NC213: Marketing and Delivery of Quality Grains and BioProcess Coproducts
(Multistate Research Project)
NC213: Marketing and Delivery of Quality Grains and BioProcess Coproducts
Duration: 10/01/2023 to 09/30/2028
Statement of Issues and Justification
US grains and oilseeds have a long-standing reputation for superior quality. However, maintaining this reputation requires continued research and innovation. Significant challenges remain to be solved in area of post-harvest handling, storage, processing, and distribution of quality grains and oilseeds. Changing economic conditions, governmental policies, consumer expectations, climactic conditions, technical innovations, and biological barriers all provide opportunities for new research to improve grain, oilseed, and coproduct systems. Furthermore, grain quality is increasingly important in both domestic and international markets. Understanding economic inefficiencies to supplying quality grain and oilseeds is an important concern for US producers, handlers, and processors.
NC-213 multistate researchers work collaboratively with an Industry Advisory Board to address the most critical issues facing the grain and oilseed industries. NC-213 researchers work across the supply chain from harvest to end-products. Specifically, research focuses on 1) factors that influence quality, safety, and nutrition of cereal grains and oilseeds during post-harvest drying, storage, processing, and distribution; 2) strategies to improve efficiency and enhance value of grains and oilseeds in the farm-to-user supply chain; and 3) developing strategies that preserve quality, increase value, and maintain food safety and food security of grains and oilseeds.
NC-213 research addresses critical, continuing issues in post-harvest grain quality. A major strength of the committee is its multi-disciplinary approach to research, facilitated by the diverse disciplinary background of researchers in engineering, economics, grain and food science, plant pathology, entomology, and others. NC-213 also consists of an Industry Advisory Board that contributes to identification of emerging research needs.
In the past 5-year cycle, advances have been made in several areas, including:
- Innovative methods, practices, and technologies to prevent insect, microbial, and fungal damage of grains and other seeds during postharvest storage
- New approaches and technologies to improve safety of grains and oilseeds and their coproducts by reducing pathogen contamination and toxin concentrations
- New methods and technologies for rapid analysis of physical properties and chemical composition of grains and oilseeds and their coproducts
- New processing methods for grains and oilseeds that deliver higher quality coproducts
- Methods and strategies to reduce dust generation during handling and processing of grains
- Modelling of critical handling, storage, and processing variables for their impact on safety and quality of grains and oilseeds and their coproducts
- Creating standards, protocols, and indices for evaluating grain and oilseed quality
- Development of training material for grain industry professionals
- Development of short courses on safety and hazard prevention for the grain and oilseed industries
These efforts have improved the quality and safety of grains and oilseeds and their coproducts. However, continued efforts are needed, particularly in the areas of insect and pest control during grain storage, chemical and microbiological safety of grains, and rapid analysis of grain quality and composition. Consumers are also demanding unique grains and oilseeds with improved or enhanced nutritional quality, identity preservation, and source tracking. The grains and oilseeds industries are also in need of more efficient storage, transport, and processing strategies as well as training materials to implement these new approaches.
A strength of the NC-213 multi-state project is that it enables academic and government researchers and industry stakeholders involved in the grain and oilseed industry to interact and share ideas and challenges through presentations, panel discussions, and networking. A critical place where this is done is the Annual Meeting, where timely research is presented and critical issues facing the industry are discussed. Through these interactions, practical ideas, policy, practice, and research emerge to address specific engineering, scientific, and economic issues associated with the project objectives. This interaction enhances the quality and relevance of research experiences and provides for the development of innovative research opportunities for extramural funding and mentoring of young professionals.
The NC-213 multi-state project actively involves and encourages industry participation and influence. Industry representatives from grain handling, marketing, storage, and processing companies, service suppliers, and equipment manufacturing play a significant role in crafting research priorities. An Industry Advisory Board with five elected representatives and a chair that serves on the NC-213 executive committee has been in place since 2000. An industry panel discussion on current US and global trends in grain marketing has been a part of the Annual Meeting since 2012. These discussions identify emerging research needs that are a part of both the annual research plans and the 5-year project cycle. Blending these diverse perspectives shapes the independent NC-213 participants into a unified and market-centered research team.
NC-213 has enhanced the efficiency of the US grain industry and preserved value in the grain and oilseed industries since 1977. Early NC-213 researchers laid a strong foundation for incoming researchers to address new challenges in grain and oilseed quality. Collaboration between stations and the resulting shared expertise across multiple disciplines has been and continues to be critical to the success of NC-213. Interdisciplinary collaborations among researchers and industry facilitate competitive partnerships that can address complex current challenges and maintain quality and value of the US grain and oilseed industries.
Related, Current and Previous Work
NC-213 focuses on maintaining quality and value of grains and oilseeds and their coproducts across the supply chain from harvest to end-user. With the global emphasis on food and feed safety, nutrition, and security, environmental management, and biosecurity, the importance of grain and oilseed quality concerns remain, increasing the need for the research generated by NC-213 researchers.
A CRIS search of active Hatch/Multistate projects using the search terms “grain quality” and “oilseed quality” yielded 78 and 1 hits, respectively. Most matches involved grain or oilseed breeding efforts to improve quality, which is not directly related to the objectives of NC-213. NC-213 focuses on the supply chain from harvest to end-user. One project was directly related to one specific aspect of NC-213 objectives (Accession no.: 1019971, Data analytics for effective tracking of stored grain quality) and is being led by NC-213 researchers. Some NC-213 researchers also focus on mitigation of mycotoxins in grains, which may overlap with NC-1183 Mycotoxins in a Changing World. However, NC-213 remains relevant because it focuses on many other aspects of grain quality in addition to storage quality and mycotoxin levels.
NC-213 scientists continue to develop and refine non-invasive techniques for evaluating grain and oilseed composition, quality, and safety using spectroscopic, tomographic, and other image analysis tools. A primary impact of these advancements is to create uniformity and reduce analytical support costs of measurement in the grain and oilseed industry while enhancing safety and quality.
NC-213 researchers are developing new and improved methods for grain and oilseed quality analysis. These methods will support the grain and oilseed industries and enable them to continue to deliver grain and oilseed products with increased quality and functionality.
NC-213 engineers are developing new technologies to monitor temperature, moisture content, relative humidity, and carbon dioxide during storage of grain and oilseeds. These include wireless monitoring systems that present data on user-friendly dashboards. Better strategies to safely store grain year-round is vital to its quality and economic value.
NC-213 researchers are evaluating nutritional and functional properties of hulled wheat species and other novel grains that have attracted attention from the food industry. This work may lead to increased market share for novel grains through a better understanding of quality, composition, and functionality. This will support the agriculture and food industries in improved and increased utilization of these grains.
NC-213 scientists are conducting research to improve chemical and microbiological safety of grains and oilseeds. Emphasis is on methods of detection as well as mitigation of mycotoxins, heavy metals, and pathogens in grain and oilseeds and their coproducts. These efforts will reduce prevalence of disease and other deleterious outcomes that arise from consumption and utilization of contaminated grains and oilseeds in animals and humans.
NC-213 researchers are developing new quality standards and indices for evaluating and ranking grain and oilseed quality. These standards and indices will be useful to the grain and oilseed industries as they continue to supply high quality products to their customers.
NC-213 scientists are modelling risks and costs associated with grain and oilseed segregation in the food and feed supply chains. Multimillion dollar impacts are possible for the industry through the marketing of increased value specialty grains and oilseeds with purity maintained. Going forward, numerous tracking problems, such as food safety and environmental/climate impacts, can be documented more efficiently to meet customer specifications or regulations.
NC-213 chemists are conducting research to increase nutritional properties of grains and oilseeds. Researchers are working on protein, lipid, dietary fiber, antioxidant, and micronutrient concentrations and composition in grains and oilseeds and their coproducts. This research aims to supply animals and humans with grain and oilseed products that address critical health issues.
NC-213 scientists continue to advance the field of insect control during grain and oilseed storage and processing. Researchers are working on new chemical and non-chemical treatments to manage insects during grain and oilseed storage and processing and meet new government regulations and industry interests. This research aims to impact the sustainability of grain storage and processing.
NC-213 scientists have continued to test near infrared transmission analyzers to enhance the consistency of these instruments to measure the composition of grains and oilseeds. The more instruments are able to be used by the USDA Grain Inspection packers and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA) without a loss in consistency, the lower testing costs for the grain and oilseed market chain will be.
NC-213 engineers are characterizing the performance of hermetic storage bag technologies for grain and other edible seeds. Emphasis is on addressing existing and emerging challenges to improve and expand the supply chain of hermetic bag storage technology to reduce grain damage and loss, preserve grain quality, and increase profits to farmers.
NC-213 researchers at Iowa State University are involved in the design and opening of a Feed Mill and Grain Science Complex. It will have a self-contained feed manufacturing facility and a complete grain handling, drying and storage center. This facility will facilitate research, teaching, service, extension, industry collaboration, and international outreach efforts in support of the global grain and feed industry.
NC-213 researchers continue to develop training and continuing education modules on proper grain and oilseed handling and processing systems. These modules are aimed at regulatory personnel and industry professional audiences.
NC-213 engineers are using fundamental tools and engineering concepts to study the mechanisms of dust generation during handling and processing of grains and oilseeds. This research aims to mitigate the health and safety risks to workers generated during handling and processing of grains and oilseeds.
NC-213 scientists have developed non-invasive, rapid techniques to determine the quality and composition of grains, oilseeds, and processed products. These techniques reduce analysis time and costs to the grain and oilseed industries while enhancing safety and quality.
NC-213 scientists have developed rapid techniques for the detection of grain and oilseeds that are contaminated with Fusarium and Aspergillus species and their toxins. These techniques improve food and feed safety by diverting contaminated grain away from the food and feed supply.
NC-213 scientists have developed rapid techniques for the detection of antimicrobials and pesticides on grains and oilseeds. These techniques help protect animals and humans from exposure to unsafe levels of agricultural chemicals.
NC-213 researchers have developed techniques for the rapid segregation of grain and oilseeds based on dimensions, color, GMO status, and other characteristics. These efforts are useful to create specialty grains and oilseeds for particular uses to increase value while keeping costs low.
NC-213 scientists have developed interventions to reduce the microbial load of grains. These interventions are important to providing microbiologically safe flour for products that may reach consumers prior to a heat treatment.
NC-213 scientists have created innovative insect detection and monitoring systems and strategies. These systems are important for reducing post-harvest grain and oilseed loss due to insect damage.
NC-213 researchers have developed in-person training and online education modules to train regulatory personnel, ingredient suppliers, food processors, and fuel ethanol producers on proper grain and oilseed storage, handling, and processing systems. FSMA training for Preventive Controls for Animal Food were delivered in-person and online. Training modules were offered in partnership with commodity partners, such as the American Feed Industry Association. These modules cover practical knowledge of agricultural bulk commodity storage, handling, and processing facilities to meet the requirements of the Food Safety Modernization Act and Preventive Controls for Animal Food.
NC-213 researchers from Purdue University and Iowa State University collaborated on a project to improve the segregation of non-genetically modified grain handled in a commodity grain elevator, resulting in a predictive model and Java-based decision-making tool. As a result of this project, additional research proposals have been submitted to continue the investigation, with a specific interest on comparing theoretical and physical modeling techniques.
NC-213 researchers collaborated on a USDA Higher Education Challenge Planning Grant to form the basis and framework of a USDA Higher Education Challenge comprehensive grant proposal. The team and project have evolved due to retirements, new hires, and changing personnel. Industry and institutional stakeholders were secured. Recently, the team learned that the full proposal submission to the USDA Higher Education Challenge Grant had been funded.
NC-213 researchers from Purdue University, USDA-CGAHR, and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign to understand the grain dust generation mechanisms. They are using this fundamental understanding to develop effective mitigation strategies. These strategies would benefit the grain handling and processing industry by protecting worker health and safety, reducing dust explosions, and complying with air quality standards and regulations. A follow-up proposal was funded by USDA-NIFA-CARE program.
To measure, model, and assess factors that influence the quality, safety, and nutrition of cereal grains and oilseeds during post-harvest drying, storage, processing, and distribution.
To improve efficiency and enhance value of grains and oilseeds in the farm-to-user supply chain.
To work with multi-institutional colleagues to preserve quality, increase value, and maintain food safety and food security of grains and oilseeds.
The NC-213 project focuses on the farm-to-user supply chain for grains, oilseeds, and their co- and processed products. A global emphasis on food safety, biosecurity, environmental management and post-harvest quality management increases the need for systems-based approaches to handling and processing problems. Collaborations between institutional and industry participants has been a key driver of research outputs, competitive grant proposals, and large-scale impacts, both in the U.S. and internationally.
The annual technical meeting, managed by NC-213 personnel at The Ohio State University, has had an important influence on establishing informal collaborations and partnerships. Research presentations have historically created opportunities for interactions and exchanges that are not always measured in formal ways, but have resulted in wide technology advancement dissemination and adaptation. The integration of the NC-213 group with industry groups such as the Grain Elevator and Processing Society (GEAPS) and the U.S. Wheat Council has broadened the perspective of both industry and academic professionals.
Each objective below emphasizes advancements falling under the three stated objectives. The following section will describe both existing projects and potential projects to be formalized in the next NC-213 cycle. The NC-213 administered Anderson Grant Research Program will target emphasis areas and continue to provide funding for preliminary and pilot research concepts.
NC-213 researchers at several stations (IA, IL, NE, OH, TX) will conduct research aimed at mitigating mycotoxin development in grains. Specifically, NC-213 scientists will conduct field experiments to develop and evaluate best management practices (fungicide application programs and genotype resistance) and mitigation strategies (grain cleaning and harvester adjustments) for diseases and mycotoxins in corn and wheat. Guidelines will be useful for timely and cost-effect disease and mycotoxin management. In addition, NC-213 researchers will develop granular low-cost carriers for use in carrying atoxigenic molds for the control of aflatoxin. This research will benefit smallholder farmers in developing countries that do not have resources to purchase typical biocontrol products for aflatoxins. A related research area will be to develop novel strategies to reduce pathogens in grain products. These efforts will protect consumers from exposure to pathogens in unheated grain products.
NC-213 scientists (ID, IN, USDA-ARS) will develop mathematical models of grain flow and packing that include many interactive factors, including rebounding of grain, effects of repeated loading/unloading, and ratio of packing due to kernel rearrangement/deformation. Packing/ unpacking curves will be generated using a uniaxial compression device, validation will be performed in grain bins with a new device that will measure the pressure in three dimensions with a picture to evaluate kernel orientation. NC-213 scientists will determine engineering parameters such as airflow resistance, thin layer drying performance and equilibrium moisture content for emerging grains, oilseeds, and related products. Standard protocols to measure airflow resistance, thin layer drying behavior and equilibrium moisture content will be evaluated and compared to previously published data.
NC-213 researchers at many institutions (IN, ND, MN, NE, TX, USDA-ARS) will evaluate the compositional variation in grains and oilseeds under various production conditions. For example, researchers will measure dietary fiber content and composition of hulled wheats and other underutilized edible seeds and their processed products. Microscopy and imaging will be used to localize the components of dietary fiber and other components in the seed. The nutritional and biological function of these products will be investigated. NC-213 scientists will identify factors that improve the nutritional quality of grains and oilseeds. These efforts will enable to development of health-promoting grain and oilseed products that can help mitigate the risks of diet related diseases in humans.
NC-213 scientists working on objective 2 will complement those working on mitigating mycotoxin developing in grains by developing rapid methods for detection of grains contaminated with mycotoxins (AR, IA, IL, MS, ND, TX, USDA-ARS). Researchers will investigate the applicability of multiple hyperspectral imaging techniques for simultaneous detection of mycotoxins in corn products for early screening in a regulatory laboratory. Classification and quantification models will be based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA), linear support vector machines (LSVM), quadratic support vector machines (QSVM), multiple linear regression (MLR), and partial least squares algorithms (PLS) algorithms. Mycotoxin detection and fungal growth will also be measured using visible near-infrared (VNIR) and shortwave near-infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral/multispectral imaging, and Raman spectroscopy technologies. Protocols for sampling grain at multiple spatial scales and at different point in the grain production chain will be developed to accurately estimate mycotoxin contamination. Smartphone-based platforms for point-of-need detection of aflatoxins and fumonisins in grain and oilseeds will also be developed. Computer and statistical models will be used to develop and validate disease and mycotoxin risk assessment tools. Rapid tests will be developed to be compatible with reference materials used in other rapid diagnostic tests based on the lateral flow principle. These tools will help grain buyers make informed grain management, handling, and marketing decisions. This research will improve efficiency in aflatoxin detection, retain food safety in the grain value chain, and provide consumers with access to healthier grain products.
Other tools and models will be developed by NC-213 researchers to improve efficiency of the grain and oilseed supply chain while maintaining quality (IA, IN). For instance, grain drying models will be developed to predict energy consumption and capacity with weather forecasts to determine whether field drying or artificial drying is more efficient. With increased energy costs, predicting field dry down based on short term weather forecasts would help producers evaluate the tradeoff between field dry down and dryer performance to minimize fossil energy use. The procedure used to evaluate current energy consumption will be applied to farms after they have upgraded their dryers to allow for quantification of actual energy savings. NC-213 scientists will also develop sensing systems to sort doubled haploid (DH) maize seeds for breeding programs using single seed near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) to expedite hybrid development. These approaches could eventually be developed into rapid, non-destructive, and potentially in-line analytical devices, as well as enable kernel sorting to remediate contamination.
A major focus of NC-213 scientists working on objective 3 will be to develop strategies to monitor and control insects during storage of grains and oilseeds (IA, IN, IL, KY, KS, MN, MT, TX, USDA-ARS). The goal is to provide more cost effective and time sensitive control of destructive insect species. NC-213 scientists will evaluate the efficacy of novel and emerging powders, fumigants, and aerosols to control stored product insects in storage structures, milling facilities, and rail cars. The information generated from these studies will provide pest management professionals guidance on improved application techniques for insect control. NC-213 scientists will evaluate common food and feed packaging materials for the resistance to penetration or invasion from stored product insects. This information will be used to create a database that identifies physical characteristics of packaging materials associated with lower penetration and subsequent infestation of stored products.
NC-213 scientists will also study changes in grain quality during storage under various environmental conditions (IA, IL, KY, USDA-ARS). Respiration rates of soybeans during storage will be one area of research emphasis. Multiple storage conditions will be evaluated. This information will be used to predict soybean quality during various storage conditions.
NC-213 specialists will also develop and update training materials in post-harvest grain handling, storage, safety, and processing through a variety of mediums, including the annual meeting, web-based, online training, and hands-on workshops (IA, IN, MT). NC-213 scientists and engineers and two Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), led by Klein Ileleji from Purdue University, will work to develop a M.S. level curriculum focused on the grain value chain. The online degree program will utilize coursework from participating institutions and will culminate with an industry-driven M.S. thesis project. A secondary goal of the program is to attract, support, retain, and promote opportunities in the grain to underrepresented graduate students.
Measurement of Progress and Results
- Objective 1 Comments: • Factors controlling grain packing during storage and handling are quantified • Best management practices and mitigation strategies for controlling diseases and mycotoxins in corn and wheat are determined. • Mathematical models of grain packing during storage are developed. • Basic engineering and scientific parameters such as airflow resistance, thin layer drying performance and equilibrium moisture content for new grains and oilseeds are established • Nutritional composition and biological function of hulled wheat and other emerging grains and their processed products will be available. • Novel strategies to reduce pathogens in grain products are developed. • Factors that improve the nutritional quality of grains and oilseeds are uncovered. • Granular low-cost carriers for use in carrying atoxigenic molds for the control of aflatoxin are available.
- Objective 2 Comments: • New imaging techniques for simultaneous detection of mycotoxins in corn products for early screening in a regulatory laboratory established. • Models to predict energy consumption and capacity are coupled with weather forecasts to determine whether field drying or artificial drying is more efficient. • Computer and statistical models to assess disease and mycotoxin risk are available. • Protocols for sampling grain at multiple spatial scales and at different points in the grain production chain to accurately estimate mycotoxin contamination are established. • Smartphone-based platforms for point-of-need detection of aflatoxins and fumonisins in grain and oilseeds are developed. • Advanced inventory management tools are available for the grain and oilseed supply chain industry • Grain composition, storage quality, and processing properties will be identified and measured rapidly in a non-destruction way, which will facilitate greater economic value for grain and oilseed products and co-products • Rapid, non-destructive technologies for aflatoxin detection in grains are available. • Sensing systems to sort doubled haploid (DH) maize seeds for breeding programs using single seed near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) are developed to expedite hybrid development. • New instrumentation, pre-processing methods, and toxin identification methods are available for use in industrial and regulatory settings
- Objective 3 Comments: • University students, extension and industry professionals, academic researchers, and other stakeholders gain knowledge and skills in post-harvest grain handling, storage, and processing through a variety of mediums, including the annual meeting, web-based, online training, and hands-on workshops • Industry professionals gain knowledge of safety principles involved in grain storage and handling as a result of training programs developed by NC-213 researchers • New training courses address practical problems faced by the grain industry • Lower cost methods of storing large amounts of grain to preserve quality will be established • Novel strategies to monitor and control insects during storage of grains and oilseeds are developed. • Alternative powders, fumigants, and aerosols to control stored product insects in storage structures, milling facilities, and rail cars are identified. • Food and feed packaging materials will be recognized for the resistance to penetration or invasion from stored product insects. • Respiration rates of soybeans are used to predict soybean quality during various storage conditions.
Outcomes or Projected Impacts
- Objective 1 • Value-added products from hulled wheats and other novel grains leads to increased market share for these products through a better understanding of quality, composition, and functionality. • Improved and increased utilization of grains and oilseeds • Grain and oilseed industry professionals incorporate factors controlling quality, safety, and nutrition of grains discovered by NC-213 scientists into business decisions • Reduced risk of mycotoxin exposure to humans and animals due to improved methods of analysis and monitoring of contaminated grains developed by NC-213 scientists • Grain storage and transport are more efficient due to mathematical models of grain packing, airflow resistance, drying kinetics, and other parameters developed by NC-213 scientists • Reduced risk of pathogen exposure to humans and animals due to new processing methods for grain products developed by NC-213 scientists • Grain and oilseeds are available with improved the nutritional quality • Granular low-cost carriers for use in carrying atoxigenic molds for the control of aflatoxin are available.
- Objective 2 • Low cost and low energy methods for post-harvest drying, handling, and storage of corn, rice, soybeans, and wheat are adopted by the grain and oilseed industries • On-farm energy consumption is decreased due to improved grain drying models developed by NC-213 scientists • Efficiency of mycotoxin monitoring in grain and oilseed products is improved due to rapid techniques and computer and statistical models developed by NC-213 scientists • Smartphone-based platforms for detection of aflatoxins and fumonisin in grain and oilseeds increase efficiency in the grain industry • Advanced inventory management tools facilitate improved efficiency to the grain and oilseed supply chain industry • Higher quality grains and oilseeds are supplied to the food and feed industries due to rapid, non-destructive analysis methods for grain composition, storage quality, and processing properties developed by NC-213 scientists, increasing economic value for grain and oilseed products and co-products • Hybrid seed development is more efficient due to sensing systems developed by NC-213 scientists • New instrumentation, pre-processing methods, and toxin identification methods increase efficiency and reduce costs in industrial and regulatory settings
- Objective 3 • University students, extension and industry professionals, academic researchers, and other stakeholders use their increased knowledge and skills in post-harvest grain handling, storage, and processing to preserve quality of grains and oilseeds and their co-products • Industry professionals incorporate safety principles learned from NC-213 scientists into the grain and oilseed supply chain • Advanced monitoring models and tools improve storage quality of grains and oilseeds • Updated and common calibration protocols for grain quality instruments increase storage properties of grains and oilseeds • Practical problems faced by the grain industry are addressed due to training modules developed by NC-213 scientists • University students, extension and industry professionals, academic researchers, and other stakeholders use knowledge gained from training sessions developed by NC-213 scientists to improve post-harvest grain handling, storage, and processing of grains and oilseeds • Lower cost methods of storing large amounts of grain help to preserve quality of grains • Insects are better controlled during storage due to the use of novel strategies developed by NC-213 scientists to monitor and control insects during storage of grains and oilseeds • Alternative powders, fumigants, and aerosols to control stored product insects in storage structures, milling facilities, and rail cars help to preserve food and feed quality of grain and oilseed products. • Better packaging materials for controlling stored product insects improve storage life and quality of grains and oilseeds • Improved models of respiration rates during storage under various conditions increase quality of stored grains and oilseeds
Milestones(2024):Four research proposals will be submitted to national or other peer-reviewed sources other than those managed by NC-213. NC-213 to hold their Annual Meeting which will include Technical Sessions, Industry Panel Discussion, and Student Competition along with Annual Business Meeting.
(2025):Quality, safety, and nutrition of cereal grains and oilseeds improved through NC-213 publications and outputs/outcomes will be published in Annual Report. NC-213 to hold their Annual Meeting which will include Technical Sessions, Industry Panel Discussion, and Student Competition along with Annual Business Meeting.
(2026):Models developed to improve efficiency and enhance value of grains and oilseeds in the farm-to-user supply chain, models to be published in Annual Meeting. NC-213 to hold their Annual Meeting which will include Technical Sessions, Industry Panel Discussion, and Student Competition along with Annual Business Meeting.
(2027):Storage quality, value, safety, and food security of grains and oilseeds enhanced due to the efforts of NC-213 scientists, and outputs/outcomes will be published in Annual Report. NC-213 to hold their Annual Meeting which will include Technical Sessions, Industry Panel Discussion, and Student Competition along with Annual Business Meeting.
(2028):Training materials in post-harvest grain handling, storage, safety, and processing developed, and those training materials and workshops will be published in Annual Report. NC-213 to hold their Annual Meeting which will include Technical Sessions, Industry Panel Discussion, and Student Competition along with Annual Business Meeting.
Projected ParticipationView Appendix E: Participation
NC-213 scientists generally have split academic appointments in research, teaching, and extension. Therefore, traditional outlets for research dissemination, including journal publications, conference proceedings, extension fact sheets, and webinars will be used. Annual reports from 2019-2021 indicate a large number of presentations and publications per year from NC-213 researchers, with 65 peer-reviewed papers published and 37 other publications (see Literature Cited). NC-213 participants will also disseminate research through academic seminars, industry and public meetings, and trade shows.
NC-213 will continue to maintain an Industrial Advisory Board that will play a significant role in the annual meeting and directing research efforts in the Andersons Research Grant Program. Two industry representatives evaluate research proposals to insure relevance.
Annual meetings will continue to be held, where investigators share research results from each of the NC-213 Objectives and discuss opportunities for potential collaboration during networking sessions. Some meetings will partner with industry groups such as the Grain Elevator and Processing Society (GEAPS) and the U.S. Wheat Council. Other meetings will be held on NC-213 participating station campuses where attendees will have an opportunity to learn about the unique capabilities of the hosting institution and develop collaborative relationships.
Distance education will play an increasing role in the extension and outreach of NC-213 research findings. Distance education opportunities will focus on grain industry professionals. Industry-foundation supporting centers at several of the NC-213 institutions will provide marketing and execution of training and outreach programs resulting from NC-213 research. The goal of resolving practical problems faced by the grain industry also addresses current and projected needs of the US agricultural work force.
Organization and Governance
The organization and operation of NC-213 will be similar to that used in the last five-year cycle. A detailed description of roles and responsibilities is available at (http://www.nc213.org).
The NC-213 Administrative Advisor serves as the Project Coordinator. This position will remain based at The Ohio State University’s, College of Food, Agricultural and Environmental Sciences (formerly known as Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center -OSU-OARDC). The quarterly newsletter and the NC-213 website will continue to be managed out of the office of the NC-213 Administrative Advisor/Project Coordinator. There will be five officers (chair, vice-chair, past chair, secretary, and the Industry Advisory Committee Chair), and six co-chairpersons, two for each of the objective groups. Officers and objective co-chairs are elected from the membership of the NC-213 Technical Committee.
The Executive Committee is made up of the coordinator, chair, vice-chair, past chair, secretary and objective chairs, the Industry Advisory Chair, and the USDA Representative, and a representative of The Andersons, Inc. The Executive Committee sets the agenda for the annual business meeting, plans special meetings and conferences, overseas production of the annual report and oversees development and revisions of the five-year work plan.
The NC-213 Technical Committee is made up of one designated representative from each of the participating organizations. It holds an annual business meeting, typically in conjunction with the annual NC-213 technical conference, to set future directions for the project.
The annual technical conference (typically held in February) will continue, with previously agreed upon improved requirements for presentations and publicity. The Annual Progress Reports from Participating Stations will be formatted to match the revised project outline. It will primarily be posted on the NC-213 website, and to be environmentally conscious, will be available electronically.
Kim, Y.K., Baek, I., Lee, K.M., Qin, J., Kim, G., Shin, B. K., Chan, D.E., Herrman, T.J., Cho, S.K., and Kim, M.S. 2021. Investigation of reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman hyperspectral imaging techniques for rapid detection of aflatoxins in ground maize. Food Control. 132:108479.
Ignacio M.C.C.D. and Maier D.E. “Analytic Hierarchy Process Applied to the Ranking of Commercially Available Hermetic Bag Liners”, 3rd All Africa Postharvest Congress and Exhibition (Virtual Event), September 13 to 16, 2021 (3rd Best Oral Presentation)
Ignacio M.C.C.D. and Maier D.E. “Predicting Oxygen Depletion during Grain Storage using Hermetic Bag Technology”, 3rd All Africa Postharvest Congress and Exhibition (Virtual Event), September 13 to 16, 2021
Ignacio M.C.C.D. and Maier D.E. “Predicting Oxygen Depletion during Grain Storage using Hermetic Bag Technology”, 11th International Virtual Conference on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products (CAF2020), August 22-27, 2021
Ignacio M.C.C.D. and Maier D.E. “Characterizing Engineering Properties of Hermetic Storage Bag Technology for Standards Development”, 11th International Virtual Conference on Controlled Atmosphere and Fumigation in Stored Products (CAF2020), August 22-27, 2021
Ignacio M.C.C.D. and Maier D.E. “Predicting Oxygen Depletion during Grain Storage using Hermetic Bag Technology”, ASABE AIM 2021 Virtual and On Demand, July 12-16, 2021
Ignacio M.C.C.D. and Maier D.E. “Understanding the properties of Hermetic Storage Bag to characterize its performance”, Graduate Student Research Symposium, Consortium for Innovation in Post-Harvest Loss and Food Waste Reduction, June 3, 2021 (2nd Place-Best Presentation)
Ignacio M.C.C.D. and Maier D.E. “Predicting Oxygen Depletion during Grain Storage using Hermetic Bag Technology”, NC-213 Annual Meeting 2021 – Virtual, March 30 – 31, 2021
Obeng-Akrofi, George, Joseph O. Akowuah, Dirk E. Maier, and Ahmad Addo. 2021. “Techno-Economic Analysis of a Crossflow Column Dryer for Maize Drying in Ghana.” Agriculture 11 (6): 568. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11060568.
Asante, Eric Amoah, Joseph Oppong Akowuah, Samuel Appah, and George Obeng-Akrofi. 2021. “Mechanised Threshing of Pod Grains Used as Food and Strategies to Optimise the Technique: A Review Eric.” Journal of Advances in Agriculture 12: 30–43. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.24297/jaa.v12i.9045
Owusu-Sekyere, Ernest, George Obeng-Akrofi, Joseph O. Akowuah, and Dirk Maier. 2021. “Performance Analysis
and Drying Kinetics of Maize in an AflaSTOP Dryer.” Open Journal of Applied Sciences 11 (03): 327–42. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojapps.2021.113024.
Armah, Kwashie A., Joseph O. Akowuah, George Obeng-Akrofi, and Samuel G. McNeill. 2021. “Application of Analytic Hierarchy Process in Selection of an Appropriate Drying Platform for Maize Drying in a Solar Bubble Dryer.” Open Journal of Applied Sciences 11 (01): 157–75. https://doi.org/10.4236/ojapps.2021.111011.
Boateng, H.A., G. Obeng-Akrofi, J.O. Akowuah, and D.E. Maier. Performance Evaluation of a Flatbed Maize Dryer with a Biomass Heat Source. ASABE 2021 Virtual Annual International Conference, July 12 - 16, 2021.
Owusu, G., G. Obeng-Akrofi, J.O. Akowuah, and D.E. Maier. Comparative Assessment of Three Low-Capacity Drying System using Analytical Hierarchy Process. ASABE 2021 Virtual Annual International Conference, July 12 - 16, 2021.
Obeng-Akrofi G., D. E. Maier, W. S. White, A. Bart-Plange, J. O. Akowuah, R. Bartosik and L. Cardoso Evaluation of Hermetic Bag Technology to Preserve Shea Nuts in Rural Ghana. 11th Conference on Controlled Atmospheres and Fumigation in Stored Products (CAF2020), August 22 - 27, 2021.
Obeng-Akrofi G., D. E. Maier, W. S. White, A. Bart-Plange, J. O. Akowuah, R. Bartosik and L. Cardoso Evaluation of Hermetic Bag Technology to Preserve Shea Nuts in Rural Ghana. 3rd All Africa Post-Harvest Congress and Exhibition. Virtual Event. September 13 - 17, 2021.
Obeng-Akrofi G., J.O. Akowuah, D.E. Maier and A. Addo. Selection of an Appropriate Biomass Burner for Drying Maize in a Column Dryer Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). ASABE 2021 Virtual Annual International Conference, July 12 - 16, 2021.
Obeng-Akrofi G., D. E. Maier, W. S. White, A. Bart-Plange, J. O. Akowuah, R. Bartosik and L. Cardoso Evaluation of Hermetic Bag Technology to Preserve Shea Nuts in Rural Ghana. ASABE 2021 Virtual Annual International Conference, July 12 - 16, 2021.
Obeng-Akrofi G., J.O. Akowuah, D.E. Maier and A. Addo. Selection of an Appropriate Biomass Burner for Drying Maize in a Column Dryer Using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). 3rd All Africa Post-Harvest Congress and Exhibition. Virtual Event. September 13 - 17, 2021.
Obeng-Akrofi G., D.E. Maier and J.O. Akowuah. Application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in the Selection of a Storage Bag for Possible Adoption in Ullo, a Shea Growing Community in Ghana. 3rd All Africa Post-Harvest Congress and Exhibition. Virtual Event. September 13 - 17, 2021.
Motta-Romero H, Niyongira F, Boehm J, Rose DJ. 2021. Effects of foliar fungicide on yield, micronutrients, and cadmium in grains from historical and modern hard winter wheat genotypes. PLoS One 16:e0247809.
Poudel R, Bhinderwala F, Morton M, Powers R, Rose DJ. 2021. Metabolic profiling of historical and modern wheat cultivars using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Scientific Reports 11:3080.
Jianxiong Yue, Zhenbao Zhu, Jianhua Yi, Hui Li, Bingcan Chen, Jiajia Rao* (2021). Impact of defatting treatment and oat varieties on structural, functional properties, and aromatic profile of oat protein. Food hydrocolloids 112, 106368.
Jianxiong Yue, Zhenbao Zhu, Jianhua Yi, Yang Lan, Bingcan Chen, Jiajia Rao * (2021). Structure and functionality of oat protein extracted by choline chloride‒dihydric alcohol deep eutectic solvent and its water binary mixtures. Food hydrocolloids 112, 106330.
Kulathunga, J., Reuhs, B. L., Zwinger, S., & Simsek, S. (2021). Comparative Study on Kernel Quality and Chemical Composition of Ancient and Modern Wheat Species: Einkorn, Emmer, Spelt and Hard Red Spring Wheat. Foods, 10(4), 761.
Lin, H., Bean, S.R., Tilley, M., Peiris, K.H.S., and Brabec, D. 2021. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of sorghum grain composition including protein and tannins using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Food Analytical Methods. 14:268-279.
Weerasooriya, D., Bandara, A., Dowell, F., Peiris, S., Bean, S.R, Perumal, R., Adee, E., and Tesso, T. 2021. Performance of grain sorghum hybrids resistant to acetolactate synthase (ALS) and acetyl coenzyme‐A carboxylase (ACCase) inhibitor herbicides. Crop Science. 61:896-916
Akin, P.A., Sezer, B., Bean, S.R., Peiris, K., Tilley, M., Apaydin, H., and Boyaci, I.H. 2021. Discrimination of corn and sorghum flour mixtures using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. J. Sci. Food Agric. 101: 076-1084.
Taghvaei1, M., Smith, B., Yazar1, G., Bean, S., Tilley, M., Ioerger, B. 2021. Identification of gluten-like proteins in selected pod bearing leguminous tree seeds. PLoS ONE 16(4): e0249427. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0249427.
Bean, S.R, Akin, P.A., Aramouni, F.M. 2021. Zein functionality in viscoelastic dough for baked food products. J. Cereal Sci. 100:103270.
Perumal, R., Tesso, T.T., Morris, G.P., Jagadish, S.V.K., Little, C.R., Bean, S.R., Yu, J., Prasad, P.V.V., and Tuinstra, M.R. 2021. Registration of the sorghum nested association mapping (NAM) population in RTx430 background. J. Plant Registrations 15:295-402.
Yoganandan, M., Bean, S.R., Miller-Regan, R., Dogan, H., Pulivarth, M. K., and Siliveru, K. 2021. Effect of tempering conditions on white sorghum milling, flour, and bread properties. Foods. 10:1947.
Cao, Z, Li, N., Qi, G., Sun, X.S., Bean, S.R., Tilley, M., Aramouni, F.M., and Wang, D. 2021. Optimization of camelina gum isolation from bran and protein extraction using decortication. Journal of Agriculture and Food Research. 6:100223
Peiris, K.H.S., Wu, X., Bean, S.R., Perez-Fajardo, M., Hayes, C., Yerka, M.K., Jagadish, S.V., Ostmeyer, T., Aramouni, F.M., Tesso, T., Perumal, R., Rooney, W.L., Kent, M.A., and Bean, B. 2021. Near infrared spectroscopic evaluation of starch properties of diverse sorghum populations. Processes. 9:1942. https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9111942
Bruce RM, Atungulu GG*, Sadaka S, Smith D. 2021. Impact of specific energy input of a 915 MHz microwave dryer on quality, functional, and physicochemical properties of different rice cultivars. Cereal Chemistry, 98(3), 557-570. DOI: 10.1002/cche.10398
Wilson SA, Mohammadi Shad Z, Oduola AA, Zhou Z, Jiang H, Carbonero F, Atungulu GG*. 2021. Decontamination of Mycotoxigenic Fungi on Shelled Corn Using Selective Infrared Heating Technique. Cereal Chemistry, 98(1), 31-43. https://doi.org/10.1002/cche.10394
Mohammadi Shad Z, Oduola AA, Wilson S, Smith D, Shafiekhani S, Bruce R, Atungulu GG*. 2021. New infrared heat treatment approaches to dry and combat fungal contamination of shelled corn. Journal of Food Safety, 41(2):e12886. http://doi.org/10.1111/jfs.12886
Oduola AA, Atungulu GG*. 2021. Inactivation of aflatoxin producing molds by selected and broadband infrared wavelength treatments, and the effects of the treatments on rice milling quality. Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 45(5):e15384. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfpp.15384
Smith D. Atungulu GG*. 2021. Impacts of specific power of microwave at 915 MHz frequency on drying and milling characteristics of parboiled rough rice. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 37(2), 359-366. doi: 10.13031/aea.14191
Luthra K, Sadaka S, Atungulu GG*. 2021. Effects of ambient air dehumidification, air temperature, and drying duration on rough rice quality and pasting properties using fluidized bed and fixed bed dryers. Cereal Chemistry, 98:968-979. DOI: 10.1002/cche.10438
Freeland G, Hettiarachchy N, Atungulu GG, Apple J, Mukherjee S. 2021. Strategies to combat antimicrobial resistance from farm to table, Food Reviews International, DOI: 10.1080/87559129.2021.1893744
Odek Z, Siebenmorgen TJ, Atungulu GG*. 2021. Validating the glass transition hypothesis in explaining fissure formation in rough rice. Transactions of the ASABE. 64(6): 1763-1770. (doi: 10.13031/trans.14595)
Odek Z, Siebenmorgen TJ, Mauromoustakos A, Atungulu GG*. 2021. Effect of post-drying tempering of rice on minimizing kernel fissuring and maximizing moisture removal. Transactions of the ASABE (in press). Doi:10.13031/trans.14698
Shafiekhani S, Rocha M, Finberg E, Shiflett M, Atungulu GG*. 2021. Modeling heat and mass transfer of long-grain hybrid rice in a chilled environment. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. In press. Doi: 10.13031/aea.14440.
Hampton RM, Atungulu GG, Rolland V, Wilson S, McKay* T. 2021. Effects of infrared radiation on germination of long grain rice. Applied Engineering in Agriculture. Accepted
Sadaka S*, Atungulu GG, Kelley J. 2021. Corn drying, storage, and aflatoxin levels. FSA1100. https://www.uaex.uada.edu/publications/pdf/FSA1100.pdf (Refereed Extension Factsheet)
García-Pérez, E., D. Ryu, H.Y. Kim, H. Kim, H.J. Lee. 2021. Human proximal tubule epithelial cells (HK-2) as a sensitive in vitro system for ochratoxin a induced oxidative stress. Toxins 2021, 13(11):787 https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13110787
García-Pérez, E., D. Ryu, C. Lee, H.J. Lee. 2021. Ochratoxin A induces oxidative stress in HepG2 cells by impairing the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. Toxins 2021, 13(4):271. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13040271.
Lee, H.J., S. Lee, K. Gu, D. Ryu. 2021. Reduction of ochratoxin A during the preparation of porridge with sodium bicarbonate and fructose. Toxins 13(3):224. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13030224.
Gu, K, D. Ryu, and H.J. Lee. 2021. Ochratoxin A and its reaction products affected by sugars during heat processing. Food Chem.348:129038. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129038
Gatsakos, A.B., Scatolini, T.B., Danao, M.-G.C., Gates, R.S. and Rausch, K.D. 2021. Effects of splits content on dry matter loss rates of soybeans measured using a static grain respiration measurement system. Trans. ASABE 64(4):1365-1372.
Gatsakos, A.B., Trevisan, L.R., Sood, K., Rausch, K.D., Danao, M.-G.C. and Gates, R.S. 2021. Comparison of dry matter loss rates from static and dynamic grain respiration measurement systems for soybeans at 18% moisture content and 30°C. Trans. ASABE 64(3):893-903 (in press) https://doi.org/10.13031/trans. 14161.
Latanze, M.P. 2021. Dry matter loss and lipid oxidation evaluation of soybeans during storage at elevated moisture content and temperature. MS thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Chavez, R. A., X. Cheng, T. J. Herrman, and M. J. Stasiewicz. 2022. Single kernel aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination distribution and spectral classification in commercial corn. Food Control. 131(2022)108393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodcont.2021.108393.
- Cheng and M. J. Stasiewicz. 2021. Evaluation of the impact of skewness, clustering, and probe sampling plan on aflatoxin detection in corn. Risk Analysis. 41(11)2065-2080. https://doi.org/10.1111/risa.13721.
Sharma, R, C. R. Hurburgh, and G. A. Mosher. 2021. Developing Guidance Templates and Terminology to Support Multiple Traceability Objectives in the Grain Supply Chain. Cereal Chemistry, 98(1), 52-69. Was a 2021 ‘Editor’s Pick” for Cereal Chemistry – one of 12 published articles selected by Cereal Chemistry’s Editor-in-Chief as part of the “year in review”.
Pizarro, M., G.A. Mosher, and E.L. Bowers. 2021. Isolation and segregation of non-GM feed: A cost estimation model. Presented virtually at American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE), July 2021.
Gupta, Priyanka. Strategies for non-GM segregation in the U.S. grain and feed supply chain. Doctoral dissertation, August 2021.
Maier, D.E., & Wright, J.J. 2021. Grain Storage Management – Number and Placement of Temperature Sensors and Cables Needed for Effective Monitoring of Stored Grain Quality. In World Grain. December 2021 Issue.
Sserunjogi M., G. Obeng-Akrofi, D.E. Maier and J. Varikooty. Monitoring and Managing Stored Grain Quality with Novel Wireless Sensing and Fan Control Technology. ASABE 2021 Virtual Annual International Conference, July 12 - 16, 2021.
Lawrence J., G. Obeng-Akrofi and D.E. Maier Effect of Fan Positions in the Plenum of Grain Bin on the Uniformity of Airflow Distribution through the Grain Mass during Natural Air Drying Using CFD Modeling. ASABE 2021 Virtual Annual International Conference, July 12 - 16, 2021.
Afful E, Cato, A., Nayak, M. K., Phillips, T. W. 2021. A rapid assay for the detection of resistance to phosphine in the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). J. Stored Prod. Res. Vol. 91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jspr.2021.101776
Doud, C.W.; Cuperus, G.W.; Kenkel, P.; Payton, M.E.; Phillips, T.W. 2021. Trapping Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and other beetles in flourmills: evaluating fumigation efficacy and estimating population density. Insects, 12, 144. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12020144
Hasan, M. M., Aikins , M. J., Schilling, M. W. and Phillips, T. W. 2021. Sulfuryl fluoride as a methyl bromide alternative for fumigation of Necrobia rufipes (Coleoptera: Cleridae) and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae), major pests of animal-based stored products. J. Stored Prod Res. Vol 91 online https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jspr.2021.101769
Manu, N., Schilling, M. W. and Phillips, T. W. 2021. Natural and synthetic repellents for pest management of the storage mite Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae). Insects. 12, 711. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects12080711
Myers, S.W., Ghimire, S. N., Arthur, F. H. and Phillips, T. W. 2021. A Combination sulfuryl fluoride and propylene oxide treatment for Trogoderma granarium (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 114: 1489–1495 https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/toab124
Hasan, M. M., Aikins, M. J., Mahroof, R. M. and Phillips, T. W. 2021. Effects of diet and temperature on the life history of the red-legged ham beetle, Necrobia rufipes DeGeer (Coleoptera: Cleridae). Environ. Entomol. 51: 278–285 https://doi.org/10.1093/ee/nvab116
Shao, W., Campbell, Y. L., Phillips, T. W., Freeman, C., Kundu, Crist, C. A., Williams, J. B. and Schilling. W. M.. 2021. The application of chitosan in food-grade coatings to control Tyrophagus putrescentiae on dry-cured hams and the effects on sensory properties. J. Stored Prod. Res. 94:101899. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jspr.2021.101899
Yao, K. D., Bh. Subramanyam, and R. G. Maghirang. 2021. Moisture content and application rates of inert dusts: Effects on dust and wheat physical properties. Food Research (in press).
Yao, K. D., Bh. Subramanyam, K. Siliveru, J. Anthony, and R. G. Maghirang. 2021. Using the FT4 Powder Rheometer to characterize bulk and dynamic flow properties of Hard Red Winter wheat (HRW) treated with three amorphous silica dusts. Journal of Stored Products Research (in press).
Pulivarthi, M.K.,E. Nkurikiye, J. Watt, Y. Li, and K. Siliveru. 2021. Comprehensive understanding of roller milling on the physico chemical properties of red lentil and yellow pea flours. Processes (Accepted for publication).
Zhang, Y., R. Hu, M. Tilley, K. Siliveru, and Y. Li. 2021. Effect of pulse type and substitution level on dough rheology and bread quality of whole wheat based composite flours. Processes, 9 (9), 1687.
Barretto, R., R. M. Buenavista, R. Pandiselvam, and K. Siliveru. 2021. Influence of milling methods on the flow properties of ivory teff flour. Journal of Texture Studies, 1-14.
Yoganandan, M., S. R. Bean, R. Miller-Regan, H. Dogan, M. K. Pulivarthi, and K. Siliveru. 2021. Effect of tempering conditions on white sorghum milling, flour, and bread properties. Foods, 10, 1947.
Rivera, J. D.,* A. Deliephan, J. Dhakal, C. G. Aldrich, and K. Siliveru. 2021. Significance of Sodium Bisulfate (SBS) tempering in reducing the Escheria coli O121 and O26 load of wheat and its effects on wheat flour quality. Foods, 10 (7), 1479.
Buenavista, R. M. E., K. Siliveru, and Y. Zheng. 2021. Utilization of dried distiller’s grain with solubles: A review. Journal of Agriculture and Food Research, 5, 100195.
Kheiralipour, K., H. Ahmadi, A. Rajabipour, S. Rafiee, M. Javan-Nikkhah, D. S. Jayas, K. Siliveru, and A. Malihipour. 2021. Processing the hyperspectral images for detedting infection of Pistachio kernel by R5 and KK11 isolates of Aspergillus flavus fungus. Iranian Journal of Biosystems Engineering, 52 (1), 13-25.
Raj, A. S.,* R. Martin, B. Zaitoun, and K. Siliveru. 2021. Influence of particle size on baking characteristics of hard wheat flour. Cereal Technology, 61-68.
Siliveru, K., and R. P. K. Ambrose. 2021. Predicting the particle separation and sieve blinding during wheat flour sifting. Transactions of the ASABE, 64(3), 1103-1112.
Barretto, R.,* R. M. Buenavista,* J. Rivera,* S. Wang, P. V. Vara Prasad, and K. Siliveru. 2021. Teff (eragrostis tef) processing, utilization, and future opportunities: a review. Invited Review Paper. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 56, 3125-3137.
Tao, F., H. Yao, Z. Hruska, K. Rajasekaran, J. Qin, M. Kim. 2021. Use of line-scan Raman hyperspectral imaging to identify corn kernels infected with Aspergillus flavus. Journal of Cereal Science. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcs.2021.103364.
Yao, H., Z. Hruska, R. Kincaid, F. Tao, K Rajasekaran. 2021 Relationship between maize kernel strength and Aspergillus flavus fungi infection. ASABE Paper No. 2100521. St. Joseph, MI.: ASABE.
Tao, F., Yao, H., Hruska, Z., Rajasekaran, K. (2021). Evaluation of Fungal Contaminants in Agricultural Products by Hyperspectral Imaging. In Jiangbo Li, Zhao Zhang (Ed.), Nondestructive Evaluation of Agro-products by Intelligent Sensing Techniques. Bentham Science. https://benthambooks.com/book/9789811485800/chapter/190613/
Elsayed, S., M.E. Casada, R.G. Maghirang, M. Wei. 2021. Evolution of phosphine from aluminum phosphide pellets. Transactions of the ASABE. 64(2): 615-624.
Issa, S.F., Gaither, D., Raza, M.M., & Field, W.E. (2021) Exploring Alternative Prevention Solutions to Reduce Grain Entrapments. Presented at American Society for Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual Meeting, July 2021. Virtual
Maier, D.E. Causes and prevention of stored grain fires. World Grain, June 2021.
Maier, D.E. Sanitation, loading, aeration, monitoring. Grain Journal, July/August 2021.
Maier, D.E. and Wright, J. Grain storage management – Number and placement of temperature sensors and cables needed for effective monitoring of stored grain quality – Part 1. World Grain, December 2021.
Advanced Grain Elevator Operations Management – Grain Quality Management Virtual Course, Agribusiness Association of Iowa (AAI), February 15-19, 2021
An Iowa cooperative, February 22-26, 2021
Grain Elevator & Processing Society (GEAPS), May 10-15, 2021. (Maier, Hurburgh)
Grain and Feed Ingredient Analysis for Bangladesh Virtual Training Course, U.S. Grains Council, January - March, 2021. (Maier, Hurburgh)
Middle East & Africa (MEA) Feed Training Center, 18th International Marketing Conference & 61st Annual Membership Meeting, U.S. Grains Council, February 2, 2021. (Maier)
Challenges with Grain Storage and Quality Internationally – from Latin America to Africa to Asia, GEAPS Exchange Online Conference, February 23-25, 2021. (Maier)
Preserving Quality of Stored Grains and Ingredients in Hot Climates, Middle East Poultry Industry Virtual Training Course, Middle East and Africa Feed Manufacturing Training Center (Tunisia), U.S. Grains Council, May 24-28, 2021. (Maier)
Advanced Feed Manufacturing Practices: Conditioning, Pelleting, Crumbling, Middle East Poultry Industry Virtual Training Course, Middle East and Africa Feed Manufacturing Training Center (Tunisia), U.S. Grains Council, May 24-28, 2021. (Maier)
Advanced Feed Manufacturing Practices: Batching, Mixing, Grinding, Middle East Poultry Industry Virtual Training Course, Middle East and Africa Feed Manufacturing Training Center (Tunisia), U.S. Grains Council, May 24-28, 2021. (Ewing)
Practical Aspects of Feed Mill Management, Middle East Poultry Industry Virtual Training Course, Middle East and Africa Feed Manufacturing Training Center (Tunisia), U.S. Grains Council, May 24-28, 2021. (Ewing).
Subedi, M., H. A. Carcamo, J. J. Knodel, D. K. Weaver, R. D. Cuthbert, C. J. Pozniak, K. T. Nilsen, and B. L. Beres. 2021. Stability analysis of stem solidness, grain yield and grain protein concentration in spring wheat. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 101(4): 456-475
Achhami, B. B., G. V. P. Reddy, M. L. Hofland, J. D. Sherman, R. K. D. Peterson, and D. K. Weaver. 2021. Plant volatiles and oviposition behavior in the selection of barley cultivars by wheat stem sawfly (Hymenoptera: Cephidae). Environmental Entomology 50(4): 940 -947.
Weaver, D. K. 2021. IPM of stored-grain insects. Montana State University Extension Ag and Natural Resources Spring Update in Lewistown, Montana, May 18.