. For Anjou, but not the other cultivars, tree size was positively related to in-row spacing. Yields of fourth-leaf trees were low at all sites (0.8 kg/tree) and not consistently affected by the any one of the factors evaluated. T. Einhorn is coordinating a 2018 rootstock trial to evaluate dwarfing potential and productivity of cold-hardy quince accessions on pear. Cooperators include OR, Nova Scotia, NY, PA, and WA. Ten to 14 genotypes presently in tissue culture will be propagated in 2016 and delivered to a nursery for propagation. Rootstocks will be budded to select scions, with and without interstems. OH×F 87 will serve as the control.
Peach Sub-Committee (Chairs, Greg Reighard, SC; Ioannis Minas, CO)
The first five years of data for the 2009 peach Rootstock Trial were summarized and a draft of a manuscript will be completed in January 2017. After seven years, 13 sites remain in the trial. Tree survival was highest for peach seedling rootstocks at all locations, whereas survival of non-peach species and hybrid rootstocks was poor to fair at five locations. Imperial California had the lowest survival. Prunus Americana seedlings produced large numbers of root suckers.
Largest trees were three Prunus x almond hybrids and Guardian®. Fruit size varied with location and crop load (i.e., some rootstocks had few fruit). KV010127 produced the largest fruit and Controller 5 and Mirobac (a.k.a Replantpac) the smallest fruit across all sites. Cumulative yields were generally highest with the peach rootstocks, especially Guardian®. Lowest yields were from plum hybrids and species. Cumulative yield efficiency was highest on the non-peach rootstocks including many of the plum hybrids or species. However, many of these rootstocks produced trees much smaller than the peach and almond hybrid cultivars. These data suggest there were no advantages to using clonal interspecific Prunus hybrids for peach production under current cultural practices. The clonal P. persica rootstocks ‘Controller 8’ and
‘Controller 7’ are the most promising of the size-controlling rootstocks tested. The 2009 Peach Physiology Trial is focusing on the interactive effects of early-season temperature, cultivar and crop density on average fruit weight. Five cooperators (NY, ID, MD, SC, and KY). Trees were thinned early in the season to develop a range of crop densities and days from bloom to harvest, average fruit weight and growing degree days. At a given crop density, Cresthaven fruit weight was lower for KY and NY than for MD, SC and ID. For Redhaven, fruit weight was related linearly to crop density and curvilinearly to growing degree days. An additional year of data is needed to develop models.
Objective 2. To develop improved rootstocks for temperate-zone fruit trees, including breeding, using phenomic and genomic tools and acquisition of new rootstocks from global sources.
A new breeding program carried out by Kate Evans and Amit Dhingra was initiated in June 2015 at WSU with a focus on producing dwarfing precocious rootstocks for pear. A cherry rootstock selection program (based on sour cherry scion breeding efforts) at MSU has identified 5 elite genotypes, Cass, Clare, Lake, Crawford, and Clinton, that confer significant vigor control, precocity, and high productivity to sweet and tart cherry scions. These were planted in 2017 in new NC140-coordinated sweet and tart cherry trials as well as other evaluative trials with selected scientists and growers. Almond and Pistachio rootstocks: A collection of fruit and nut germplasm assembled by a non-profit foundation (IPPFBE) was donated to Utah State University in 2015. Teryl Roper is now evaluating this material.
Objective 3. To investigate physiological processes, biotic and abiotic stresses and scion/rootstock interactions on tree growth and productivity.
Seven apple rootstocks from the Geneva breeding program were tested for salt tolerance in a greenhouse study in Utah. Trees were grown in 12-L pots containing soil-less media, and subjected to one of 8 different salt levels (CaCl2) with EC ranging from 1.5 to 10.5. One rootstock (84R5P2-062) showed significantly higher growth rate across all salt levels.
In a collaborative trial, between with Brent Black at Utah State University and a MS student (Stuart Adams) and Cornell University, to study the Graft Union Strength of Geneva Rootstocks we learned about strengths related to 1) method of grafting (chip bud vs. whip and tongue graft vs. machine V graft); 2) specific scion/rootstock interaction (several scions on several rootstocks); 3) and possible exogenous plant growth regulator treatments to increase graft strength. This work has been published in 2017 in different scientific journals. Fazio and Robinson have conducted a survey of leaf and fruit nutrient content of various Geneva rootstock plots in NY State, they have related some findings to tree growth and fruit quality. New York. In Georgia in the 2009 Peach Rootstock trial, the majority of P. persica rootstocks were found to have survival rates above 75% after six to seven years of establishment, which are comparable to the standard rootstock ‘Guardian’. In the 2014 Apple Rootstock trial, most of the trees have reached the top of the trellis and had a good yield. Mortality occurred in some trees mostly due to winter injury. During the fall/winter season of 2016/17 an extensive cold hardiness analysis was performed on 10 selected rootstocks form this trial using differential thermal analysis (DTA) in Colorado. DTA is a technique used to quantify cold tolerance in plants, freezing episodes called exotherms can be identified as change points, local minima or selected infection points of differential temperature. A water stress trial carried out on ‘Honeycrisp’ and sweet cherry by Denise Nielsen (Summerland RDC) and Suzanne Blatt (Nova Scotia) showed differences between rootstocks in the ability to tolerate moisture stress prior to harvest.
In Nova Scotia apple rootstocks have shown significant differences with regards to post-harvest
storage, particularly scald. In Wisconsin an irrigation trial with seven of the eight rootstocks in the 2017 High Density Cherry Planting was established this spring at the UW Peninsular Research Station in Sturgeon Bay. The rootstocks included Cass, Clare, Clinton, Crawford, and Lake, along with Gi5 and Mahaleb. In Michigan an examination of nutrient acquisition and partitioning to foliage and fruit in ‘Honeycrisp’ apple continued in 2017 across selected rootstocks in the 2010 NC140 apple rootstock trial; results will be evaluated with respect to harvest and postharvest bitter pit incidence ratings. In North Carolina a trial to study the interaction between biochar and peach rootstock has been established at the Sandhills Research Station. Three biochar soil treatments were established compared to an untreated control with ‘Contender’ as the scion and Guardian and Halford rootstocks to evaluate the potential impact on peach tree short life. In North Carolina is also continuing with the 2005 Apple Replant Trial with Gala and investigating the effect of rootstock and preplant fumigation in replant sites. At present, data indicate that M.7 grown in replant sites is significantly larger and more productive when grown in preplant fumigated sites.
A virus trail started in 2012 in the Hudson Valley with Dave Rosenberger with 50 rootstocks grafted on Spur Delicious as the scion is still running. Dave has inoculated all the rootstocks with Tomato Ringspot Virus using a patch bark graft with wood from Keith Yoder at Virginia Tech. At the end of this year we will remove all of the trees, transport the graft union section from each tree to Geneva for virus testing of both the scion and the rootstock, and then remove the bark over the graft union to determine if any of the viruses caused deformation of the graft union area.
In Summerland rootstocks are showing significant differences for incidence of insect pests such as rosy apple aphid, European apple sawfly and stinging bugs. Evaluation of specific Honeycrisp rootstocks showing tolerance to rosy apple aphid using metabolomics, proteomics and genomics was initiated in 2014. Results to date are showing significant differences between the amino acid profiles across these rootstocks. In Utah in cooperation with Terence Robinson and Gennaro Fazio 39 new Geneva rootstock selections and older standards has been planted in a site (Winchester AREC) to study Tomato Ringspot Virus (TmRSV) problems and dagger nematodes. In South Carolina through summer 2017, Prunus rootstocks that had P. dulcis or P. domestica in their lineage have had poor survival, but no rootstocks of 100% P. persica have died.
Objective 4. To integrate and disseminate research-based information that facilitates successful stakeholder adoption of rootstock technologies.
The NC-140 web site, http://nc140.org continues to be our primary outreach component serving as an important collaboration tool for cooperators. Members of the research group communicate through a list serve, and upload/download project files to password-protected directories (NJ, MA). We have used the site to allow for easier collaboration and comparison of replicated rootstock trials. Requirements for web page design for regional projects have been met as outlined by the NIMMS and the North Central Regional Association of Agricultural Experiment Station Directors (NCRA). Articles, photographs and reports were archived throughout the year. Members of our research group have continued to make research-based information available to anyone who would like to use it through eXtension (MN, PA, MA, NY, NC, MO, OH, WV, IN, VA). eXtension is not used in Canada . The database has been completed for apple rootstocks and cultivars and can be viewed at http://www.extension.org/apples. This project was funded through the USDA-SCRI program and was completed in August 2014. We have linked to the primary website for the research group, www.nc140.org. User data from the eXtension eApples website was obtained from Google Analytics for the period 11/01/16 - 10/31/17. The eApples content constituted 1.29% of all page views on eXtension for the period, a 13% increase from the same period last year. We link to the primary website for the research group, www.nc140.org. This site continues to be one of our outreach components. With the new project accepted, we as a research group should discuss the continuation of the eXtension site and its role within the research/extension effort on apple rootstocks. The posting Email address is firstname.lastname@example.org. Reports, presentations, and videos that update NC140 cherry, apple, and stone fruit rootstock research and extension at MI are regularly posted on www.cherries.msu.edu, www.apples.msu.edu, www.hrt.msu.edu/greg-lang, and www.giselacherry.com. These have been cited by fruit growers throughout the United States around the world as valuable sources of information for new orchard planning and production. The Penn State Tree Fruit Website was upgraded with the addition of several posts on cultural practices including information on apple rootstocks, apple cultivars, training systems, calcium nutrient management and Honeycrisp management.
Other Relevant Accomplishments and Activities
The NC 140 project was awarded the Experiment Station Section Award for Excellence in Multistate Research in 2015. The award was officially presented at the annual Association of Public and Land Grant Universities annual meeting November 14, 2015. The award recognized this regional project’s contributions for over 40 years to the fruit growers in North America. NC 140 has been critical to the steady transition to higher density orchards, which has benefited consumers with higher quality fruit at reasonable prices. http://agisamerica.org/september-2015-land-grant-institutions-work-across-state-lines-to-increase-fruit-tree-production/. The project was given a $15,000 stipend to go towards project improvements and scholastic endeavors. The majority of the stipend was used to provide scholarships to graduate students to attend the 2017 NC-140 meeting in North Carolina and make short research presentations. Twelve students travelled from across Land Grant institutions to participate in the annual meeting in Wenatchee, WA. They were asked to make ten minute presentations to members. The members of NC 140 viewed this activity as important in an effort to train the next generation of pomologists by providing an opportunity for graduate students to learn about multi-state projects, specifically the NC-140, and to tour research plantings. The balance of the award money, $2500, was given to member, Jon Clements, Webmaster, to make critical improvements of NC 140 web site.
2016-17 Published Written Works
Ayala, M. and G. Lang. 2017. Chapter 12: Morphology, cropping physiology, and canopy training. pp. 269-304 in: Quero-Garcia, J., A. Iezzoni, J. Pulawka, and G. Lang. 2017. Cherries: botany, production and uses. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, U.K.
Blanke, M.M., G. Lang, and M. Meland. 2017. Chapter 11: Orchard microclimate modification. pp. 244-268 in: Quero-Garcia, J., A. Iezzoni, J. Pulawka, and G. Lang. 2017. Cherries: botany, production and uses. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, U.K.
Hirst, P.M. 2017. Advances in understanding flowering and pollination in apple trees. In: Achieving sustainable cultivation of apples. Ed: K. Evans. Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing, Cambridge, UK.
Musacchi S. and Green D., 2017. Innovations in apple tree cultivation to manage crop load and ripening. In: Achieving sustainable cultivation of apples. Editor Kate Evans, Burleigh Dodds Science Publishing Limited. Published 22 June 2017. ISBN-13: 9781786760326. ID: 9781786760326-008. pp. 195-237
Quero-Garcia, J., A. Iezzoni, J. Pulawka, and G. Lang. 2017. Cherries: botany, production and uses. CAB International, Wallingford, U.K. ISBN: 978 1 78064 837 8
Rubio-Cabetas, M.J., Felipe, A.J. and G.L. Reighard. 2017. Rootstock Development. In: R. Socias I Company and T.M. Gradziel (Eds.) Almonds: Botany, Production and Uses. CAB International, Wallingford, U.K., pp. 209-227.
Refereed Journal Articles
Adams, S., B. Black, G. Fazio, and B. Roberts. 2017. The effect of plant growth regulators on apple graft union flexural strength and flexibility. Journal American Pomological Society 71(1):8-18.
Adams, S.W., J. Lordan, G. Fazio, B. Bugbee, P. Francescatto, T.L. Robinson, and B. Black. 2018. Effect of scion and graft type on transpiration, hydraulic resistance and xylem hormone profile of apples grafted on Geneva®41 and M.9-NICTM29 rootstocks. Scientia Horticulturae 227:213-222.
Autio, W.R., J.S. Krupa, and J.M. Clements. 2017. Performance of Honeycrisp apple trees on several Budagovsky, Cornell-Geneva, and Pillnitz rootstocks, An update on the Massachusetts planting of the 2010 NC-140 Apple Rootstock Trial. Fruit Notes 82(2):1-4. Horticultural News 97(2):1-4. http://www.umassfruitnotes.com/v82n2/a1.pdf
Autio, W, T. Robinson, B. Black, R. Crassweller, E. Fallahi, M. Parker, R. Parra Quezada, and D. Wolfe. 2017. Budagovsky, Geneva, Pillnitz, and Malling apple rootstocks affect Fuji performance of the first five years of the 2010 NC-140 Fuji Apple Rootstock Trial. J. Amer. Pomological Soc. 71(3):167-182.
Autio, W, T Robinson, B Black, R Crassweller, E Fallahi, M Parker, R Parra Quezada, and D Wolfe. 2017. 2016 Progress Report. Budagovsky, Geneva, Pillnitz, and Malling apple rootstocks affect Fuji performance over the first six years of the 2010 NC-140 Fuji Apple Rootstock Trial. Compact Fruit Tree. 50(1):20-23.http://www.ifruittree.org/Portals/0/CFT/2017_Spring/index.html
Autio, W, T. Robinson, B. Black, S. Blatt, D. Cochran, W. Cowgill, C. Hampson, E. Hoover, G. Lang, D. Miller, I. Minas, R. Parra Quezada, and M. Stasiak. 2017. Budagovsky, Geneva, Pillnitz, and Malling apple rootstocks affect Honeycrisp performance of the first five years of the 2010 NC-140 Honeycrisp Apple Rootstock Trial. J. Amer. Pomological Soc. 71(3):149-166. http://www.pubhort.org/aps/71/v71_n3_a3.htm
Autio, W, T. Robinson, S. Blatt, D. Cochran, W. Cowgill, C. Hampson, E. Hoover, G. Lang, R. Parra Quezada, and M. Stasiak. 2017. 2016 Progress report -- Budagovsky, Geneva, Pillnitz, and Malling apple rootstocks affect Honeycrisp performance over the first six years of the 2010 NC-140 Honeycrisp Apple Rootstock Trial. Compact Fruit Tree 50(2):23-27. http://www.ifruittree.org/Portals/0/CFT/2017_Fall/index.html
Basedow, M. and R. Crassweller. 2017. Potential anatomical methods for determination of weak wood in apple. J. Amer. Pomol. Soc. 71:19-28.
Baugher, T. A., R. P. Marini, J. R. Schupp, and C. B. Watkins. 2017. Prediction of Bitter Pit in ‘Honeycrisp’ Apples and Best Management Implications. HortScience 52: (accepted for publication 21 Aug 2017).
Belisle, C., K. Adhikari, D.J. Chavez, and U. Phan. 2017. Development of a lexicon for flavor and texture of fresh peach cultivars. J. Sens. Stud. 32: e12276.*
Belisle, C., U. Phan, K. Adhikari, and D.J. Chavez. 2017. A survey of peach cultivars quality grown in the southeastern U.S. HortTechnology. (accepted).*
Casamali, B. and D.J. Chavez. 2017. Potential of new Prunus rootstocks for managing Armillaria root rot disease in peach production. J. Amer. Pomol. Soc. 71:82-90.*
Cowgill W., Jr., W. Autio, E. Hoover, R. Marini, P. Domoto. 2017. NC-140 Multi-State Research Project: Improving Economic & Environmental Sustainability in Tree Fruit Production through Changes in Rootstock Use. J. Amer. Pomological Society. 71:34-46.
Cowgill Winfred P., Jr., Wesley R. Autio, Emily E. Hoover, Richard P. Marini, and Paul A. Domoto 2017. NC-140 Multi-State Research Project: Improving Economic and Environmental Sustainability in Tree-Fruit Production Through Changes in Rootstock Use. J Am Pom Soc. (APS) 71:34-46
Cowgill, W, M Muehlbauer, W Autio, and J Clements. 2017. Comparison of the effects of ten Geneva rootstocks and M.9 on Modi apple trees in New Jersey. Fruit Notes 82(4):1-3. Horticultural News 97(4):1-3. http://www.umassfruitnotes.com/v82n4/a1.pdf
Cowgill, WP Jr, WR Autio, EE Hoover, RP Marini, and PA Domoto. 2017. NC-140 Multi-State Research Project: Improving economic and environmental sustainability in tree-fruit production through changes in rootstock use. J. Amer. Pomological Soc. 71(1):34-46. http://www.pubhort.org/aps/71/v71_n1_a5.htm
Elsysy, M.A. and P.M. Hirst. 2017. The role of spur leaves, bourse leaves, and fruit on local flower formation in apple: an approach to understanding biennial bearing. HortScience 52(9):1229-1232.
Jahed, K. and P.M. Hirst. 2017. Pollen tube growth and fruit set in apple. HortScience 52(8):1054-1059.
Karagiannis, E., Tanou, G., Samiotaki, M., Michailidis, M., Diamantidis, G., Minas, I., Molassiotis, A. (2016). Comparative Physiological and Proteomic Analysis Reveal Distinct Regulation of Peach Skin Quality Traits by Altitude. Frontiers in plant science 2016, 7, 1689. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2016.01689/full
Lordan, J., G. Fazio, P. Francescatto, and T.L. Robinson. 2017b. Effects of apple (Malus × domestica) rootstocks on scion performance and hormone concentration. Scientia Horticulturae 225:96-105.
Lordan, J., S. Blatt, P. Francescatto, C. Embree, and T.L. Robinson. 2017a. Performance of three Pyrus pear rootstocks in Northeastern North America. Journal of the American Pomological Society 71(4):250-257.
Macit, I., G. Lang, and H. Demirsoy. 2017. Bud management affects fruit wood, growth and precocity of cherry trees. Turkish J. Agric. For. 41:42-49. (DOI: 10.3906/tar-1609-65)
Marini, R.P., W.R. Autio, B. Black, J. Cline, W.P. Cowgill, Jr., R.C. Crassweller, C. Hampson, M.M. Kushad, R. Moran, M. Parker, R.L. Perry, G.L. Reighard, T. Robinson, D. Wolfe. 2016. Time Required for Classifying Rootstock Vigor in Multi-location Rootstock Trials. J. Amer. Pomol. Soc. 70(2):82-91.
Marshall-Colon, A., S.P. Long, D.K. Allen, G. Allen, D.A. Beard, B. Benes, A.J. Christensen, D.J. Cox, J.C. Hart, P.M. Hirst, K. Kannan, D.S. Katz, J.P. Lynch, A.J. Millar, B. Panneerselvam, N.D. Price, D. Ralla, R.G. Shekar, S. Shrivastava, D. Shukla, V. Srinivasan, M. Stitt, E.O. Volt, Y. Wang, X. Yin and X.G. Zhu. 2017. Crops in silico: Generating virtual crops using and integrative and multi-scale modeling platform. Frontiers in Plant Science Vol. 8. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.00786
R.P. Marini, W.R. Autio, B. Black, J. Cline, W.P. Cowgill, Jr., R.M. Crassweller, C. Hampson, M.M. Kushad, R. Moran, M. Parker, R.L. Perry, G.L.Reighard, T. Robinson, D. Wolfe 2016. Time Required for Classifying Rootstock Vigor in Multi-location Rootstock Trials. J Am Pom Soc. (APS) 70: 82-91
Reig, G., J. Lordan, G. Fazio, M.A. Grusak, S. Hoying, L. Cheng, P. Francescatto, and T. Robinson. 2018. Horticultural performance and elemental nutrient concentrations on ‘Fuji’grafted on apple rootstocks under New York State climatic conditions. Scientia Horticulturae 227:22-37.
Rudell D.R., Serra S., Sullivan N., Mattheis J.P., and Musacchi S., 2017. Metabolic profiling variations within ‘d’Anjou pear fruit from different canopy positions. Hortscience 52 (11):1501-1510, doi:10.21273/HORTSCI12375-17.
Schupp, J. R., H. E. Winzeler, T. M. Kon, R. P. Marini, T. A. Baugher, L. F. Kime and M. A. Schupp. 2017. A Method for Quantifying Whole-Tree Pruning Severity in Mature Tall Spindle Apple Plantings. HortScience 52:1233-1240.
Schupp, J.R., H.E. Winzeler, T.M. Kon, R.P. Marini, T.A. Baugher, L.F. Kime, and M.A. Schupp. 2017. A method for quantifying whole-tree pruning severity in mature tall spindle apple plantings. HortScience 52:1233-1240.
Simnitt, S., T. Borisova, D.J. Chavez, and M. Olmstead. 2017. Frost Protection for Early-Season Peach Varieties: Current Practices and Information Needs in the State of Georgia. HortTechnology 27:344-353.*
Tucker, Z., D.J. Chavez, and J.X. Chaparro. 2017. Effect of the seedlessness (Fs) gene in fruit quality traits in mandarin segregating populations. J. Amer. Pomol. Soc. 71:29-33.*
Wallis, A., J. Harshman, B. Butler, D. Price, G. Fazio, and C. Walsh. 2017. Performance of Geneva® apple rootstock selections with ‘Brookfield Gala’ and ‘Cripps Pink’ in a Tall Spindle system. Journal of the American Pomological Society 71(3):137-148.
Wesley Autio, Terence Robinson, Brent Black, Robert Crassweller, Esmaeil Fallahi, Michael Parker, Rafael Parra Quezada, and Dwight Wolf. 2017. Budagovsky, Geneva, Pillnitz & Malling Apple rootstocks affect Fuji performance over the first five years of the 2010 NC-140 apple rootstock trial. J. Amer. Pomological Society, 71:167-182.
Wolfe, D., D. Archbold, J. Johnston, and G. Travis. 2017. Rootstock Effects on Apple and Peach Tree Growth and Yield. Fruit and Vegetable Crops 2016 Research Report. University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station publication. PR-721:14-17. http://www2.ca.uky.edu/agcomm/pubs/PR/PR721/PR721.pdf
Zhang, Z., P. H. Heinemann, J. Liu, J. R. Schupp, T. A. Baugher. 2017. Brush mechanism for distributing apples in a low-cost apple harvest unit. Applied Engineering in Agriculture 33(2): 195-201.
Zhang, Z., P. H. Heinemann, J. Liu, J. R. Schupp, and T. A. Baugher. 2016. Design and field test of a low-cost apple harvest-assist unit. Transactions of ASABE. 59(5):1149-1156.
Zhang, Z., P. H. Heinemann, J. Liu, T. A. Baugher and J. R. Schupp. 2016. Development of mechanical apple harvesting technology – a review. Transactions of ASABE. 59(5):1165-1180.
Zucoloto, M. K-M. Ku, M. J. Kim and Mosbah Kushad. 2017. Influence of 1-methylcyclopropene treatment on postharvest quality of four scab (Venturia inaequalis)-resistant apple cultivars. J. Food Quality 12:1-14. Illinois
Bradshaw, T, L Berkett, R. Parsons, H Darby, R. Moran, E. Garcia, S. Kingsley-Richards, M. Griffith, S. Bosworth, and J. Gorres. 2016. "Tree growth and crop yield of five cultivars in two organic apple orchard systems in Vermont, USA, 2006-2013." Acta Hort 1137:299-306. doi: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2016.1137.42.
Fiser, M., J. Ravi, B. Benes, B. Shi and P. Hirst. 2017. IMapple: a source-sink developmental model for ‘Golden Delicious’ apple trees. Acta Hort 1160:51-59.
Franzen, J.B. and P.M. Hirst. 2016. Optimal pruning of apple and effects on tree architecture, productivity and fruit quality. Acta Hort 1130: 307-310.
Kang, H., M. Fiser, B. Shi, F. Sheibani, P. Hirst and B. Benes. 2016. IMapple – functional structural model of apple trees. IEEE International Conference on Functional-Structural Plant Growth Modeling Simulation, Visualization and Applications (FSPMA 2016), Qingdao, China. p 90-97.
Lang, G.A., Sage, L. and Wilkinson, T. 2016. Ten years of studies on systems to modify sweet cherry production environments: retractable roofs, high tunnels, and rain-shelters. Acta Hort. 1130:83-90.
Lillrose, T., Lang, G.A., and Sundin, G.W. 2017. Strategies to minimize bacterial canker in high density sweet cherry orchards. Acta Hort. 1161:457-462. (DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2017.1161.73)
Neilsen, D., Neilsen G.H., Forge, T. and Lang, G.A. 2016. Dwarfing rootstocks and training systems affect initial growth, cropping and nutrition in ‘Skeena’ sweet cherry Acta Hortic. 1130: 199-205.
Neilsen, D., Neilsen, G.H., Forge, T. and Lang, G.A. 2016. Dwarfing rootstocks and training systems affect initial growth, cropping and nutrition in 'Skeena' sweet cherry. Acta Hort. 1130:199-206.
Baugher, T. E. Dugan, T. Jarvinen, J. Schupp, E. Winzeler, M. Schupp. 2017. Competitive orchard systems and technologies. Mid Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Conference, Hershey, PA. 31 Jan - 2 Feb 2017, (poster).
Baugher, T., R. Marini, J. Schupp, M. Basedow, T. Jarvinen, E. Dugan. 2017. Crop load and fruit nutrient studies in commercial Honeycrisp orchards to determine best practices for minimizing bitter pit. Mid Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Conference, Hershey, PA. 31 Jan - 2 Feb 2017, (poster).
Griest, B., T. Van Dyke, J. Schupp, H. E. Winzeler. 2017. Increasing bud break and shoot development through notching and chemical sprays. Mid Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Conference, Hershey, PA. 31 Jan - 2 Feb 2017, (poster).
Krawczyk, G., K. Peter and J. Schupp. 2017. Exclusion netting on IPM, disease management and fruit quality of apple. Mid Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Conference, Hershey, PA. 31 Jan - 2 Feb 2017, (poster).
Schupp, J., H. E. Winzeler and M. Schupp. 2017. Artificial spur extinction or NAD for early thinning of Honeycrisp. Mid Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Conference, Hershey, PA. 31 Jan - 2 Feb 2017, (poster).
Schupp, J., H. E. Winzeler, M. Schupp, T. Kon, T. Kellison, A. Ventura. 2017. Fire blight resistant pear varieties: fruit quality and yield update. Mid Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Conference, Hershey, PA. 31 Jan - 2 Feb 2017, (poster).
Schupp, J., H. E. Winzeler, M.A. Schupp. 2017. Peach rootstock trials. Mid Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Conference, Hershey, PA. 31 Jan - 2 Feb 2017, (poster).
Winzeler, H. E., and J. R. Schupp. 2017. Use of ethephon and 1-MCP in the harvest and storage of Manchurian Crabapples. CIDERCON Conf., Chicago, IL, 8-10 Feb 2017, (poster).
Fazio, G., Cheng, L., Lordan, J., Francescatto, P., Grusak, M.A., Robinson, T.L., 2017. Breeding apple rootstocks for modulation of mineral nutrients in scions, VIII International Symposium on Mineral Nutrition of Fruit Crops. ISHS, Bolzano, Italy.
Kon, T.M. and J. Schupp. 2017. Comparing the efficacy of blossom thinning chemicals on ‘Golden Delicious’ apple. HortScience (In press) (Abstr.)
Lordan, J., Francescatto, P., Robinson, T.L., 2017. Long-Term Effects Of Tree Density And Tree Shape On Apple Orchard Performance, A 20 Years Study. ASHS Annual Conference. ASHS, Kona, Hawaii, USA.
Agnello, A.M., K.D. Cox, J. Lordan, P. Francescatto, and T.L. Robinson. 2017. Comparative programs for arthropod, disease and weed management in New York organic apples. Insects 8(3):96.
Autio W. R., J. S. Krupa, J. M. Clements, and W.P. Cowgill Jr. 2017. Performance of Honeycrisp Apple trees on Several Budagovsky, Cornell-Geneva, and Pillnitz Rootstocks: An Update on the Massachusetts Planting of the 2010 NC-140 Apple Rootstock Trial. Horticultural News, Volume 97, (2) 1-4 http://www.horticulturalnews.org/97-2/abcdCover97-2.html
Autio W. R., J. S. Krupa, J.M. Clements, and W. P. Cowgill Jr. 2017. Rootstock Influence on Redhaven Peach Performance: An Update on the Massachusetts Planting of the 2009 NC-140 Peach Rootstock Trial. Horticultural News, Volume 97, (2) 6-8 http://www.horticulturalnews.org/97-2/abcdCover97-2.html
Autio W. R., J. S. Krupa, J. M. Clements, and W. P. Cowgill Jr. 2017. Performance of Honeycrisp Apple trees on Several Budagovsky, Cornell-Geneva, and Pillnitz Rootstocks: An Update on the Massachusetts Planting of the 2010 NC-140 Apple Rootstock Trial. Fruit Notes, Volume 82, (2) 1-4 http://www.umassfruitnotes.com/v82n2/abcdCover822.html
Autio W. R., J. S. Krupa, J. M. Clements, and W. P. Cowgill Jr. 2017. Rootstock Influence on Redhaven Peach Performance: An Update on the Massachusetts Planting of the 2009 NC-140 Peach Rootstock Trial. Fruit Notes, Volume 82, (2) 6-8. http://www.umassfruitnotes.com/v82n2/abcdCover822.html
Autio, W.R., J. S. Krupa, and J. M. Clements. 2017. Rootstock influence on Redhaven peach performance, An update on the Massachusetts planting of the 2009 NC-140 Peach Rootstock Trial. Fruit Notes 82(2):6-8. Horticultural News 97(2):6-8. http://www.umassfruitnotes.com/v82n2/a2.pdf
Autio, W.R., J.S. Krupa, J.M. Clements, and W.P. Cowgill Jr. 2016. Evaluation of peach rootstocks: 2009 NC-140 Peach Rootstock Trial through seven growing seasons. Fruit Notes 81(3):1-3.
Autio, W.R., J.S. Krupa, J.M. Clements, and W.P. Cowgill Jr. 2016. Evaluation of peach rootstocks: 2009 NC-140 Peach Rootstock Trial through seven growing seasons. Horticultural News 96(3):1-3.
Cowgill, W.P., M. Muehlbauer, W.R. Autio and J.M. Clements 2017.Comparison of the Effects of Ten Geneva Rootstocks and M.9 on Modi Apple Trees in New Jersey. Horticultural News, Volume 97, (4) 1-3 http://www.horticulturalnews.org/97-4/Cover97-4.html
Cowgill, W.P. M. Muehlbauer, W.R. Autio and J.M. Clements 2017.Comparison of the Effects of Ten Geneva Rootstocks and M.9 on Modi Apple Trees in New Jersey. Fruit Notes, Volume 82, (4) 1-3 http://www.umassfruitnotes.com/v82n4/Cover824.html
Duyvelshoff, C. 2017. New Honeycrisp Rootstocks for Nova Scotia. FactSheet, Perennia, Nova Scotia.
Kon, T., C. Clavet, and J.D. Obermiller. 2017. Chemical Thinning Research, pg. 14 In: 2017 Apple Field Day Proceedings. Mountain Horticultural Crops Research Station, NC State University.
Kon, T., C. Clavet, and J.D. Obermiller. 2017. Plant Growth Regulator Research, pg. 10-11 In: 2017 Apple Field Day Proceedings. Mountain Horticultural Crops Research Station, NC State University.
Kon, T.M. and M.L. Parker. 2017. Growth-regulating chemicals for apples. In: 2018 North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual. In press.
Reig, G., J. Lordan, G. Fazio, M.A. Grusak, S. Hoying, L. Cheng, P. Francescatto, and T.L. Robinson. 2017. Horticultural performance of Geneva(R) rootstocks grafted with 'Fuji' in the Hudson Valley, NY. NewYork Fruit Quarterly 25(3):3-8.
Extension Fact Sheet Publications
Crassweller, R., L. Kime, J. Harper. 2016. Agricultural Alternatives: Apple Production. Publication UA428. (complete revision) also on internet at http://extension.psu.edu/business/ag-alternatives/horticulture/fruits/apple-production
Baugher, T., Jarvinen, T. Dugan, E. Schupp. J., 2016. Can a Rules-Based Apple Pruning System Improve Labor Efficiency without Affecting Orchard Productivity? PA Fruit News 96 (2):16-17.
Baugher, T., E. Dugan, M. Basedow, T. Jarvinen, J. Schupp, E. Winzeler and M. Schupp. 2017 Competitive orchard systems and technologies. Pennsylvania Fruit News 97(2):27.
Baugher, T., J. Schupp, R. Marini, M. Basedow and T. Jarvinen. 2017. Crop load and fruit nutrient studies in commercial Honeycrisp orchards to determine best practices for minimizing bitter pit. Pennsylvania Fruit News 97(1):26-29.
Crassweller, R., D. Smith 2016. 2015 Results of apple training system trials. Pennsylvania Fruit News 96(1):39-41.
Crassweller, R., D. Smith. 2016 Nutritional analysis of new apple cultivars in high density plantings. Pennsylvania Fruit News. 96(2):21-22
Crassweller, R., D. Smith. 2016. Honeycrisp rootstock trial early results. Pennsylvania Fruit News 96(1):36-38.
Kon, T. 2017. Apple Thinning Update (4/25/17): Blue Ridge, GA; Ellijay, GA; Henderson County, NC. Henderson County Apple Production Newsletter.
Kon, T. 2017. Apple Thinning Update (5/03/17): Blue Ridge, GA; Ellijay, GA; Henderson County, NC. Henderson County Apple Production Newsletter.
Kon, T. 2017. Apple Thinning Update (5/10/17): Blue Ridge, GA; Ellijay, GA. Henderson County Apple Production Newsletter.
Kon, T. 2017. Ready or not, spring is here! Henderson County Apple Production Newsletter.
Krawczyk, G., K. Peter, J. Schupp, H.E. Winzeler, B. Lehman and L. Shaak. 2017. Effect of exclusion netting on integrated pest and disease management and fruit quality of apples. Pennsylvania Fruit News 97(1):63-67.
Lang, G.A. 2016. Fruiting wall production systems for apricots, nectarines, and plums. Compact Fruit Tree 49(3):12-16.
Lang, G.A. 2016. Project 2020: optimizing sweet cherry orchard design & efficiency. Compact Fruit Tree 49(3):6-11.
Lang, G.A. 2017. Multiple leader training optimizes labor efficiency. American Fruit Grower 137(6):20-21. http://www.growingproduce.com/fruits/stone-fruit/multiple-leader-training-optimizes-sweet-cherry-labor-efficiency/
Lang, G.A. 2017. Take a close look at Super Spindle Axe. American Fruit Grower 137(2):22-24. http://www.growingproduce.com/fruits/stone-fruit/take-a-close-look-at-super-spindle-axe/
Lang, G.A. 2017. What’s the next generation of canopies? American Fruit Grower 137(9):15-16. http://www.growingproduce.com/fruits/stone-fruit/what-will-be-the-next-generation-of-cherry-canopies/
Schupp, J. 2016. Chemical thinning sprays are critical in orchards. Fruit Growers News 55(3):60-61. (Not reported in 2016)
Schupp, J. 2016. Prune mature trees to improve light distribution. Fruit Growers News 55(1):8-9
Schupp, J., E. Winzeler and L. Kime. 2017. Shifting the Harvest Window of Gala Apples from August to October with ReTain Was Not Possible in Pennsylvania in 2016. PA Fruit News 97(7):15-16.
Schupp, J., E. Winzeler and M. Schupp. 2017. Evaluation of artificial spur extinction as a potential crop load management technique. Pennsylvania Fruit News 97(1):74-76.
Schupp, J., E. Winzeler and M. Schupp. 2017. Peach rootstock trials: A 2016 update. Pennsylvania Fruit News 97(1):38-40.
Stasiak, M. 2017. Testing New Apple Rootstocks for Wisconsin with the NC140 Regional Rootstock Research Project. Fresh. A Wisconsin Perspective. 9(1): 16-20. https://irp-cdn.multiscreensite.com/fcb80b68/files/uploaded/FRESH%204.17.pdf
Winzeler, E., and J. Schupp. 2017. Crab trees could be hidden hoard of cider apples. Fruit Growers News 56(5):20.
Yoder K., 2017. 2016 Progress Report to the Virginia Apple Research Program: Apple rootstock susceptibility to Tomato Ring Spot Virus (TmRSV) and latent viruses. Virginia Fruit. 3 pp. (May 2017).
Yoder K., Peck, G. and S. Sherif. 2017. 2016 Progress Report to the Virginia Apple Research Program: New Rootstocks, Cultivars, and Training Systems for Virginia; Project Support for 2016. Virginia Fruit. 6 pp. (May 2017).
Other Creative Works
Bradshaw, T.L. 2015. "Comprehensive Assessment of Organic Apple Production in Vermont: Experience from Two Orchard Production Systems, 2006-2013." Ph.D. dissertation, Plant and Soil Science, University of Vermont.
Baugher, T., R. Marini and J. Schupp 2017. Crop Load and Nutrient Management Practices to Prevent Bitter Pit in Honeycrisp . http://extension.psu.edu/plants/tree-fruit/news/2017/crop-load-and-nutrient-management-practices-to-prevent-bitter-pit-in-honeycrisp
Schupp, J. 2017. Apple thinning and promoting return bloom. http://extension.psu.edu/plants/tree-fruit/news/2017/apple-thinning-and-promoting-return-bloomBasedow, M., R. Crassweller, J. Schupp & Baugher T. 2016. Bench Grafting https://youtu.be/ADIIcQGwAWA
Basedow, M., J. Schupp, R. Crassweller, T. Baugher. 2016. Bark Grafting. https://youtu.be/MQFuJGngs.3M
Parker M. 2017 Integrated orchard management guide for commercial apples in the Southeast. Edited by J. Walgenbach. NC Cooperative Extension Service, Raleigh. AG-572. 88 pp.
Parker M., 2017. Published 2 apple videos on apple rootstocks and higher density training systems.
Moran, R. 2017. Plum Production in Maine. https://extension.umaine.edu/publications/2034e/. July 2017.
Basedow, M., R. Crassweller, J. Schupp and T. Baugher. 2016. Bench Grafting https://youtu.be/ADIIcQGwAWA
Basedow, M., J. Schupp, R. Crassweller, and T. Baugher. 2016. Bark Grafting. https://youtu.be/MQFuJGngs.3M
Lang, G.A. 2016. Cherry training systems – from traditional to transformative? American Fruit Grower 136(11):15-16. http://www.growingproduce.com/fruits/stone-fruit/cherry-trainingsystems-from-traditional-to-transformative/
Lang, G.A. 2016. Take a close look at the Tall Spindle Axe. American Fruit Grower 136(8):18-19. http://www.growingproduce.com/fruits/stone-fruit/take-a-closer-look-at-the-tall-spindle-axetraining-system/
Blatt, S. 2016. CBC News: Nova Scotia researchers growing dwarf cherry trees. http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/nova-scotia/dwarf-cherry-trees-growing-1.3687577.
Crassweller, R., L. Kime, and J. Harper. 2016. Agricultural Alternatives: Apple Production. Publication UA428. (complete revision) also on internet at http://extension.psu.edu/business/ag-alternatives/horticulture/fruits/apple-production
North Carolina State University produced 2 videos on apple rootstocks and higher density training systems.
Crassweller R., J. Schupp, R. Marini, 2017. Description: Web based article on rootstock descriptions & comments based on results from NC-140 trials. See: https://extension.psu.edu/apple-rootstocks Authors: Product Type: Audio or Video
Crassweller R., J. Schupp, R. Marini, 2017.Description: Learn Now video. Apple rootstocks for high density orchards See: https://extension.psu.edu/rootstocks-for-high-density-apple-orchards
Esslinger J., R. Crassweller. Marini, 2017. Description: Orchard Management: Site Planning and Preparation. This course is designed for beginning tree fruit growers. Learn to choose an appropriate orchard site, address climate considerations and prepare for planting See: https://extension.psu.edu/orchard-management-site-planning-and-preparation?
Crassweller R., M. Basedow & T. Baugher Description: Apple trellis construction for high density orchard systems. Learn Now video prepared on the construction of support systems for tree fruit systems.See: https://extension.psu.edu/apple-trellis-construction-for-high-density-orchard-system
Scientific and Outreach Oral Presentations
Autio, W.R. 2017. Update on NC-140 trials in Massachusetts. Massachusetts Fruit Growers’ Association Annual Meeting, February 8, 2017. Attendance: 80.
Belisle, C., K. Adhikari, and D.J. Chavez. 2017. Understanding the variation in volatile compounds among commercial peach varieties. IX Intl. Peach Symp.
Belisle, C., U. Phan, D.J. Chavez, and K. Adhikari. 2017. Peaches in Georgia: Finding out what consumers want. Southern Region Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Annual Meeting.
Black, B. 2017. Peach fruit quality issues and research update. Northern Utah Fruit meeting. 3 February 2017. Brigham City, UT. (attendance: 40) Utah
Black, B. 2017. Peach growth and development and rootstock research update. Utah State Horticultural Association annual winter meeting. 19 January, 2017. Spanish Fork, UT (Attendance: 80)
Bradshaw T. and J. Foster, 2017. UVM Fruit Program Open House and Orchard Tour. Included a tour of NC-140 plot and explanation of research and progress to-date. August 25, 2017.
Casamali, B., M.W. van Iersel, and D.J. Chavez. 2017. Sub-optimal irrigation conditions and excessive fertilization decreased young peach plants growth. IX Intl. Peach Symp.
Chavez, D.J. 2017. Observations of winter damage on Georgia peach trees and lessons for the future. Southern Region Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Annual Meeting.
Chavez, D.J. and J. Cook. 2017. Use of gibberellin (GA) and aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) in Georgia peaches. Southern Region Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Annual Meeting.
Cochran, D.R.,2017. NC140 ‘Honeycrisp’ rootstock trial update 2017. Iowa State University Fruit and Vegetable Growers Field Day, Horticulture Research Farm, IA, August 7, 2017.
Commercial stone fruit growers of Idaho, Washington, Utah, and Colorado.
Crassweller, R. 2017. Early Training of Tall Spindle Apple Trees: A Grower Panel. at 2017 Mid-Atlantic Fruit & Vegetable Conference February 1, 2017. Moderated by
Crassweller, R. M. 2016. Cherry Rootstock Update. Presented at Mid-Atlantic Fruit & Vegetable Conference 2/4/16. Hershey, PA
Fallahi, E., 2017. Apple growers of Idaho, Colorado, Utah, Oregon, and Washington received a comprehensive tour about performance of various rootstocks October 18, 2016.
Fallahi, E., 2017. On February 14, 2017, we had a daylong educational tour in Parma, Idaho and showed growers how to practice the new architectures and training in several rootstocks to commercial apple growers (35 growers participated).
Fallahi, E., 2017. Potential apple growers who are currently row crop growers in Idaho.
Fallahi, E., 2017. Presented a talk entitled “NC-140 Progress Report from Idaho” at the annual convention of the NC-140 Conference, College Park, Penn State University, November 9-14, 2016
Fallahi, E., 2017. Presented a talk entitled “The Impact of Rootstock on Fruit Yield and Quality and Minerals” at the annual convention of the Idaho State Horticultural Society, November 17-18, 2016.
Fallahi, E., 2017. Presented a tour and talked about the performance of various rootstocks to 45 apple growers during the general U of I Parma Field Day on June 18, 2017.
Fallahi, E., 2017. Presented an invited talk at the annual Conference of International Tree Fruit Association in Wenatchee in February 2017; approx. 450 people from worldwide.
Fallahi, E., 2017. We also had a daylong educational tour and lecture on February 25, 2017 and 43 Idaho apple growers participated and asked numerous questions and took notes. Also, each grower was asked to practice these new methods of training on different rootstocks.
Forney, C, Blatt, S, Forge, T, Cline, J, Munro-Pennell, K and Fillmore, S. 2017. Impact of apple and cherry rootstocks on phloem composition and aphid resistance. ISHS: International Symposium on Evaluation of Cultivars, Rootstocks and Management Systems for Sustainable Production of Deciduous Fruit Crops.
Hansen, S. and B. Black. 2017. Renewal pruning strategies for tart cherry in high-density management systems. ASHS Annual Conference, Waikoloa, HI, September 2017.
Kon, T.M. 2017. Apple crop load management: developing new tools and technologies. University of Georgia Department of Horticulture Seminar Series, Athens, GA
Kon, T.M. 2017. Developing a horticultural research and extension program for the southeastern apple industry. Clemson University Department of Plant and Environmental Sciences Seminar Series, Clemson, SC.
Kon, T.M. and J. Schupp. 2017. Comparing the efficacy of blossom thinning chemicals on ‘Golden Delicious’ apple. The American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Conference, Waikoloa, HI
Kon, T.M., C.D. Clavet, and J.D. Obermiller. 2017. Minimizing blind wood on ‘Gala’ apple trees with chemical and cultural practices. Southeastern Professional Fruit Workers Conference, Mils River, NC.
Lang, G.A. 2017. Changing Peach Tree Architectures – Manipulating Branches, Manipulating Genes, Michigan Spring Peach Meeting, Benton Harbor, MI; Mar 2.
Lang, G.A. 2017. Cherry Irrigation Management Considerations Related to Orchard Microclimate Modification. VI Seminario Internacional Control y Manejo del Riego en la Produccion Sustenable del Cerezo, Curico, Chile; Oct 24-25.
Lang, G.A. 2017. Competitive Orchards 2020 – Fruiting Wall Production Systems for Cherries, Peaches/Nectarines, and Apricots, Great Lakes Fruit Workers conference, Port Huron, MI; Nov 1.
Lang, G.A. 2017. Current Trends for Growing Sweet Cherries in the USA: Adoption of New Orchard Training Systems, Rootstocks, and Varieties, National Japanese Cherry Growers conference, Yamagata, Japan; Jun 5.
Lang, G.A. 2017. Fruit Production Under Protective Covers: Creating Your Own Climate Change is Not Just for Cherries Anymore, Colorado Horticultural Society, Grand Junction, CO; Jan 19.
Lang, G.A. 2017. Insights for Orchard Design and Management Using Intensive Sweet Cherry Canopy Archite tures on Dwarfing to semi-Vigorous Rootstocks, ISHS 8th International Cherry Symposium, Yamagata, Japan; Jun 6.
Lang, G.A. 2017. Intensive Tree Fruit Production Systems Research at SWMREC, Southwestern Michigan Research & Extension Center Field Day, Benton Harbor, MI; Aug 15.
Lang, G.A. 2017. Orchard Pruning Demonstrations, Northwestern Michigan Cherry Growers Workshop Tour, Grant and Sparta, MI; April.
Lang, G.A. 2017. State-of-the-Art Cherry Training Systems: Optimizing Fruit Quality, Yields, and Labor Efficiencies, Colorado Horticultural Society, Grand Junction, CO; Jan 18.
Lang, G.A. 2017. Sweet Cherries in the USA: Current Trends and Future Perspectives, ISHS 8th International Cherry Symposium, Yamagata, Japan; Jun 6.
Lang, G.A. 2017. Sweet Cherry and Peach Orchard Research and Pruning Demonstrations, International Fruit Tree Association Summer Tour, Sparta and Clarksville, MI; Jul 17-18.
Larson, J.E. and Lang, G.A. 2017. Whole Tree Renewal Regenerates Fruiting Structure Quickly in Mature Orchards, ASHS annual conference, Waikoloa, HI; Sept 22.
Liu, J., B. Casamali, M. van Iersel, O. Lindstrom, and D.J. Chavez. 2017. The effect of fertilization and irrigation treatments on cold hardiness of young peach plants. IX Intl. Peach Symp.
Liu, J., O. Lindstrom, A. Malladi, C. Robacker, and D.J. Chavez. 2017. Low temperature damage of peach floral buds as assessed by vital staining. IX Intl. Peach Symp.
Liu, J., O. Lindstrom, A. Malladi, E. Smith, M. Olmstead, and D. Chavez. 2017. Cold Hardiness of Peach: Is DTA a Game Changer? Southern Region Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Annual Meeting.
Marini, R.P. 2016. Two Decades of NC140 Trial Results. 2016 IFTA Pre-Conference Intensive Workshop. Grand Rapids, MI. Feb. 6, 2016.
Miller S.T., Otto K., Sterle D., Minas I.S., Stewart J.E. 2017. Developing strategies for managing Cytospora canker in peach orchards in Colorado. Poster presentation at 9th International Peach Symposium, July 2-6, Bucharest, Romania.
Minas I.S., Blanco-Cipollone F. 2017. Non-destructive assessment of the effect of crop load and canopy position on peach fruit harvest maturity and internal quality using near infrared spectroscopy. Oral presentation at 9th International Peach Symposium, July 2-6, Bucharest, Romania.
Minas I.S., Sterle D., Caspari H. 2017. Understanding the environmental bases for cold hardiness and cold damage in peach floral buds using differential thermal analysis. Oral presentation at 9th International Peach Symposium, July 2-6, Bucharest, Romania.
Minas, I.S, Sterle, D., Caspari, H. 2017. Cold hardiness assessment of peach flower buds using differential thermal analysis (DTA) in western Colorado (dormant season 2016 - 17 ). CSU Pomology web page. https://minas.agsci.colostate.edu/files/2017/03/Peach-fruit-bud-cold-hardiness-update24-3_13_17.pdf
Minas, I.S, Sterle, D., Caspari, H. 2017. Differential thermal analysis to understanding the environmental bases for cold hardiness and cold damage in peach floral buds. Oral presentation at 2017 American Society for Horticultural Science (ASHS) Annual Conference, September 19-22, 2017, Waikoloa, Hawaii.
Minas, I.S. 2017. CSU Pomology Research Program Update, Oral presentation at Western Colorado Horticultural Society 2017 Annual Meeting, Western Colorado Horticultural Society, January 19, 2017, Grand Junction, CO.
Minas, I.S. NC-140 Peach & Apple Rootstock Trials Update. 2017 CSU Pomology Field Day, May 18, 2017, WCRC-OM, Grand Junction, CO.
Reighard G.L. 2017. Insufficient winter chilling in peach: horticultural ramifications and recommendations. Annual meeting of American Society for Horticultural Science (ASHS). Kona, HI. September 19-22, 2017.
Reighard, G.L. 2017. Forecasting and minimizing the effects of inadequate chilling on Southeastern peach production. SE Regional Fruit & Vegetable Conference. Savannah, GA. Jan. 6, 2017.
Reighard, G.L., G. Schnabel and J.C. Melgar. 2017. What we know and do not know about a peach skin bronzing disorder. ISHS IX International Peach Symposium. July 2-6, 2017. Bucharest, Romania.
Reighard, G.L., J.C. Melgar, R.T. Burrell, F. Bittencourt and K. Gasic. 2017. Peach cultivar growing degree day requirements to reach fruit maturity in South Carolina. ISHS IX International Peach Symposium. July 2-6, 2017. Bucharest, Romania.
Reighard, G.L., J.C. Melgar, R.T. Burrell, F. Bittencourt and K. Gasic. 2017. Estimating peach maturity dates from ovules benchmarks and growing degree days in South Carolina. Southern Region American Society for Horticultural Science (SR-ASHS). Mobile, AL. Feb. 3-5, 2017.
Reighard, G.L., W. Maffit, T. Feng, F. B. M. Souza, C. Saski, R. Pio and K. Gasic. 2017. Thinning time influences peach fruit size and expression of cell growth and expansion genes. Annual meeting of American Society for Horticultural Science (ASHS). Kona, HI. September 19-22, 2017.
Reighard, G.L., W. Maffit, T. Feng, F. Bittencourt de Souza, C. Saski, R. Pio and K. Gasic. 2017. Early thinning of peach fruit influences expression of cell growth and expansion genes. ISHS International Symposium on Flowering, Fruit Set and Alternate Bearing. June 19-23, 2017. Palermo, Italy.
Reighard, G.L., W.G. Henderson and D. Ouellette. 2016. Prunus rootstock testing for peach tolerance to Pseudomonas and Armillaria diseases in South Carolina. III International Symposium on Horticulture in Europe. Chania, Crete, Greece. October 17-21, 2016.
Schupp, J. 2017. Adventures in chemical thinning, 2016. Adams County Fruit Growers Educational Meeting, Biglerville, PA. 20 Feb 2017.
Schupp, J. 2017. Chemical thinning of apples. Provide Agro Demo Day 2017. Fruitwood Farms Ltd., Denfield, Ontario, Canada, 29 Mar 2017.
Schupp, J. 2017. Chemical thinning update. Southeastern Region Extension Twilight Meeting. Stoudt’s Fruit Farm, Hamburg, PA. May 17, 2017.
Schupp, J. 2017. Evaluation of early thinning with NAD or ASE, with or without post-bloom NAA + carbaryl. Northeast Plant Growth Regulator Meeting, Wilkes-Barre, PA. 7 March 2017.
Schupp, J. 2017. Factors influencing chemical thinning. Illinois Specialty Crop, Agritourism, and Organics Conference, Springfield, Il, 11 Jan 2017
Schupp, J. 2017. Peach pruning. Illinois Specialty Crop, Agritourism, and Organics Conference, Springfield, Il, 12 Jan 2017
Schupp, J. 2017. Preliminary results of 2017 field trials on plant growth regulators. Plant Protection Field Day. Penn State Fruit Research and Extension Center, Biglerville, PA. 12 Sept. 2017.
Schupp, J. 2017. Pruning by the numbers. Illinois Specialty Crop, Agritourism, and Organics Conference, Springfield, Il, 12 Jan 2017
Schupp, J. 2017. Pruning Demonstration. Provide Agro Demo Day 2017. Fruitwood Farms Ltd., Denfield, Ontario, Canada, 29 Mar 2017.
Schupp, J. 2017. ReTain for shifting the harvest date of Gala apples from August to October? Northeast Plant Growth Regulator Meeting, Wilkes-Barre, PA. 8 March 2017.
Schupp, J. 2017. Rules-based approach to pruning tall spindle apple trees. W2009 Integrated Systems Research and Development in Automation and Sensors for Sustainability of Specialty Crops. Penn State Fruit Research and Extension Center, Biglerville, PA. 14 Sept 2017.
Schupp, J. 2017. Stimulating branching on young apple trees. Southeastern Region Extension Twilight Meeting. Stoudt’s Fruit Farm, Hamburg, PA. May 17, 2017.
Schupp, J., H. E. Winzeler and M. Schupp. 2017. Artificial spur extinction or NAD for early thinning of Honeycrisp. Mid Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Conference, Hershey, PA. 31 Jan - 2 Feb 2017, (poster).
Shengrui Yao, Fruit pruning demonstration (with 2015 organic apple rootstock trial included). Presented at the New Mexico Fruit Growers Annual Workshop on March 2, 20170.
Sherif S. and K. Yoder. 2017. Discussion of NC-140 2014 ‘Honeycrisp’ planting, on-site at Saunders Bros. Orchard. Piney River, VA. Presented as part of the Central Virginia orchard meeting series. 25 Apr 2017. General public. Attendance: 35.
Sherif S. and K. Yoder. 2017. Open House at the Alson H. Smith, Jr. AREC: Tour of the Horticulture and Pathology plantings. Winchester, VA. 12 Aug 2017. General public. Attendance: 65.
Sherif. S. 2017. Bitter pit in the NC-140 2014 ‘Honeycrisp’ planting. Presented at USDA Appalachian Fruit Research Laboratory, Kearneysville, WV. 29 Aug 2017. General public. Attendance: 73.
Stasiak, M. Apple Rootstock Update. 2017 Great Plains Growers Conference, St. Joseph,MO. January 12-14, 2017. Attendance: 40.
Wolfe. D. 25 June 2016. Apple and peach rootstock trials in Kentucky. UKREC Horticulture Field Day. Homeowner / grower audience. Attendance 20.
Fund Leveraging, specifically, collaborative grants between stations and members.
NC-140 members have written research proposals and attracted extramural funding associated or directly related to the five objectives of this project from local, regional, national and international funding sources. For fiscal year 2016/2017, funding and matching funds reported by members amounted to $7,745,123.14 plus $26,575 in-kind support from primarily commodity groups, state and competitive grant sources.
Autio W. et al. 2017. NC140 Trial Coordination – Cherry. International Fruit Tree Association. $10,000.
Bessin, Ricardo, Carrie Ann Knott, Winston C. Dunwell, Emily Pfeufer, Nicole Ward Gauthier, and Edwin L. Ritchey. 2017-2020. The National Institute of Food and Agriculture (NIFA), USDA issued the referenced award for the project entitled, Kentucky Extension IPM Implementation Program: 2017-2020. 2017; Total: $128,889.00, UK Nursery Crops, $14,746.
Black, B. 2014-2017. A Comparison of Water Relations and WUE Among Fruit Tree Rootstocks. Utah Dept. Ag. & Food, Specialty Crop Block Grant. $31,029.
Bradshaw T., 2017. Rootstock and tree training systems for unique apple production systems. Vermont Agriculture Experiment Station Hatch Grants Program, Oct 2017-Sep 2020. $64,084.
Chavez Dario. 2017. Cultivar Development Research Program - UGARF Development of peach and nectarine cultivars for Georgia. $13,952.25.
Chavez Dario. 2017. GA Commodity Commission for Peaches. Irrigation and fertilization management in Georgia. $10,963.
Chavez Dario. 2017. GA Commodity Commission for Peaches. New Irrigation and Fertigation Practices for Georgia Peach Production. $7,876.
Chavez Dario. 2017.Georgia Seed Development Program to Enhance Plant Breeding. Specialized equipment orchard tractor for maintenance of field plots. $71,411.
Chavez Dario. 2017.Office of Research and the Office of International Education UGA. Prunus serotina subsp. capuli distribution and population characterization. $7,000.
Chavez Dario. 2017.Seed Grant UGA CAES Academic Unit. Using of optimized scanning methods for undergraduate education $7,246.99.
Chavez Dario. 2017.USDA Innovation Grant. Breeding stone fruit adapted to the production environment of the southeastern U.S. $25,000.
Chavez Dario. 2017-2019. USDA Specialty Crop Block Grant – Georgia. Assessing transferability of Listeria monocytogenes within stone fruit packing facilities. Total value $114,956.40. Co-PI value $16,991.28.
Cheng et al., 2016-2021. Lead institution: Cornell University. SCRI – USDA. Accelerating the Development, Evaluation, and Adoption of New Apple Rootstock Technologies to Improve Apple Grower Profitability and Sustainability. USDA-SCRI-SREP. $4,281,618. (Fallahi E. budget $160,000; Kalcsits L. budget 429,537; Musacchi S. budget: $412,061).
Crassweller R. M., and J.R. Schupp. 2017. Apple Rootstock & Cultivar Evaluations, SHAP Research Committee. $22,737
Crassweller, R. M. and D. E. Smith, 2017. New Apple Rootstocks’Influence on Mineral Composition of Leaves and Fruit. SARE On-farm Research/Partnership Project $14,562
Crassweller, R., and D. Smith, 2017. Second Generation Apple System Trials. SHAP Endowment Committee. $9,000
Doe, J.M. 2002. Do rootstocks alter tree performance? International Dwarf Fruit Tree Association. $129,000. Again, include only fund leveraging specific to NC-140 Objectives!
Evans Kate and Amit Dhingra. 2015-2018. Developing the foundation for U.S. pear rootstock breeding. PNW Pear Bureau.Budget: $273,253.
Fallahi, E., 2017. Received $ 7,000 worth of chemicals from Wilbur Ellis Company for pest and disease control of rootstock projects.
Fallahi, E., 2017. Received approximately $ 8,800 in labor and equipment (in-kind) from Idaho fruit industry for operation of various apple rootstock projects.
Forney, C, Song, J, Blatt, S Xu, H and Burgher-MacLellan, K. 2018 (3 years). Reduction of aphids in apple production systems through enhancement of resistance. Agriculture and Agri-Food funding $238,700 (pending). Nova Scotia
Hampson, C. R. 2017. Apple rootstock evaluation in British Columbia conditions. Costs of supporting the 2010 NC-140 apple rootstock trial were covered by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada’s Growing Forward 2 program, AIP-P020 Canadian Tree Fruit Products Development. Jointly funded by AAFC and the BC Fruit Growers’ Association.
Ingram, Dewayne (PI), Win Dunwell, John Strang, Shubin Saha, and Timothy Woods. KY Agricultural Development Fund grant. Infrastructure for Kentucky Horticulture (Kentucky Horticulture Council #8). $510,600 for 2017.
Jayanty, S. S., Minas, I., Bartolo, M. E., Grant, "Postharvest handling strategies for Colorado specialty crops to increase marketability and improve consumer quality", Agricultural Experiment Station, Colorado State University, $26,065, Active. (sub: May 12, 2016, start: September 29, 2016, end: June 30, 2018).
Kon, T.M. 2017. Private industry support. Amount Awarded: $9,965.
Kon, T.M., D. Ducharme, C.C. Gunter, F. Louws, I. Meadows, D.R. Panthee, M.L. Parker, P. Perkins-Veazie, S. Villani, and J. Walgenbach. 2017. An ultramodern fruit and vegetable packing system: new opportunities in research and education programs. CALS Dean’s Enrichment Grants Program; North Carolina State University. Amount Awarded: $75,000; Total Project Funding: $180,000.
Kushad, M. M. June, 2016 to June, 2017. USDA, Training of Saudi FDA teams on pesticides use and management. NC.140 trials were used as an example. $49,800.
Lang, G.A. 2017. Apple Rootstock Evaluations. Michigan Apple Committee. $15,712.
Lang, G.A. 2017. Bitter Pit in ‘Honeycrisp’. Michigan Apple Committee. $13,054.
Lang, G.A. 2017. Competitive Orchard Systems 2020. International Fruit Tree Association. $9,000.
Lang, G.A. 2017. Fruiting Wall and High Tunnel Stone Fruit Production. Michigan State Horticultural Society. $8,888.
Lang, G.A. 2017. Fruiting Wall Orchard Systems for Stone Fruits. International Fruit Tree Association. $5,000.
Lang, G.A. 2017. Preserving ‘Honeycrisp’ Apple Quality and Profitability. Project GREEEN. $37,900.
Lang, G.A. 2017. Sweet Cherry Orchard Designs. Michigan Cherry Committee. $1,000.
Minas, I., 2016. Grant, "Establishment of a Tree Fruit Physiology and Quality Program at Western Colorado", Western Colorado Horticultural Society, $10,000 Active. (start: October 1, 2016)
Minas, I., 2016. Grant, "WCRC Pomology", Colorado Apple Administrators Commission, Other, $7,414.50, Active. (start: September 5, 2016).
Musacchi S., K. Lewis, K. Gallardo, T. Auvil. 2014-2017. WA 38 Rootstock and Systems Trial. Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission (WTFRC) Total Budget: 242,519 US$ personal budget: $133,495.
Musacchi, S., L. Kalcsits, D. Layne and K. Gallardo. 2015-2018. Cosmic CrispTM: Training system and orchard management to optimize vigor control and quality. Specialty Crop Block Grant Program. Total budget $249,191.
Neilsen, D. 2017. Cherry rootstock and training system evaluation in British Columbia conditions. Costs of supporting the 2010 NC-140 cherry rootstock trial covered by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada’s A-base project J-001036.001 ‘Developing more resilient tree fruit production systems from the ground up: Rootstocks with enhanced tolerance to emerging biotic threats to orchard health’ .
Parker, M.L. NC Legislature/Special Bill funding for apple research - $9,000.
Peck, G.M. and M. Williams. 2014-2017. Towards ecologically-based fertilizer recommendations that improve soil quality in high-density apple orchards. USDA-NIFA, Southern Sustainable Agriculture Research and Extension Program (SSARE). $140,000.
Reighard, G. 2016. Guardian® seed sales. South Carolina Foundation Seed. $205,000.
Reighard, G. 2016. NC-140 trial coordinator grant. International Fruit Tree Association. $2,000 of $10,000.
Reighard, G. 2017. “Screening peach rootstocks for adaptability, productivity, and tolerance to Armillaria and bacterial canker”. South Carolina Peach Council research grant. $4,000.
Reighard, G., K. Gasic, C. Saski, et al. “Short and long-term solutions for Armillaria Root Rot in Prunus.” USDA Multi-State Specialty Crops Block Grant of $927,000 with the Pennsylvania Dept. of Ag. March 31, 2017.
Renae Moran. Maine Research Reinvestment Funds, $7000.
Robinson T., H. Aldwinckle, G. Fazio, G. Peck, 2017. Strategies to improve root development, tree growth and management of apple nursery trees. - Sponsored by International Fruit Tree Association ($10,000).
Robinson, H. Aldwinckle, G. Fazio, G. Peck, 2017. Orchard management systems for improved yield and fruit quality – Sponsored by Apple Research and Development Program ($69,136).
Robinson, T., H. Aldwinckle, G. Fazio, G. Peck, 2017. Evaluation of the Cornell-Geneva Apple Rootstocks and Other Promising Apple Rootstocks. - Sponsored by International Fruit Tree Association ($10,000).
Schupp. J. R.2017. Competitive Orchard Systems and Technologies. SHAP Research Committee $13,582
Shengrui Yao, Robert Heyduck and Steve Guldan. 2014-2017. Organic apple high density planting in New Mexico. Specialty Crop Block Grant through NM Department of Agriculture. $27,242.
Song, J, Forge, T, Blatt, S, Neilsen D, Forney, C and Burgher-MacLellan, K. 2016-2018 (3 years).An ‘omics’ approach to evaluating rootstock resistance to rosy apple aphid. Agriculture and Agri-Food funding $117,973. Nova Scotia
Song, J, Forge, T, Blatt, S, Neilsen D, Forney, C and Burgher-MacLellan, K. 2015-2018 (3 years). Costs of supporting the apple and cherry rootstock trials covered by AAFC’s A-base funding, project J-001036.001: ‘Developing more resilient tree fruit production systems from the ground up: Rootstocks with enhanced tolerance to emerging biotic threats to orchard health”.
Stasiak and Atucha. UW-EXT Fruit Team funding for maintenance of NC140 rootstocks apple and cherry rootstock plantings. $1,500.
Stasiak and Atucha. Wisconsin Apple Growers Association funding for evaluation of NC140apple rootstocks in Wisconsin. $2,500.
Stasiak. Door County, WI extension support funding for commercial cherry and apple rootstock fruit research and outreach. $2,500.
Stasiak. Wisconsin Cherry Board funding for establishment of the 2017 NC140 Tart Cherry High Density Rootstock and Irrigation Trials. $2,500.
Stewart, J. E. (PI), Minas, I. (CoPI), Grant, “Cytospora management in peach orchards through cultural practices, cultivar selection, and stress mitigation”, Specialty Block Grants, Colorado Department of Agriculture (CDA) (2017): $91,218 (awarded: May, 2017, start: Feb 1, 2018, end: November 1, 2019).
Valent Corp. Research grant for peach thinning research. $9,000. March 15, 2017.
Villani, S., T. Kon, and J. Walgenbach. 2017. Request for emergency funding to address apple tree death in western North Carolina. CALS; North Carolina State University. Amount Awarded: $14,000.
Villani, S.M. and T.M. Kon. 2017. Defining rapid apple decline: gaining insight into the relationship between abiotic stressors and disease-driven death of apple trees in high-density systems. CALS NC Agricultural Foundation Grant; North Carolina State University. Amount Awarded: $24,800.
Villanueva, Raul, Ricardo Bessin, John Obrychi, Winston Dunwell. 2017-2018. Studies on Ambrosia Beetles Affecting Nursery Crops and Fruit Trees in Kentucky. Kentucky Specialty Crop Block Grant Program, $33,564.
Wolfe, D. 2013-2018. New peach/nectarine cultivar planting. Cumberland Valley Nursery. $1000.
Wolfe, D. 2014-2017. Technical Staffing from Kentucky Agricultural Development Board / Kentucky Horticulture Council grant. Infrastructure for Kentucky Horticulture. $53,645.
Yoder, K.S. 2016-2017. Apple rootstock susceptibility to Tomato Ring Spot Virus (TmRSV) and latent viruses. Virginia Apple Research Program. $9,500.
Yoder, K.S. 2016-2017. New Rootstocks, Cultivars, and Training Systems for Virginia, project support for 2016. Virginia Apple Research Program. $6,125.
Yoder, K.S. 2017-2018. Apple rootstock susceptibility to Tomato Ring Spot Virus (TmRSV) and latent viruses. Virginia Apple Research Program. $9,508.
Yoder, K.S. 2017-2018. New Rootstocks, Cultivars, and Training Systems for Virginia, Project Support for 2017. Virginia Apple Research Program. $7,644.
Michigan Tree Fruit Commission; $16,575 nursery tree purchases, trellis and irrigation installation, pruning equipment
Michigan, Al-Mar Orchards, Flushing, MI; $2,500 in-kind land use and maintenance for apple rootstock trial.
Michigan Rasch Orchards, Sparta, MI; $2,500 in-kind land use and maintenance for apple rootstock trial.
Michigan Riveridge Produce Marketing Co., Sparta, MI; $5,000 in-kind trellis materials and installation, land use, and maintenance for the 2017 NC140 sweet cherry rootstock trial and two sweet cherry training sy
- Win Cowgill and Jon Clements (NJ, MA) continue to update and manage the NC-140 web site located at www.nc140.org. The website was revamped in the past year to improve navigation and access to content. This website continues to be our primary outreach component serving as an important collaboration tool for cooperators. State reports, and annual reports are available to the public.
Date of Annual Report: 01/21/2019
Period the Report Covers: 10/01/2017 - 09/30/1918
ParticipantsAutio, Wesley (email@example.com) – University of Massachusetts; Black, Brent (firstname.lastname@example.org) – Utah State University; Bradshaw, Terence (email@example.com) – University of Vermont; Casamali, Bruno (firstname.lastname@example.org) - University of Georgia; Jon (email@example.com) – University of Massachusetts; Cline, John (firstname.lastname@example.org) - University of Guelph, Ontario; Cochran, Diana (email@example.com) – Iowa State University; Cowgill, Win (firstname.lastname@example.org) - Rutgers University, retired; Crassweller, Rob (email@example.com) – Pennsylvania State University; Fallahi, Esmaeil (firstname.lastname@example.org) – University of Idaho; Fazio, Gennaro (email@example.com) – Cornell University; Heyduck, Robert (firstname.lastname@example.org) - New Mexico State University; Hoover, Emily (email@example.com) – University of Minnesota; Kalcsits, Lee (firstname.lastname@example.org) – Washington State University; Kon, Tom ( email@example.com - North Carolina State University; Kushad, Mosbah (firstname.lastname@example.org) – University of Illinois; Lang, Gregory (email@example.com) – Michigan State University; Marini, Richard (firstname.lastname@example.org) – Pennsylvania State University; Minas, Ioannis (email@example.com) – Colorado State University; Moran, Renae (firstname.lastname@example.org) – University of Maine; Muehlbauer, Megan (email@example.com) - Rutgers University; Musacchi, Stefano, (firstname.lastname@example.org) –Washington State University; Pieper, Jeff (email@example.com - Colorado State University; Reighard, Gregory (firstname.lastname@example.org) – Clemson University; Robinson, Terence (email@example.com) - Cornell University; Sherif, Sherif (firstname.lastname@example.org) – Virginia Tech; Stasiak, Matt (email@example.com) – University of Wisconsin; Warmund, Michele (firstname.lastname@example.org) - University of Missouri; Wolfe, Dwight (email@example.com) – University of Kentucky; Xu, Hao (firstname.lastname@example.org) – Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada; Yoder, Keith (email@example.com) Virginia Tech;
Brief Summary of Minutes
Eight multi-location trials are in progress to evaluate new rootstocks of apple, peach, cherry and pear and to evaluate new orchard systems for pear and sweet cherry. Two peach and one tart cherry trials were competed during 2018 and in 2019 data will summarized and manuscripts will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals. Trees have been propagated for an apple rootstock trial to be planted in 2019. Rootstock trials are being planned and nurseries are propagating trees for 3 future multi-state trials for sweet cherry (2021), pear (2021) and apricot (2020 or 2021).
• Results from NC140 trials in Wisconsin have demonstrated the high productivity of dwarfing rootstocks and their applicability in high density systems (WI). Progressive Wisconsin apple growers continue to plant tall spindle systems.
• Based on research results, irrigation recommendations for peach have been modified for Georgia to include irrigation during and after planting.
• B.9, a commonly planted dwarfing rootstock in many states, has inadequate vigor for Honeycrisp to fill the space in a tall spindle production system. A larger dwarf rootstock such as G.935 is now recommended in several states for Honeycrisp in tall spindle system.
• In B.C., highest yields for Honeycrisp apple were on the rootstocks CG.3001, CG.4004 and G.202N, and for sweet cherry the combination of Gisela 6 x Tall Spindle Axe was superior.
• Prunus hybrid rootstocks were most productive on high pH soils in CO and could have a significant impact on Colorado orchard profitability as well as other western states.
• Several Geneva apple rootstocks, including Geneva 935, Geneva 4004, and Geneva 41 seem to be suitable for climate and soil conditions of southwest Idaho.
• The Modi apple cultivar represents an opportunity for organic and commercial growers to reduce the number of fungicide applications while maintaining taste.
• Typical very warm (20 C) night temperatures in September again prevented Aztec Fuji from coloring (<25% red blush) and thus it is not recommended for elevations below 300 m in the South Carolina Piedmont. These results can be extended throughout the south.
• Trials on grower’s farms yielded information on rootstock adaptability that was not known from experiment station trials, such as cold hardiness evaluation. Performance of high density sweet cherry orchards using several dwarfing rootstocks has stimulated growers to expand sweet cherry acreage in NY State.
• The NC-140 Cooperative Rootstock Trials provide Midwestern fruit producers with relevant information regarding the performance of rootstocks under erratic environmental conditions and the opportunity to observe growth and fruiting of apple and peach trees grown on multiple rootstocks (MO).
• The NC-140 comparative plantings have hastened the testing and commercialization of the disease resistant Geneva apple rootstocks.
• The 2010 apple rootstock trial demonstrated that several Geneva rootstocks were less susceptible to fire blight than M.9 clones currently used by Kentucky growers for high-density orchards. The most productive rootstocks included CG.4004, G.222, G.935N, and G.814. using this information several Kentucky growers decided to adopt high density systems using Geneva rootstocks.
• High-density pear training systems coupled with improved rootstocks is generating new interest among NY growers to plant pears.
• Sweet cherry is being considered by growers with U-Picks as part of their farm with the whole-tree-renewal treatment showing promise (Nova Scotia, CA).
- • The 2009 Peach Rootstock Trial is the first NC-140 peach trial planted in NC. It is planted in the Sandhills Region of NC where peaches were grown historically, and where peach tree short life is one of the major factors limiting peach production. From data generated so far, several rootstocks are not suitable for eastern NC but several are promising for higher density plantings. In 2017 another peach trial was established at the Sandhills Research Station to evaluate high density peach production.