WERA20: Management of Diseases Caused by Systemic Pathogens in Fruit Crops and Woody Ornamentals
(Multistate Research Coordinating Committee and Information Exchange Group)
WERA20: Management of Diseases Caused by Systemic Pathogens in Fruit Crops and Woody Ornamentals
Duration: 10/01/2022 to 09/30/2027
Statement of Issues and Justification
Fruit crops (pome fruits such as apple and pear, stone fruits such as cherries and peaches, citrus, grapevines, and berries such as strawberries, blueberries) and woody ornamentals (trees, shrubs and vines planted for aesthetic landscaping) constitute a large segment of the U.S. specialty crops and contribute significantly to the national economy. These crops are affected by a wide range of diseases caused by graft-transmissible pathogens, such as viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas, and systemic bacterial pathogens (Fuchs et al., 2021. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-05-20-1061-FE). The following examples highlight profound socio-economic impact of diseases caused by these pathogens to the specialty crop industries in the U.S.
- Huanglongbing or citrus greening, caused by the bacterium CandidatusLiberibacter asiaticus, has decreased citrus production in Florida by almost 75% with an estimated economic impact of several billion US dollars. The USDA and California’s Citrus Pest and Disease Prevention Program are spending millions of US dollars for eradication and management programs (Singerman and Rogers, 2020. https://doi.org/10.1093/jipm/pmz037; McRoberts et al., 2019. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2018.0281). There is a growing threat of citrus greening to other citrus-growing regions in the U.S.
- Pierce's Disease, caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, has emerged as a serious problem to California vineyards after the introduction of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, an efficient vector of the bacterium. The disease was estimated to cost producers over $150 million per year in crop losses, including costs associated with implementing preventive measures (Castro et al., 2021. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1009813).
- Little cherry disease (LCD), caused by X-disease phytoplasma and little cherry virus 2, is threatening the economic sustainability of the Pacific Northwest sweet cherry industry. Due to the LCD, growers have removed 238,856 trees equivalent to 974 acres of sweet cherries between 2015 and 2020 resulting in an estimated economic loss of $65 million (Molnar, DuPont, Thompson, Sallato, 2021. http://treefruit.wsu.edu/videos/x-disease-impacts/).Due to its broad host range, the X-disease phytoplasma is also affecting other crops, such as peaches, nectarines and plums.
- Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is seriously affecting vineyard sustainability in many wine regions in the U.S. The spread of GLD occurred more rapidly in California vineyards in recent years with the introduction of the vine mealybug, a vector with prolific reproductive and vectoring capacity. Depending on the disease severity and fruit yield and quality reduction, GLD was estimated to cost the producers as much as $226,000 per hectare over a predicted 25-year lifespan of a vineyard (Rickette et al., 2015. https://doi.org/10.5344/ajev.2014.14106).
- Grapevine red blotch virus is causing economic damage to wine grape production across North American vineyards by affecting fruit yield and grape quality. The economic impact of the disease to growers was estimated to vary between $2,200 per hectare in eastern Washington state to more than $69,500 per hectare in Napa County, California, during a predicted 25-year life span of a vineyard (Ricketts et al., 2017. https://doi.org/5344/ajev.2016.16009).
- The growing risk of virus diseases to berry crops (strawberry, blueberry, blackberry and raspberry) is alarming and affecting sustainability of berry crop industries in the U.S. In a single virus epidemic in California, the economic impact to the strawberry industry was estimated to be about $50 million over two seasons (Martin and Tzanetakis, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-09-12-0842-RE).
- Rose rosette, a damaging virus disease of roses, is seriously affecting the American rose industry and causing significant decline of garden roses and urban landscapes with losses estimated to be in tens of millions of U.S. dollars per year (Babu et al., 2018. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI12551-17).
In general terms, diseases caused by systemic pathogens are affecting plant health, thereby diminishing gross yields and produce quality. In addition to those direct effects, there are other significant indirect and induced multiplier impacts on allied business sectors dependent on the specialty crops. Deploying evidence-based strategies to protect these crops from disease threats is critical not only for their sustainability and global competitiveness but also a matter of food security and agricultural biosecurity.
As obligatory intracellular parasites, systemic pathogens are disseminated via clonal/vegetative propagation and grafting. Thus, movement of infected propagation material serves as the principal means of their long-distance spread. In addition, many of these pathogens can be transmitted by vectors, including arthropods (aphids, mites, thrips, beetles, hoppers, psyllids, mealybugs and whiteflies), nematodes, and plasmodiophorids. Changing production practices, shifting cropping patterns and climate alterations are creating many opportunities for pathogens and their vectors to spread into new geographic areas leading to devastating disease epidemics. Once a pathogen is introduced into a new area, it can spread within a field or region by vectors. Eradication of pathogens introduced into new locations can be extremely laborious and expensive proposition. For example, over 57 million dollars have been spent in the U.S. and Canada for detection and eradication of plum pox virus following its introduction in Pennsylvania in 1999. Concerted efforts at the regional or national level are important considerations for exclusion of pathogens and controlling vectors to prevent spread in nurseries and production fields. A coordinated approach between scientific communities and state and federal regulatory agencies and participatory approaches with producers will strengthen phytosanitary issues and protect U.S. specialty crops from the increasing threats of diseases.
In recent years, new technologies such as high-throughput sequencing (HTS) enabled the discovery of several new systemic pathogens. Some of these pathogens appear to be specialists, infecting a single plant species or genera and others are generalists capable of infecting a broad range of hosts in many plant families. Due to clonal propagation and grafting, co-infections of different pathogens are more common in several crops making it difficult to associate symptoms with a specific pathogen. In addition, plants co-infected with multiple pathogens can exhibit a wide range of phenotypes with synergistic effects. It is clear that symptoms depend on multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors and visual diagnosis is unreliable. For those reasons a comprehensive elucidation of etiological and epidemiological aspects of diseases caused by systemic pathogens in different agro-ecologies will advance sustainable control strategies in fruit crops and woody ornamentals.
Related, Current and Previous Work
No effective chemical remedies or prophylactic measures are available to control obligate intracellular pathogens. For this reason, a diverse array of alternative control measures needs to be deployed. Unfortunately, there is no ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach to mitigate the impact of pathogens due to their diverging epidemiological characteristics. Although planting with pathogen-tested plant materials is recognized as the first line of defense in disease prevention, integrated post-planting strategies are necessary to reduce and/or suppress disease incidence in an eco-friendly manner. This requires a sound understanding of pathogen biology and their epidemiology to successfully implement effective management strategies.
The WERA20 multi-state project has contributed substantially to this goal during the past iterations of the project by bringing together expertise from different disciplines and institutions across the U.S. and Canada and providing an open forum for sharing scientific information and practical solutions to a wide range of disease problems. Research and extension faculty, representatives from federal research programs, state and federal regulatory agencies and private industry actively participated and established cooperative partnerships in research, extension, and education to strengthen national efforts for sustainability of specialty crops. Members of the multi-state project have received grants from federal, state, and commodity programs to generate knowledge on persistent and emerging diseases caused by a wide range of systemic pathogens. Several agents were characterized, and robust diagnostic methods deployed to manage diseases in production fields. In addition, the risk of inadvertent introduction and dissemination of virus and virus-like agents through planting materials from both foreign and domestic sources was reduced.
Productive collaborations among members of the project have led to multi-authored research and extension publications (see the ‘Literature Cited’ section) and established dynamic communication and extension/outreach disease management strategies. Those include stakeholder workshops, newsletters, peer-reviewed extension publications, presentations at scientific and industry-sponsored meetings and regular conference calls and grower-participatory field days. By aligning with the mission-oriented goals of the National Clean Plant Network (NCPN), the WERA20 project pursued a holistic strategy with NCPN Centers and regulatory agencies to enable the distribution of pathogen-tested propagation material for nurseries, growers and other stakeholders benefiting perennial specialty crop industries throughout the U.S. Due to dwindling resources, WERA20 is an ideal forum to continue advancing collaborations and synergistic partnerships for effectively addressing emerging disease threats and developing integrated strategies for mitigating the impact of diseases. The project serves as a platform to enhance the exchange of information between research and regulatory professionals ensuring that all participants are aware of emerging disease situations. Participation from different regions in the U.S. and Canada ensures that diseases caused by systemic pathogens in fruit crops and woody ornamentals grown in diverse ecological regions of North America are addressed in a holistic manner.
Promote interdisciplinary and cross-institutional collaborations to investigate the biology and epidemiology of diseases caused by systemic pathogens and implement integrated and sustainable disease management strategies for specialty crops.
Facilitate effective exchange of knowledge, expertise and resources enabling the seamless distribution of pathogen-tested propagation material.
Disseminate evidence-based information on integrated disease management through extension and education activities.
Procedures and Activities
Since WERA20 members study diseases of a broad range of specialty crops, activities of the project will focus on overarching issues and cross-cutting themes pertinent to plant health and disease management. In this context, this project will continue fostering collaborative and cooperative avenues to address research priorities relative to the etiology, diagnosis, epidemiology and management of diseases caused by systemic pathogens in target crops, conduct science-based extension/outreach activities for deploying evidence-based disease mitigation strategies benefiting growers and nurseries and training the next-generation of researchers to address future challenges of crop production in the field. Additionally, WERA20 will foster partnerships between NCPN Centers and state and federal regulatory agencies and stakeholders for synergies. The goal is to integrate evidence-based knowledge in quarantine and certification rules and regulations and harmonize phytosanitary policies for safeguarding nurseries from disease threats. The project activities will be primarily coordinated through annual meetings which will rotate in different regions of the country. The diverse membership of this project assists in maximizing the distribution of information to all sectors of the specialty crop industry.
Objective 1. Promote interdisciplinary and cross-institutional collaborations to investigate the biology and epidemiology of diseases caused by systemic pathogens and implement integrated, sustainable, disease management strategies for specialty crops.
Members will conduct research related to the characterization and genetic diversity of systemic pathogens, host-pathogen interactions, diagnostics, transmission dynamics and epidemiology. In addition, team members will continue to conduct field-oriented research focusing on the management of economically important diseases. They will generate fundamental knowledge on pathogens and their vectors and develop effective control strategies. Collaborations and networks established during the project will improve regional partnerships and supportive learning environments to better understand socio-economic factors that influence adoption of management practices. Annual meetings are conducted to bring together research and extension faculty, scientists from federal research institutions, members of the state and federal regulatory agencies and private industries. The group will review current state of on-going research, identify knowledge gaps and explore collaborations to leverage the financial and scientific resources for translational research and development of robust disease mitigation strategies. In addition, group meetings and discussions will occur on a regular basis during the project period to facilitate team-based project development and transfer of technologies for the adoption of management strategies across regions and tailored to individual crops.
Objective 2. Facilitate effective exchange of knowledge, expertise and resources enabling the seamless distribution of pathogen-tested propagation material.
The importance of diagnostics in the production, maintenance and supply of ‘clean’ planting stock is well established. Members are collaborating to improve diagnostics with high accuracy, greater specificity and sensitivity for rapid and cost-effective detection of systemic pathogens. As part of this project, members will seek public-private partnerships to develop new generation of diagnostics for recalcitrant agents and early detection in the field for effective disease management. Members have been using HTS and sophisticated bioinformatics pipelines to identify virus genomic sequences and their genetic variants. This knowledge is applied in the development of next generation diagnostics that are able to detect genetic variants circulating in specialty crops in North America. Indeed, HTS has transformed the landscape of diagnostics in terms of accuracy, as well as our ability to identify variants and new systemic pathogens in fruit crops and woody ornamentals. Collaborations among WERA20 members will continue making advances in standardization and validation of new diagnostic tests using voucher samples infected with known pathogens. Members are currently preparing a list of ‘phantom viruses and virus-like diseases’ in fruit crops for which voucher samples are no longer available to eliminate ambiguity in the literature and to suspend their consideration in phytosanitary regulations in the U.S. These efforts will improve adoption and proper use of newly developed methods and technologies by the scientific community and diagnostic labs for broader applications in quarantine and certification programs. In addition to traditional laboratory-based serological and molecular methods, the WERA20 project will advance multi-disciplinary initiatives to explore viable new technologies such as optical sensing and machine learning for monitoring diseases at the local and regional scale and support grower-coordinated mitigation efforts.
The WERA20 project will continue collaborations with members of the NCPN, USDA-ARS and USDA-APHIS and allied programs in Canada to facilitate the development, validation, and implementation of standardized testing protocols for the production and distribution of pathogen-tested, vegetatively propagated perennial crops across in North America. In recent years, NCPN Centers have been adopting HTS technology as an alternative to conventional biological indexing methods which have proven less sensitive and more labor-intensive, time-consuming, and costly to fast track ‘clean’ propagative materials to nurseries and producers. Likewise, WERA20 members will continue collaborations with USDA-APHIS Plant Protection and Quarantine (PPQ) programs and state regulatory agencies in using HTS and other advanced technologies for the detection and characterization of systemic pathogens in quarantine and phytosanitary programs and facilitate the movement of plant material between states and countries. These efforts will lead to unified national standards in diagnostics towards safeguarding the U.S. agriculture against the entry, establishment, and spread of economically important diseases from foreign sources.
Objective 3. Disseminate evidence-based information on integrated disease management through extension and education activities.
In addition to research accomplishments, this project will bring together scientists, regulatory agencies, and stakeholders to support and facilitate extension/education activities through grower-centered outreach and communication platforms. Activities are aimed at increasing awareness of diseases, their economic implications, and the importance of best management practices for crop health. Members will advance working partnerships with nurseries to strengthen the planting material supply chain and regularly organize educational workshops and field surveys to improve growers’ knowledge of diseases. During the project period, evidence-based information will be disseminated through workshops and field days and via bilingual newsletters and fact sheets, media outlets, websites, industry-sponsored meetings, regular conference calls to prevent, mitigate, and manage systemic pathogens and for staying ahead of emerging disease threats in specialty crops.
Annual meetings will rotate between different regions of the country to provide greater opportunity for the membership to interact with colleagues at local and regional institutions and organizations. The meetings will be organized in a hybrid format to facilitate attendance of place-bound members and stakeholders. During annual meetings, members of the WERA20, comprising faculty from land-grant universities representing several states in the U.S., the USDA-ARS and USDA-APHIS, Canadian institutions, and public and private sectors institutions, will share knowledge on different aspects of systemic pathogens, diseases caused by these agents and their management. Graduate students, post-doctoral associates and early career scientists are encouraged to participate. Timely sharing of research results benefits the membership in addressing the challenges of current methods in detection of pathogens and discuss new developments for overcoming bottlenecks in diagnostics. Deliberations at the meeting encourages collaborations to address on-going challenges and find solutions to recalcitrant problems. Members will discuss emerging diseases and explore avenues for their prevention and containment. During annual meetings, field visits will be organized to observe disease symptoms in target crops, allowing members who are new to the subject and the region to gain knowledge, expose participants to disease problems that are of restricted distribution, and showcase how growers, nurseries and industries are dealing with local disease challenges. In addition to annual meetings, the entire membership is invited to engage in discussions through an established email exchange list.
Members of NCPN Centers, USDA-APHIS-PPQ and state regulatory agencies will address topics of interest at the annual meeting related to appropriate disease diagnosis and elimination, identification of diseases of regional/national importance that will be considered for inclusion in certification and pathogen testing programs and preparing crop-specific list of systemic pathogens. Critical discussions will also focus on strengthening the planting material supply chain, developments in new methods to identify and characterize systemic pathogens, revising phytosanitary permit requirements for the scientists, improving the ability of NCPN Centers to move valuable material quickly through State/Federal quarantines and certification programs.
Anticipated programmic milestones of the project include,
- i. objectives and activities continued throughout the duration of the project,
- ii. project members submit grant proposals for funding from federal, state, and commodity resources,
- iii. project meeting held annually, and approved report submitted to NIMSS,
- iv. comprehensive assessment of the research and outreach actitivies of the project in concert with stakeholders during year 3, and
- v. submit renewal application in year 4 of the project.
Expected Outcomes and Impacts
- The project outputs include the generation of evidence-based knowledge on management of diseases, peer-reviewed publications, collaborative grant proposals from federal, state and commodity sources, new/improved diagnostics, and extension/education materials.
- WERA20 is a platform for timely communication of fundamental and translational research results on systemic pathogens and diseases they cause in different specialty crops.
- Sharing results on the biology and epidemiology of diverse pathogens leads to adoption of robust and targeted disease management strategies.
- Networking opportunities among the membership helps to build synergies leading to interdisciplinary and multi-institutional collaborative research projects and publications.
- WERA20 facilitates exchange of reference collections of infected plant samples with APHIS-authorized permits for developing and optimizing diagnostic assays and share standardized detection protocols among the membership.
- Sharing information assists in the implementation of measures that prevent introduction and spread of systemic pathogens in nurseries and production fields.
- Adoption of standardized diagnostic protocols leads to reliable identification of pathogens for the production and distribution of pathogen-tested planting stock to nurseries and growers.
- WERA20 membership provides scientific expertise to state certification programs for harmonization of quarantine and certification rules and regulations.
- Effective outreach and communication to growers and nurseries and working closely with stakeholders will advance sustainability of the domestic specialty crop industries and their competitiveness in the global market.
Projected ParticipationView Appendix E: Participation
Minutes of annual meetings and written progress reports will provide documentation of accomplishments and deliverables from the membership during the preceding year. These documents are shared with participating institutions and displayed at the NIMSS site (http://www.nimss.org) for public access. A stable email address has been established to facilitate regular communications among the membership throughout the year for sharing information and facilitate knowledge and idea exchange as needed. Information presented at the annual meetings is integrated into the NCPN programs and plant disease diagnostic clinics and incorporated into mission-oriented activities of federal and state regulatory agencies. The committee will continue inviting stakeholders to its annual meetings for participatory approaches to advance the goals of the project benefiting the industries that we serve.
- share research accomplishments on diseases affecting specialty crops via peer-reviewed and extension publications and presentations at professional and industry-sponsored meetings.
- maintain crop-specific websites to allow broad dissemination of timely information to stakeholders and the public and communicate project activities via several disseminationpathways, including printed and electronic media, popular press articles, webinars and other media.
- actively participate in grower meetings, organize field days and other outreach events to share research outcomes.
- serve in subject-matter task force to offer comprehensive responses to disease outbreaks guided by research.
- involve in leadership activities to bring the project outcomes to bear on policy and regulatory issues pertinent to specialty crops.
- have large impacts in the education of both undergraduate and graduate students and training of early career professionals to prepare the next generation of scientists and competent workforce.
Governance of the project include a Chair and a Secretary with an oversight from the Administrative Advisor and USDA-NIFA Advisor. Before the conclusion of each annual meeting, a chair and a secretary are elected for the next meeting and the location for the next meeting is identified. The Chair and Secretary positions rotate among members annually and will transition each year at the annual meeting. If warranted by the membership, the meeting will be held in conjunction with another regional or national professional scientific meeting in the same timeframe to expand participation. The Chair will arrange for the annual meeting, solicit items of business, prepare agenda, and preside. The Secretary will record minutes and collect reports from the project membership and submit these documents to the Administrative Advisor for entering into the NIMMS system. The Secretary will become Chair for next year’s annual meeting and a new individual is elected to serve at the position. Annual meetings include individual reports from different states/regions and round-table discussions on emerging topics of importance. In addition, special tours of technical interest will be organized during the meeting to visit local farms, nurseries, and research institutions. Additional participants are encouraged to attend annual meetings. If needed, the Chair can appoint a subcommittee at the annual meeting to accomplish specific tasks identified by the membership.
A selective list of publications from the previous phase of the WERA-20 project is provided as a background for the proposed project and to convey the broad scope of the project activities.
Al Rwahnih, M., Diaz-Lara, A., Arnold, K., Cooper, M.L., Smith, R.J., Zhuang, G., Battany, M.C., Bettiga, L.J., Rowhani, A. and Golino, D. 2021. Incidence and genetic diversity of Grapevine Pinot gris Virus in California. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. 72: 164-169.
Beaver-Kanuya, E., Wright, A.A., Szostek, S.A., Khuu, N. and Harper, S.J. 2021. Development of RT-qPCR assays for the detection and quantification of three Carlaviruses infecting hop. Journal of Virological Methods 292: 114124.
Bolus, S., Rwahnih, M. A., Grinstead, S. C., and Mollov, D. 2021. Rose virus R, a cytorhabdovirus infecting rose. Archives of Virology 166: 655-658.
Chingandu, N., Jarugula, S., Adiputra, J., Bagewadi, B., Adegbola, R., Thammina, C. and Naidu, R.A. 2021. First report of grapevine rupestris vein feathering virus in grapevines from Washington State. Plant Disease 105:717.
Flasco, M., Hoyle, V., Cieniewicz, E.J., Roy, B.G., McLane, H.L., Perry, K.L., Loeb, G., Nault, B., Heck M. and Fuchs, M. 2021. Grapevine red blotch virus is transmitted by the three-cornered alfalfa hopper in a circulative, nonpropagative transmission mode with unique attributes. Phytopathology 111: 1851-1861.
Fuchs, M., Almeyda, C. V., Rwahnih, M. A., Atallah, S. S., Cieniewicz, E. J., Farrar, K., Foote, W., Golino, D.A., Gómez, M., Harper, S. and Kelly, M. 2021. Economic Studies Reinforce Efforts to Safeguard Specialty Crops in the United States. Plant Disease. 105:14–26.
Hily, J.M., Poulicard, N., Kubina, J., Reynard, J.S., Garcia, S., Spilmont, A.S., Fuchs, M., Lemaire, O. and Vigne, E. 2021. Metagenomic analysis of nepoviruses: diversity, evolution and identification of a hitherto undescribed putative amino acid motif for host range in subgroup A species. Archives of Virology 166: 2789-2801.
Ho, T., Broome, J. C., Buhler, J.P., O’Donovan, W., Tian, T., Diaz-Lara, A., Martin, R.R., Tzanetakis, I.E., 2021. Characterization of endogenous Rubus yellow net virus in Raspberries. BioRxiv 2021.06.17.448838.
Hoffmann M, Talton W, Nita M, Jones T, Al Rwahnih M, Sudarshana MR and Almeyda CV. 2021. First Report of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) in Vitis vinifera in North Carolina. Journal of Plant Pathology 103:385-386.
Jarugula, S., Chingandu, N., Adiputra, J., Bagewadi, B., Adegbola, R., Thammina, C. and Naidu, R.A. 2021. First Report of grapevine red globe virus in grapevines in Washington State. Plant Disease 105:717.
Kwon, S.J., Bodaghi, S., Dang, T., Gadhave, K.R., Ho, T., Osman, F., Al Rwahnih, M., Tzanetakis, I.E., Simon, A.E. and Vidalakis, G., 2021. Complete nucleotide sequence, genome organization and comparative genomic analyses of citrus yellow-vein associated virus (CYVaV). Frontiers in Microbiology 12: 1371.
Larrea-Sarmiento, A., Olmedo-Velarde, A., Wang, X., Borth, W., Matsumoto, T.K., Suzuki, J.Y., Wall, M.M., Melzer, M.J. and Hu, J.S. 2021. A novel ampelovirus associated with mealybug wilt of pineapple (Ananas comosus var. comosus). Virus Genes 57: 464-468.
Lee, J., Rennaker, C.D., Thompson, B.D. and Karasev, A.V. 2021. Influence of Grapevine red blotch virus (GRBV) on Idaho ‘Syrah’ grape composition. Scientia Horticulturae 282: 110055.Mitra, A., Jarugula, S., Hoheisel, G-A. and Naidu, R.A. 2021. First report of Tobacco ring spot virus in highbush blueberry in Washington State. Plant Disease 105: 2739.
Mitra, A., Jarugulia, S., Hoheisel, G. and Naidu, R.A. 2021. First report of Tobacco ringspot virus in highbush blueberry in Washington State. Plant Disease 105:2739.
Olmedo-Velarde, A., Hu, J., and Melzer, M.J. 2021. A virus infecting Hibiscus rosa-sinensis represents an evolutionary link between cileviruses and higreviruses. Frontiers in Microbiology 12:660237.
Osterbaan, L.J., Hoyle V., Curtis, M., DeBlasio, S., Heck, M., Rivera, K. and Fuchs, M. 2021. Identification of protein interactions of grapevine fanleaf virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase during infection of Nicotiana benthamiana by affinity purification and tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of General Virology 102(5):001607.
Schoelz, J., Volenberg, D., Adhab, M., Fang, Z., Klassen, V., Spinka, C., et al. 2021. A Survey of Viruses Found in Grapevine Cultivars Grown in Missouri. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture. 72:73–84.
Soltani, N., Golino, D. A., and Al Rwahnih, M., 2021. First report of Rose leaf rosette-associated virus infecting rose (Rosa spp.) in California, USA. Plant Disease 105:2740.
Spak. J., Koloniouk, I., and Tzanetakis I. E. 2021. Graft-transmissible diseases of Ribes – pathogens, impact and control. Plant Disease 105: 242-250.
Villamor, D.E.V., Keller, K.E., Martin, R.R. and Tzanetakis, I. E. 2021. Comparison of high throughput sequencing to standard protocols for virus detection in berry crops. Plant Disease (in Press).
Wright, A.A., Shires, M., Beaver, C., Bishop, Gm., DuPont, S.T., Naranjo, R. and Harper, S.J. 2021. The effect of Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni infection on sweet cherry fruit. Phytopathology (in press).
Wright, A.A., Shires, M. and Harper, S. J. 2021. Little cherry virus-2 titer and distribution in Prunus avium. Archives of Virology 166: 1415–1419.
Alabi, O.J., Appel, D. N., McBride, S., Al Rwahnih, M., and Pontasch, F. M. 2020. Complete genome sequence analysis of a genetic variant of grapevine virus L from the grapevine cultivar Blanc du Bois. Archives of Virology. 165:1905–1909.
Alabi, O.J., Gaytan, B.C., Al Rwahnih, M. and Villegas, C. 2020. A description of the possible etiology of the cilantro yellow blotch disease. Plant Disease 104: 630-633.
Arora, A.K., Clark, N., Wentworth, K.S., Hesler, S., Fuchs, M., Loeb, G. and Douglas A.E. 2020. Evaluation of RNA interference for control of the grape mealybug Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Insects 11:739.
Beaver-Kanuya, E. and Harper, S. J. 2020. Development of RT-qPCR assays for the detection of three latent viruses of pome. Journal of Virological Methods 278: 113836
Brewer, E., Cao, M., Gutierrez, B.L., Bateman, M. and Li, R. 2020. Discovery and molecular characterization of a novel trichovirus infecting sweet cherry. Virus Genes 56: 380-385.
Britt, K., Gebben, S., Levy, A., Al Rwahnih, M. and Batuman, O. 2020. The detection and surveillance of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri)-associated viruses in Florida citrus groves. Frontiers in Plant Science, 10: 1687.
Cieniewicz, E., Poplaski, V., Brunelli, M., Dombroswkie, J. and Fuchs, M. 2020. Two distinct Spissistilus festinus genotypes in the United States revealed by phylogenetic and morphological analyses. Insects 11:80.
Cieniewicz, E.J., Qiu, W., Saldarelli, P. and Fuchs, M. 2020. Seeing is believing: Lessons from emerging viruses in grapevine. Journal of Plant Pathology 102:619-632.
Delic, D., Radulovic, M., Vakic, M., Sunulahpašić, A., Villamor, D.E.V. and Tzanetakis, I. E. 2020. First Report of black currant reversion virus and gooseberry vein banding associated virus in currants in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Plant Disease 104:2036.
Delić, D., Radulović, M., Vakić, M., Sunulahpašić, A., Villamor, D.E.V. and Tzanetakis, I.E. 2020. Raspberry leaf blotch emaravirus in Bosnia and Herzegovina: population structure and systemic movement. Molecular Biology Reports 47: 4891–4896.
Diaz-Lara, A., Mollov, D., Golino, D. and Al Rwahnih, M., 2020. Detection and characterization of a second carlavirus in Rosa sp. Archives of Virology 11:1-3.
Diaz-Lara, A., Mollov, D., Golino, D., and Al Rwahnih, M. 2020. Complete genome sequence of rose virus A, the first carlavirus identified in rose. Archives of Virology. 165:241–244.
Diaz-Lara, A., Mosier, N.J., Stevens, K., Keller, K.E. and Martin, R.R. 2020. Evidence of Rubus yellow net virus integration into the red raspberry genome. Cytogenetic and Genomic Research 160:329-334.
Diaz-Lara, A., Golino, D., Preece, J.E. and Al Rwahnih, M. 2020. Development of RT-PCR degenerate primers to overcome the high genetic diversity of grapevine virus T. Journal of Virological Methods 282:113883.
Diaz-Lara, A., Martin, R.R., Al Rwahnih, M., Vargas, O.L. and Rebollar-Alviter, Á. 2020. First evidence of viruses infecting berries in Mexico. Journal of Plant Pathology 102:183-189.
Diaz-Lara, A., Stevens, K., Klaassen, V., Golino, D. and Al Rwahnih, M., 2020. Comprehensive real-time RT-PCR assays for the detection of fifteen viruses infecting Prunus spp. Plants 9:273.
Fuchs, M. 2020. Grapevine red blotch virus. In: Invasive Species Compendium and Crop Protection Compendium, CABI International, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom.
Fuchs, M. 2020. Grapevine viruses: A multitude of diverse species with simple but poorly adopted management solutions in the vineyard. Journal of Plant Pathology 102:643-653.
Gao, Z., Khot, L.R., Naidu, R.A. and Zhang, Q. 2020. Early detection of grapevine leafroll disease in a red-berried wine grape cultivar using hyperspectral imaging. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 179:105807.
Green, J.C., Rwahnih, M.A., Olmedo-Velarde, A., Melzer, M.J., Hamim, I., Borth, W.B., Brower, T.M., Wall, M. and Hu, J.S., 2020. Further genomic characterization of pineapple mealybug wilt-associated viruses using high-throughput sequencing. Tropical Plant Pathology 45:64-72.
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Katsiani, A., Stainton, D., Lamour, K. and Tzanetakis, I.E. 2020. The population structure of Rose rosette virus in the United States. Journal of General Virology 101:676-684.
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