NE2248: Mastitis Resistance to Enhance Dairy Food Safety, Milk Quality, and Animal Welfare

(Multistate Research Project)

Status: Active

NE2248: Mastitis Resistance to Enhance Dairy Food Safety, Milk Quality, and Animal Welfare

Duration: 10/01/2022 to 09/30/2027

Administrative Advisor(s):


NIFA Reps:


Statement of Issues and Justification

The United States dairy industry continues to experience significant monetary drain via losses associated with common diseases. Bovine mastitis is the costliest infectious disease currently affecting dairy cattle. While significant advances have been made in controlling some types of mastitis, the complex etiology of the disease and ongoing changes in dairy practices dictate that new and more effective methods for control and treatment be developed over time. Single site studies are often limited in terms of expertise and cattle numbers. A multi-state project provides advantages in terms of increased numbers of herds and cattle as well as multiple levels of expertise and contributions that are not present at single institutions.

 

Mastitis is defined as inflammation of the mammary gland and is almost always associated with bacterial infection within the cow’s mammary gland. Mastitis affects every dairy farm and approximately 38% of dairy cows in the United States experience clinical signs of disease. The National Mastitis Council estimates that this devastating disease costs the dairy industry more than 2 billion dollars per year or approximately $180.00 per cow. These losses are primarily due to subpar milk production and diminished milk quality, increased veterinary costs and antibiotic usage, increased cow mortality, and discarded of abnormal and antibiotic laden milk.

 

In the United States (US), cash receipts from marketing of milk during 2020 totaled $40.5 billion (NASS, 2021). In the US, the dairy industry contributes >$140 billion per year to the national economy and provides > 900,000 jobs making it a vital part of our nation’s economy and food system (Adcock et al., 2015; ERS, 2015).  

 

Currently, intramammary antimicrobial therapy is the most widely used and most effective management strategy to eliminate intramammary infections and alleviate pain and suffering. Bovine mastitis is a unique disease wherein multiple infectious agents can trigger an inflammatory response. When considering treatment of an individual cow for mastitis, the causative infectious agent is usually unknown. Therefore, producers commonly treat with different combinations of antimicrobials and routes of treatments. This common management strategy can lead to overuse of antimicrobials, thus increasing the risk of residues in milk and the selection for antimicrobial resistant pathogens. Growing consumer concerns regarding antimicrobial use, the risk of antimicrobial residues in milk and meat and the potential for antimicrobial resistance have led to the examination of alternative strategies for controlling mastitis while reducing the use of antimicrobials on-farm, which is one of the primary goals of this multi-state group.

The primary goal of NE-1748 has been to coordinate and enhance multidisciplinary research efforts on mastitis that are being conducted at various laboratories throughout the United States and internationally, e.g., Canada, Australia, and Europe. The magnitude and scope of attempting to solve the problems arising from mastitis extend far beyond the ability of any one institution. The ability to cooperate on a regional, national, and international basis allows the integration of resources and knowledge to address these problems. Recognition of the need for a coordinated effort to study resistance of the pathogen and the need for non-antibiotic alternative therapeutics for the dairy cow for the control of mastitis resulted in the design and initiation of multi-State Project NE-1748. The NE-1748 project has provided a forum for new and established researchers to develop collaborative relationships, and to share resources and expertise. NE-1748 meetings are well attended, and 20-40 presentations are typically made by participants each year. International visitors and collaborators are often included in these presentations. We are proposing to continue these efforts with NE-2248 in a multistate and international setting to better control mastitis, reduce antimicrobial usage for the treatment of mastitis, and reduce the negative economic consequences of this prevalent and burdensome disease.

The mastitis research workers group has met in conjunction with the NE-1748 annual meeting for many years. International visitors and collaborators are often included in these presentations. In addition to the mastitis research workers conference, the NE-1748 members provide new management strategies to reduce antibiotic usage and technology transfer to the scientific community and industry stakeholders. In the last 4 years, members of the project have collectively published multiple book chapters, peer-reviewed journal articles, abstracts and proceedings, and presented numerous oral and poster presentations related to mastitis, milk quality, and food safety. Venues for oral and poster presentations have included the National Mastitis Council regional and annual meetings (attendees include researchers, veterinarians, dairy producers, and representatives from industry), Conference for Research Workers in Animal Diseases, American Association of Bovine Practitioners annual meetings, International Dairy Federation meetings, American Dairy Science Association meetings, World Buiatrics Congress meetings, American Society of Microbiology meetings, Conference on Production Diseases in Farm Animals, Plant and Animal Genome Conference, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada - Food Safety meetings, American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine annual forum meetings, and several regional extension and veterinary continuing education meetings.

The continuation of the NE-1748 multistate project by means of the proposed NE-2248 multistate project is of utmost importance to foster impactful mastitis research leading to the provision of science-based information to dairy producers and the dairy industry. The impact of the European Union’s strict enforcement of import regulations on milk quality highlights the need to continue efforts to reduce the incidence of mastitis and antibiotic use. These regulations require milk export companies to certify that any farm contributing milk must show a bulk milk cell count below 400,000 cells/mL. This regulation has been supported by the National Mastitis Council as a goal for all US dairies. Mechanisms leading to improvement in milk quality, dairy animal welfare, and appropriate use of antimicrobial therapeutics form the basis of research conducted in the NE-1748 multistate project. It is clear that continued mastitis research and education are required to maintain the global competitiveness of the US dairy industry. Furthermore, the animal agriculture industry in general is under closer scrutiny than ever before by various interest groups. The work of NE-1748 is clearly focused on reducing mastitis, reducing antibiotic use and improving economic outcome and animal welfare. Mastitis is the most significant animal health issue in the dairy industry. In summary, continuation of the NE-1748 project is a productive group of collaborators that has provided new and meaningful information to all levels of the dairy industry from the bench scientist to the dairy producer with regard to bovine mastitis control, treatment and prevention. In the next 5 years we will continue to pursue collaborative projects under our 3 stated objectives which will lead to new information of value to the management of dairy cattle mastitis. Mastitis is an evolving disease syndrome, as is the science that studies mastitis; therefore, continued research efforts are needed.

Related, Current and Previous Work

The Multi-State Mastitis Research Project (MMRP) has a strong productive history in applied and basic mastitis research. The project was begun in 1977 as NE-112, then renewed in 1982, 1987, 1992, 1997, in 2002 as NE-1009, in 2007 as NE-1028, NE-1048 in 2012, and NE-1748 in 2017. A substantial percentage of international mastitis research is conducted by MMRP members and affiliates. Members of MMRP collaborate extensively within the project and with other national and international research groups that have interests in bovine mastitis. The 2017-2022 iteration of the MMRP had 3 main objectives pertaining to the host, the pathogen, and the use of new technology. In the current proposal we intend to continue work and begin new studies using these objectives but also incorporate the importance of reducing the use of antibiotics and improving animal welfare in the dairy industry. The following are brief reviews, listed by objective, of current and previous work conducted during the last 5 years by the MMRP. In this summary, we focus on some of the most recent and topical accomplishments. Multiple stations have contributed to the various objectives and are listed following each sub-objective.

 

Objective 1: Characterize host mechanisms associated with mastitis susceptibility, and resistance to improve economic outcomes and animal welfare.

 

(i) Environment, nutrition, and management related host factors associated with intramammary infections (NJ, OH, MD, MN, MI, NY, OR, ID).

 

The risk of mastitis increases from late-pregnancy to early lactation. During this period, cows are under the hormonal influence of pregnancy, and are most likely in negative energy balance during the early part of lactation. Research has, therefore, focused on developing dietary strategies aimed at improving the immune response during this time, as well as better understanding the relationship between negative energy balance, other nutritional factors, versus immunity.  Idaho (ID), collaborating with Oregon (OR), reported that 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) administration altered the abundance of long-chain fatty acids in milk, which is expected to influence the immune system’s response to intramammary infection (Tsai et al., 2020). Researchers at Ohio State University (OH) reported that mammary blood vessels respond to the needs of the mammary epithelium which highlights the importance of capillaries and their role in intramammary infection susceptibility and resolution (Hardy et al., 2021); Ohio State also continues to investigate how mastitis affects mammary growth and development in the non-lactating mammary gland (Enger et al., 2020) in collaboration with researchers in Virginia.  Scientists at Maryland determined that chromium propionate supplementation does not affect the metabolic status of mid lactation cows but influences monocyte responses to cytokines (Garcia et al., 2017). Researchers at Michigan State University continue to identify factors that increase mastitis risk (Moore-Foster et al., 2019; Erskine et al., 2019) and antibiotic usage in commercial dairy systems (Leite de Campos et al., 2021). A primary focus of researchers at University of Minnesota (MN) has been to delineate how, and to what degree, different bedding sources (Rowe et al., 2019) and udder hygiene practices (Rowe et al., 2019) affect mastitis risk and mastitis prevalence by using multiple farms, while also identifying how the teat microbiome and the cow’s genetics influence a cow’s risk to intramammary infections by collaborating with scientists at USDA Ames National Animal Disease Laboratory. Researchers at Cornell (NY) found the role of Lactococcus lactis and garvieae important for clinical mastitis but also chronic animals specially during the first phase of lactation (Scillieri et.al 2020).

 

(ii) Candidate Genes of Mastitis Susceptibility (TN and UT).

 

Projects within the MMRP have focused on studying genes related to the immune response during mastitis. Their work may allow consideration of selective breeding for mastitis resistance, which may prove valuable to the dairy industry as a whole. For instance, MMRP members at the University of Tennessee (TN) identified 16 key single-nucleotide polymorphisms that were linked to a cow’s response to Streptococcus uberis challenge and highlighted that the most pronounced single nucleotide polymorphisms were involved with cell signaling, migration, and apoptosis. These cell processes are implicated in immune cell infiltration into diseased tissues as well as resolution to disease (Siebert et al., 2018). This is complementary to the efforts at Utah State University (UT) where fellow MMRP members classified 15 mastitis resistant, and 28 mastitis susceptible, phenotypes to evaluate single nucleotide polymorphisms related to mastitis resistance and susceptibility in a commercial herd (Kurz et al., 2019).  Ten novel, and 17 previously identified, quantitative trait loci were identified; 4 of which indicated that teat length affects mastitis resistance. Additionally, single nucleotide polymorphisms of RAS guanyl-releasing protein 1 gene are noted to be of importance and warrant future investigations as to how this protein affects mastitis resistance.

 

Objective 2: Characterize agents associated with intramammary infections and assess their impact on milk quality and animal welfare (NJ, MN, OH, MO, VT).

 

Bacterial infections are the primary cause of intramammary infections and mastitis.  Understanding the bacterial species and virulence factors will help understand their impact on milk quality and help to determine where prevention measures are needed. Many MMRP members have worked to characterize important pathogens associated with bovine intramammary infections.  For example, members at Rutgers University have examined the mechanisms of metal toxicity to Staphylococcus aureus and evaluated novel molecules that are bactericidal against S. aureus.  Members at the University of Minnesota have worked to apply precision dairy farming and diagnostic technologies to detect mastitis at the time of and following dry off in dairy cows in a field study. They have also worked to investigate if recycled manure solids (RMS) processing methods are associated with udder health, milk production, and with bedding bacteria counts (BBC) in ready-to-use RMS bedding samples. Results showed that herds using mechanically dried RMS or drum composted RMS processing systems generally had improved udder health and, for dried RMS, improved milk production, as compared to herds using digested or green solids.  At Ohio State, members worked to determine if a commercially available teat sealant was effective in preventing new cases of mastitis from occurring in dairy heifers before they calve and begin producing milk. This work was done in collaboration with members from the University of Missouri.  At the University of Missouri, members also worked to evaluate the association between staphylococcal species intramammary infection, milk somatic cell count, and persistence of infection during lactation and over the dry period were found in dairy goats. They reported an association existed between the use of intramammary pirlimycin and short-term changes in the fecal microbiome of dairy cattle being treated for staphylococcal intramammary infections. These members also demonstrated an association between teat end preparation techniques and contamination of milk samples collected for milk culture with more contaminants being present when teats were not scrubbed with alcohol prior to sample collection. Finally, they also evaluated 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of milk samples and results supported the use of higher PCR cycle numbers to evaluate these low microbial biomass samples.  The Barlow lab at the University of Vermont has completed a study of the mammary microbiome of lactating organic dairy cattle. The Barlow lab has completed a study applying machine learning to identify key predictors of pathogen strain type from multilocus sequence typing databases for Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis. The Barlow lab has initiated a study comparing milk quality and mastitis prevalence on organic dairy herds utilizing different bedding management practices. NE-1748 members from Minnesota (Godden), Missouri (Adkins) will collaborate in this research.

Objective 3: Assess and apply new technologies and preventative strategies that advance mastitis control, milk quality and/or reduce antimicrobial usage (LA, MI, MN, VT, UT, OR).

 

New technologies and preventative strategies are vital to help control mastitis on the dairy farm.  Several MMRP members have contributed work in this area. For example, members at Louisiana State University continue to evaluate botanical formulations from plants for antimicrobial activity against mastitis pathogens. At Michigan State, members have conducted a randomized clinical trial that included evaluation of differences among selected Streptococcus like organism causing mastitis in response to differing durations of antimicrobial therapy.  They have also characterized usage of antimicrobials on 40 large dairy farms and identified the proportion of antimicrobial usage that is associated with prevention and treatment of mastitis. These members are developing novel applications of vacuum analysis to determine milking efficiency in dairy herds. This will provide an on-farm education platform for producers and/or employees regarding milking protocols. At the University of Minnesota, members have conducted randomized controlled non-inferiority trial investigating the effect of two selective dry cow therapy protocols on antibiotic use and udder health and quarter-level outcomes. An economic analysis showed an positive economic return, on average, with either SDCT program. They conclude that SDCT can be used in appropriate U.S. dairy herds to reduce antibiotic use while maintaining udder health. At the University of Vermont, The Barlow lab completed collecting data from a field study exploring Staphylococcus aureus strain variation among dairy cattle and farm workers on 21 dairy farms producing farmstead of artisan cheeses. Strain typing and characterization of antimicrobial susceptibility phenotypes and genotypes has been completed for approximately 160 isolates and cross species (zoonotic) transmission dynamics of S. aureus will be explored using these data. Members at Utah State University compared 4 dry treatment groups including casein hydrolysate (CH) intramammary infusion alone or in combinations, and control (dry cow antibiotic plus teat sealant) in a split udder design.  Microscopic morphometry measured changes in alveolar epithelial cell height, alveolar luminal diameter, and interstitial stromal thickness during the first 7 days dry.  CH alone or combined with antibiotic and/or teat sealant was associated with some histological indications of increased mammary involution compared to controls at d 2 and d 7 dry. Casein hydrolysate may be a useful adjunct or replacement for dry cow antibiotic treatment. At Oregon State University, members carried out an experiment with the objective to determine if the combination of feeding chicory and supplementing selenium would improve the response to intramammary infection with Strep. uberis.

 

The following are just some of the key efforts and products resulting from collaborative participation of members in this group:

  • USDA NIFA grant (Milk Quality Alliance) with collaborations among MI, PA, MS and FL
  • USDA grant (Southeast Quality Milk Initiative) with collaboration among TN, VA, KY, FL, MS, GA
  • Godden (MN) led a multi-state bedding analysis study with multiple MMRW members.
  • Godden (MN) led a multi-state dry cow therapy study with multiple MMRW members.
  • USDA NIFA grant awarded to Adkins (MO) and Barlow (VT) to determine the pathogenicity and impacts of Staphylococcus chromogenes intramammary infections in heifers.
  • Collaboration between Enger (OH) and Adkins (MO) identifying the presence and distribution of causative intramammary infection agents in bred heifers (Larsen et. al., 2021) using formula funds.
  • Seminal invited reviews by MMRP members at MO and MN concerning responsible antibiotic usage in the treatment of mastitis.
  • Development of an invited review regarding how intramammary infections in heifers’ impact mammary gland growth and development
  • Collaboration between University of Utah and University of Missouri to determine agreement between 3 key methods for identifying microbial species in bovine milk using formula funds.
  • A collaboration with the University of Maryland has been established to evaluate big-data genomics to improve dairy cattle health, including investigating mastitis resistance.
  • University of Missouri collaborated with University of Vermont to investigate the local and system factors that reduce milk production resulting from lipopolysaccharide challenge.
  • Collaboration between Utah and Missouri assessed bacterial biochemical testing, Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF), and 16S rRNA partial genome sequencing for microbial identification from bovine milk. Agreement among all 3 methods ranged from 97% to 100%, depending on the mastitis pathogen. Any of the 3 methods is a useful tool for identification of bacteria isolated from dairy cow milk.
  • Continued collaboration with the Canadian Bovine Mastitis and Milk Quality Research Network (CBMQRN) and other international entities include:
    • The University of Missouri has ongoing collaborations with University of Montreal and University of Calgary to better define the role of non-aureus staphylococci in bovine mastitis and further define their role in affecting udder health and milk yield losses using USDA formula funds.

 

In summary, the work conducted within the framework of the MMRP has resulted in over 150 refereed publications and over 300 presentations at various scientific and stake-holder forums. We are continuing to build on our past findings to reduce the incidence and impacts of mastitis through additional research and extension activities. Mastitis is clearly a multi-faceted disease that will require continued efforts to not only ensure the production of safe, high-quality food, but to do so in a sustainable fashion and with continued improvements in dairy animal welfare and reductions the use of antimicrobial drugs.

Objectives

  1. 1) Characterize host mechanisms associated with mastitis progression, susceptibility, and resistance to improve economic outcomes and animal welfare.
  2. 2) Characterize agents associated with intramammary infections and assess their impact on milk quality and animal welfare.
  3. 3) Assess and apply new technologies and preventative strategies that advance mastitis control, milk quality and/or reduce antimicrobial usage.

Methods

Five-year plans, including collaborations among experimental stations, are listed below.

 

Objective 1:  Characterize host mechanisms associated with mastitis progression, susceptibility, and resistance to improve economic outcomes and animal welfare (LA, VT, OH, MN, MO, Canada). 

 

The University of Missouri will continue to work in collaboration with the University of Maryland to evaluate big-data genomics to improve dairy cattle health, including investigating mastitis resistance.  This work will be done using US dairy genomic databases.

 

Scientists at Louisiana State University (LA) will identify mastitis pathogens from cows and goats for antimicrobial susceptibility testing.  Resistance patterns for mastitis pathogens will be compared to resistance patterns for the same bacterial species isolated from humans to determine possible impacts of agricultural practices on resistance patterns.

 

Scientists at Ohio State University will investigate how mastitis affects heifer mammary gland growth and development in non-lactating mammary glands using various chemical and immunohistochemical staining approaches and also investigate how mastitis alters milk synthesis in lactating cattle.  

 

Researchers at University of Minnesota (B. A. Crooker, S. M. Godden, L. Caixeta, A. Seykora, M. Schutz, and B. Rosen) will continue the research program investigating the opportunity to reduce mastitis in the dairy cow by increasing the prevalence of beneficial polymorphisms in genes associated with mastitis resistance while working with researchers at USDA Ames National Animal Disease Laboratory (J. D. Lippolis). This will involve assessing the impact of Holstein genotype on immune response to gram negative and gram-positive bacteria that commonly cause mastitis. Other researchers (L. Caixeta, S. Dow, N. Noyes, B. Crooker, S. Godden, D. Nydam, B. Walcheck) will continue investigating techniques to enhance or modulate immune function (e.g. mucosal immune stimulation, microbiome, mechanical defenses) to enhance mastitis resistance during the dry or lactating periods. 

 

Scientists at Vermont will continue to investigate how LPS and cytokines affect milk synthesis in mammary epithelial cells (MECs). An emphasis will be placed on how LPS and cytokines affect glucose uptake by the MECs.

 

Objective 2:  Characterize agents associated with intramammary infections and assess their impact on milk quality and animal welfare (OH, MN, TN, VT, Canada, Australia, Europe).

 

The University of Missouri will work in collaboration with the University of Vermont to determine predictable molecular patterns of Staphylococcus chromogenes isolates deemed to be chronic high somatic cell count associated, chronic low somatic cell count associated, or teat skin associated.  The comparison will be done using bacterial whole genome sequencing, MLST strain typing, and MALDI-TOF fingerprinting.

 

Researchers at MN (Godden, S., S. Wells, E. Royster, B. Crooker) will continue to investigate how environmental management, including bedding management, can be improved to reduce exposure to environmental mastitis pathogens, resulting in enhanced udder health and milk quality. 

 

University of Tennessee will identify virulence factors and pathogenesis mechanisms of Mycoplasma bovis mastitis in dairy cattle and evaluate the molecular epidemiology of extended-spectrum β-lactamase producing E. coli in eastern Tennessee dairy farms.

 

The Barlow lab at Vermont will collaborate with Dr. Pamela Adkins at the University of Missouri to explore the epidemiology and pathogenesis of Staphylococcus chromogenes intramammary infections. The Barlow lab will complete whole genome sequencing of Staphylococcus species isolates to identify potential virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance genes, and explore the phylogeny of staphylococcus species and mobile genetic elements among these species. The Barlow lab will continue to explore the epidemiology of non-aureus staphylococci in small to medium sized dairy farms.

 

Objective 3:  Assess and apply new technologies and preventative strategies that advance mastitis control, milk quality and/or reduce antimicrobial usage. (MN, OR, MO, TN, UT, VT, Canada, Australia, Europe).

 

The University of Missouri will be working to determine when heifer IMIs occur to better focus implementation of prevention strategies.  This will be done using FNA/cisternal sampling of heifers and gland secretions to determine if results differ between these two collection methods.  Additionally, we will be determining if phenotypic behaviors of S. chromogenes IMIs are reproducible, using an in vivo challenge model.  Heifers will be challenged with S. chromogenes and then S. aureus to determine if S. chromogenes IMIs or teat colonization will result in fewer S. aureus infections.

 

Scientists at University of Minnesota and Cornell University (Godden, S. and E. Royster, Nydam) will continue to study if we can refine or improve approaches to selective dry cow therapy (SDCT), encourage their adoption on commercial dairies (outreach/extension), and monitor the impacts of adopting SDCT programs on commercial dairies.

 

Future works at the University of Tennessee will focus on the evaluation of efficacy of staphylococcal and streptococcal surface proteins vaccine to control mastitis in dairy cows and assess the immunogenicity of an enterobactin conjugate vaccine for the control of E. coli mastitis in dairy cows.

 

Works at Oregon State University will continue to investigate novel secondary compounds that may be fed and administered to lactating ruminants to improve immune function, preventing and reducing mastitis incidence.

 

In Vermont, members of the Zhao lab will target specific cytokines to control mammary inflammation. The Barlow lab will continue to explore the relationship between housing and bedding management practices and mastitis risk and continue to explore the potential role of endogenous inhibitor bacteria and bacteriocins in the epidemiology of Staphylococcus mastitis. We will use in vitro co-culture systems and metagenomic methods to describe bacterial factors influencing colonization and infection of mammary glands.

Measurement of Progress and Results

Outputs

  • Membership in NE-1748 has allowed researchers to 1) build a network of collaborators, 2) receive meaningful feedback on project design and execution, 3) provide formal means of idea exchange and collaboration; 4) expand ideas beyond station researchers, 5) opened opportunities for collaborative funding, 6) allowed access to resources such as mastitis bacterial isolates from across a broad geographic distribution, 7) provided a forum for trainees to meet seasoned investigators and fellow trainees to discuss and present their work and receive constructive feedback. Our efforts have resulted in presentations at national and local meetings, non-peer reviewed publications, Extension publications and meeting presentations, bacterial isolate collections with epidemiological data, and joint projects/collaborations.

Outcomes or Projected Impacts

  • Curate and summarized the risks and benefits of antibiotic use in lactating dairy animals. Developed and evaluated experimental intramammary treatments, both conventional and organic. Examined alternative therapeutics for the prevention or treatment of mastitis to reduce antibiotic usage. Identified candidate genes relating to mastitis susceptibility and resistance. Described host cytokine and other genetic predictors for mastitis susceptibility, milk production, reproductive performance, and survival. On-farm culture and other methods of reducing antibiotic use on dairies evaluated. Effectiveness of teat dips, teat sealants, bedding types and treatments and dry cow treatments in deterring mastitis evaluated. Identified virulence factors of mastitis pathogens. New diagnostic tests for select organisms, including high-risk human pathogens and non-bacterial causes of mastitis, developed. Developed multiple decision support tools aimed at improving milk quality, reducing mastitis and economics. Nutritional effects, including enhancing the host immune system, on mastitis evaluated. Strategies developed to improve immune responses during the dry and transition period, using molecular analyses of host responses. Use positional/behavioral patterns to predict intramammary infections in dairy cattle. Describe the molecular epidemiology of mastitis pathogens. Describe selected mastitis pathogen’s gene distribution and genetic diversity in milk. Develop potential mastitis vaccine candidates.

Milestones

(2022):Submission for publication of findings in studies of the immune and metabolic dynamics and their relationship to host and/or pathogenic response.

(2023):Submission for publication of findings in studies regarding improving animal welfare.

(2024):Submission for publication of findings in studies regarding new technologies to advance mastitis control, milk quality and/or dairy food safety.

(2025):Submission for publication of findings in studies regarding antibiotic use and alternative therapeutics for mastitis control.

(2026):Completion and submission for publication of the remaining studies on focused research objectives, as well as summaries of surveillance studies.

Projected Participation

View Appendix E: Participation

Outreach Plan

Multiple centers have described outreach projects in their plans for the upcoming period. A number of stations are involved in Extension-based proposals to improve milk quality. These projects, and thus the MMRP, will be characterized by their emphasis on producer communications, and on including experts in communication, sociology, economics, dairy management, mastitis, and milk quality programs. The MMRP has, and continues to, involve numerous Cooperative Extension members. This factor, and the willingness of the dairy industry to seek new tools for improvement, will enhance the current and future effectiveness of the MMRP. In the words of Dr. William Owens of Louisiana, "A major impact of the multistate projects is the credence or impact that a prestigious organization gives to data it generates. The reputation and long history of this project and the many years of scientific expertise that it represents greatly increased the weight of its recommendations. Many of the scientists participating in this project have been continuously involved with this project since the 1980s. This long history allows a continuity of purpose that provides valuable leadership and helps maintain the focus of the group. This in turn makes the outputs of the projects more focused and more valuable."

Organization/Governance

 

 

Regional System Administrator: David Leibovitz, david_leibovitz@uri.edu

Northeastern Regional Association of State Agricultural Experiment Station Directors- NERA

14 East Farm Road, Room 111

University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, 02881

Phone: 401-874-4801

 

Mastitis Research Workers Conference Coordinator: Pamela Adkins and John Middleton adkinsp@missouri.edu

Middletonjr@missouri.edu 

University of Missouri

College of Veterinary Medicine

900 E Campus Drive

Columbia MO 65211

Phone: 573-882-6857

 

The organization of this project will be in accordance with that set forth in the Manual for Cooperative Multistate Research. A technical committee that includes the project participants from each of the participating stations will administer the project. An executive committee will consist of the Chairman, Vice-Chairman, Secretary, and the Administrative Advisor. The officers will serve one year after which the Vice-Chairman automatically becomes Chairman and the Secretary becomes Vice-Chairman. This executive committee will conduct business between meetings. An annual meeting will be called by the Administrative Advisor and will be held in conjunction with the Mastitis Research Worker's Conference. At these meetings, research accomplishments will be reviewed, updates and summaries of joint projects will be presented, and new projects will be planned and a project coordinator selected. The Vice-Chairman will call for annual reports of research data from each station. These reports will be compiled and sent to each participant prior to the annual meeting. The responsibility for multi-State summaries and publications will be assigned at the meetings.

If no annual report is submitted for two consecutive years from a participating station, or if no one from a station is present at the MMRP meeting for two years out of five, then this station will be eliminated from the project. The Administrative Advisor will contact the member station before the member is formally eliminated from the roster to ensure that extenuating circumstances do not exist. International members will be expected to submit an annual report and to have representation at annual meetings, as per stations in the United States. However, these participants will not be required to submit Appendix E forms detailing formal FTE commitments.

Minute/Annual Report Filing within 60 days of Annual Business Meeting

  1. File minutes onto NIMSS Site – Secretary –
  2. Obtain completed worksheets from all stations and compile into annual report – NIMSS (Co-Chair/Chair)
    1. The annual report is due within 60 days of the business meeting. You will use the annual reports (worksheets) received from the various participants to file the annual report in NIMSS.  Circulate a draft of the annual report via e-mail list for comments then submit final copy through NIMSS.
      1. On the NIMSS website, log in, go to ‘projects; then ‘my active projects’, click on ‘NE2248’ and go to the reports/meetings tab to the left then click on ‘reports’ and ‘draft/edit report’.  Click on new report.  On the left of the screen you will see a menu – fill in each of the tabs.  For example, “Participants” – you will get a box to fill in each person who attended the business meeting.  You can attach the minutes as a WORD file.  Send the minutes out for review on the listserv before submitting in NIMSS.  The accomplishments section will be filed using the annual report summaries boiled down to one document.  The impact statements can be taken from the project description on the project website.
      2. The past annual reports are available in NIMSS and can be found by using the reports/meetings tab and then search for report.

Secretary

Vice-Chair

Chair

Past-Chair

Presides over MRW meeting

Record number of attendees

Collect worksheet from each station prior to annual meeting (set deadline at least 2 wks prior to meeting date)

Main contact for Administrative Advisor

 

 

Support Exec Board as needed.

Takes minutes/attendance at business meeting

Annual reports: compile worksheet in annual report for distribution prior to annual business meeting and comment collection at meeting.

 

Monitor/initiate collaborative efforts among Multi-state regional members

Use excel spreadsheet and minutes to track station attendance. Removal of non-active stations (via David Leibovitz) according to bylaws.

Send minutes out to group for review

File annual report into NIMSS site within 60 day of annual meeting (as Chair).

Prepares agenda and runs yearly business meeting

 

File minutes onto NIMSS site

 

Complete annual report (started as vice-Chair).  Oversee/lead report completion: Rewrite (2021/22 request), Midterm (2019/2020), Termination (2021/22).

 

 

 

 

2-3 months prior to scheduled business meeting request that the Administrative Advisor obtain meeting authorization through NIMSS

 

 

 

Land Grant Participating States/Institutions

ID, LA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NJ, NY, OH, OR, PA, TN, UT

Non-Land Grant Participating States/Institutions

University of Sydney, University of Montreal, University of Saskatchewan, Ghent University

Literature Cited

Peer-Reviewed Literature

Michigan State University

Fuenzalida, M.J. and P.L. Ruegg.  2020.  Molecular epidemiology of non-severe clinical mastitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae occurring in cows on 2 Wisconsin dairy farms.  J. Dairy Sci.  103:3779-3792.  https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2019-17464

Leite de Campos, J., A. Kates, A. Steinberger, A. Sethi, G. Suen, J. Shutske, N. Safdar, T. Goldberg, and P.L. Ruegg.  2021.  Quantification of antimicrobial usage in adult cows and preweaned calves on 40 large Wisconsin dairy farms using dose-based and mass-based metrics.  Accepted J Dairy Sci, Nov 2020

 

Ohio State University

Enger, B.D., S.N. Lehner, C.L.M. Parsons, R.M. Akers, and N.R. Hardy. 2020. Short Communication: Effect of intramammary infection and parenchymal region on collagen abundance in non-lactating bovine mammary glands. Appl. Anim. Sci. 36:688-693. doi:10.15232/aas.2020-02003.

Enger, B.D., S.C. Nickerson, R.M. Akers, L.E. Moraes, and C.E. Crutchfield. 2020. Use of commercial somatic cell counters to quantify somatic cells in non-lactating bovine mammary gland secretions. Vet. Prev. Med. 174:104775. doi:10.1016/j.prevetmed.2019.104775.

 

Rutgers University

Ferrer-Gonzalez E., Fujita J., Yoshizawa T., Nelson J., Pilch A., Hillman E., Ozawa M., Kuroda N., Al-Tameemi H., Boyd J.M., LaVoie E., Matsumura H., and Pilch D. Structure-Guided Design of a Fluorescent Probe for the Visualization of FtsZ in Clinically Important Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacterial Pathogens. Nature Scientific Reports, 2019 PMID: 31882782

Norambuena J., Miller M., Boyd J.M.*, Barkay T.*, Expression and regulation of the mer operon in Thermus thermophilus. Environmental Microbiology, 2020 PMID: 32090420

Rudra, P., Boyd J.M. Metabolic control of virulence factor production in Staphylococcus aureus. Current Opinion in Microbiology, 2020 PMID: 32388086.

Tiwari N., López-Redondo M., Miguel-Romero L., Kulhankova K., Cahill M.P., Al-Tameemi H., Herfst C.A., Kirby J.R., Boyd J.M., McCormick J.K., Salgado-Pabón W., Marina A., Schlievert P.M., Fuentes E.J., The SrrAB two-component system regulates Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity through redox sensitive cysteines. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2020 PMID: 32354997.

Price E.E., Boyd J.M., Genetic control of metal ion homeostasis in Staphylococcus aureus. Trends in Microbiology, 2020 PMID: 32381454.

Dubovoy V., Nawrocki S., Verma G., Wojtas L., Desi P., Al-Tameemi H., Brinzari T.V., Stranick M., Chen D., Xu S., Ma S., Boyd J.M., Asefa T., Pan L., Synthesis, characterization, and investigation of the antimicrobial activity of cetylpyridinium tetrachlorozincate. ACS Omega, 2020 PMID: 32426592.

Dubovoy V., Desai P., Hao Z., Cheng C., Verma G., Wojtas L., Brinzari T.V., Boyd J.M., Ma S., Asefa T., Pan L., Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Investigation of a Novel Chlorhexidine Cyclamate Complex. ACS Crystal Design and Growth, 2020 doi.10.1021/acs.cgd.0c00107

Carabetta, V.J., Esquilin-Lebron K., Zelzion E., Boyd J.M., Genetic approaches to uncover gene products involved in iron-sulfur protein maturation: High throughput genomic screening using transposon-sequencing. Methods in Molecular Biology, 2020 accepted.

Al-Tameemi H., Beavers W.N., Norambuena-Morales J., Skaar E., Boyd J.M. Staphylococcus aureus lacking a functional MntABC manganese import system have increased resistance to copper. Molecular Microbiology. 2020 PMID: 33034093.

Juttukonda L.J., Beavers W.N., Horning K.J., Unsihuay D., Horvath D.J., Kim K., Weiss A., Pishchany G., Al-Tameemi H., Boyd J.M., Sulikowski G., Bowman E.B., and Skaar E.P. A small molecule modulator of metal homeostasis is toxic to Gram-positive pathogens. mBio. 2020 PMID: 33109764.

 

University of Minnesota

Rowe, S. , S. Godden, D. Nydam, P. Gorden, A. Lago, A. Vasquez, E. Royster, J. Timmerman, M. Thomas. 2020. Randomized controlled non-inferiority trial investigating the effect of two selective dry cow therapy protocols on antibiotic use at dry-off and dry period intramammary infection dynamics. J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 103:6473-6492

Rowe, S. , S. Godden, D. Nydam, P. Gorden, A. Lago, A. Vasquez, E. Royster, J. Timmerman, M. Thomas.  2020. Randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of two selective dry cow therapy protocols on udder health and performance in the subsequent lactation. J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 103:6493-6503

Rowe, S. , S. Godden, D. Nydam, A. Lago, A. Vasquez, E. Royster, J. Timmerman. 2020. Randomized Equivalence Study Comparing the Efficacy of Two Commercial Internal Teat Sealants in Dairy Cows. J. Dairy Sci. 103:5398-5413

Rowe, S. , S. Godden, D. Nydam, P. Gorden, A. Lago, A. Vasquez, E. Royster, J. Timmerman, M. Thomas.  2020. Evaluation of rapid culture, a predictive algorithm, esterase somatic cell count and lactate dehydrogenase to detect intramammary infection in quarters of dairy cows at dry-off. Prev. Vet. Med. 179:1-11  

Rowe, S., S. Godden, E. Royster, J. Timmerman, B. Crooker and M. Boyle. 2019. Cross-sectional study of the relationship between bedding materials, bedding bacteria counts and intramammary infection in late lactation dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 102:11384–11400

Rowe, S., S. Godden, E. Royster, J. Timmerman, B. Crooker and M. Boyle.  2019. Cross-sectional study of the relationship between cloth udder towel management, towel bacteria counts and intramammary infection in late lactation dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 102:11401–11413

Dean, C.J., Slizovskiy, I.B., Crone, K.K., Pfennig, A.X., Heins, B.J., Caixeta, L.S., and Noyes, N.R. 2020. Investigating the skin and teat canal microbiomes of the bovine udder using differing sampling and sequencing approaches. J Dairy Sci. 2020 Oct 29;S0022-0302(20)30860-2. doi: 10.3168/jds.2020-18277.

 

University of Missouri

Bernier Gosselin V, Dufour S, Middleton JR. 2020. Association between species-specific staphylococcal intramammary infection and milk somatic cell score over time in dairy goats. Prev Vet Med. Jan 174:104815

Adkins PRF, Ericsson A, Middleton JR, Witzke M. 2020. The effect of intramammary pirlimycin hydrochloride on the fecal microbiome of early lactation heifers. J Dairy Sci. 103(4):3459-3469

Wattenburger K, Schmidt R, Placheta L, Middleton JR, Adkins PRF. 2020. Evaluation of four different teat disinfection methods prior to collection of milk samples for bacterial culture in dairy cattle. J Dairy Sci. 103(5):4579-4587

Shwani A, Adkins PRF, Ekesi NS, Alrubaye A, Calcutt MJ, Middleton JR, Rhoads DD. 2020. Whole genome comparisons of Staphylococcus agnetis isolates from cattle and chickens. Appl Environ Microbiol. Jun 2;86(12):e00484-20

Witzke MC, Gullic A, Yang P, Bivens NJ, Adkins PRF, Ericsson AC.  Influence of PCR cycle number on 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of low biomass samples.  J Microbiol Methods.  Sep 176: 106033.

 

University of Vermont

Alexander Jonathan Spitzer, Qing Tian, Ratan Choudhary, and Feng-Qi Zhao. (2020). Bacterial endotoxin induces oxidative stress and reduces milk protein expression and hypoxia in the mammary gland. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity, Volume 2020, Article ID 3894309, 16 pages. DOI: 10.1155/2020/3894309

 

Oregon State University

Tsai, C., Rosa, F., Bionaz, M., & Rezamand, P. (2020). Effects of 2,4-thiazolidinedione (TZD) on milk fatty acid profile and serum vitamins in dairy goats challenged with intramammary infusion of Streptococcus uberis. Journal of Dairy Research, 1-8

Jaaf, S.; Batty, B., Krueger A., Estill, C.T.; Bionaz, M. (2020). Selenium biofortified alfalfa hay fed in low quantities improves selenium status and glutathione peroxidase activity in transition dairy cows and their calves. Journal of Dairy Research, May;87(2):184-190

 

Cornell University

Monistero V, Barberio A, Biscarini F, Cremonesi P, Castiglioni B, Graber HU, Bottini E, Ceballos-Marquez A, Kroemker V, Petzer IM, Pollera C, Santisteban C, Veiga Dos Santos M, Bronzo V, Piccinini R, Re G, Cocchi M, Moroni P. Different distribution of antimicrobial resistance genes and virulence profiles of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from clinical mastitis in six countries. J Dairy Sci. 2020 Apr;103(4):3431-3446. doi: 10.3168/jds.2019-17141. Epub 2020 Jan 31. PMID: 32008788.

Bronzo V, Lopreiato V, Riva F, Amadori M, Curone G, Addis MF, Cremonesi P, Moroni P, Trevisi E, Castiglioni B. The Role of Innate Immune Response and Microbiome in Resilience of Dairy Cattle to Disease: The Mastitis Model. Animals (Basel). 2020 Aug 11;10(8):1397. doi: 10.3390/ani10081397. PMID: 32796642; PMCID: PMC7459693.

Hoekstra J, Zomer AL, Rutten VPMG, Benedictus L, Stegeman A, Spaninks MP, Bennedsgaard TW, Biggs A, De Vliegher S, Mateo DH, Huber-Schlenstedt R, Katholm J, Kovács P, Krömker V, Lequeux G, Moroni P, Pinho L, Smulski S, Supré K, Swinkels JM, Holmes MA, Lam TJGM, Koop G. Genomic analysis of European bovine Staphylococcus aureus from clinical versus subclinical mastitis. Sci Rep. 2020 Oct 23;10(1):18172. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-75179-2. PMID: 33097797; PMCID: PMC7584570.

Wemette M, Safi AG, Beauvais W, Ceres K, Shapiro M, Moroni P, Welcome FL, Ivanek R. New York State dairy farmers' perceptions of antibiotic use and resistance: A qualitative interview study. PLoS One. 2020 May 27;15(5):e0232937. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0232937. PMID: 32459799; PMCID: PMC7252592.

Kumar R, Register K, Christopher-Hennings J, Moroni P, Gioia G, Garcia- Fernandez N, Nelson J, Jelinski MD, Lysnyansky I, Bayles D, Alt D, Scaria J. Population Genomic Analysis of Mycoplasma bovis Elucidates Geographical Variations and Genes associated with Host-Types. Microorganisms. 2020 Oct 10;8(10):1561. doi: 10.3390/microorganisms8101561. PMID: 33050495; PMCID: PMC7650767.

Calonzi D, Romano A, Monistero V, Moroni P, Luini MV, Biscarini F, Castiglioni B, Cremonesi P. Technical note: Development of multiplex PCR assays for the molecular characterization of Streptococcus uberis strains isolated from bovine mastitis. J Dairy Sci. 2020 Jan;103(1):915-921. doi: 10.3168/jds.2019-16823. Epub 2019 Nov 6. PMID: 31704014.

Scillieri Smith JC, Moroni P, Santisteban CG, Rauch BJ, Ospina PA, Nydam DV. Distribution of Lactococcus spp. in New York State dairy farms and the association of somatic cell count resolution and bacteriological cure in clinical mastitis samples. J Dairy Sci. 2020 Feb;103(2):1785-1794. doi: 10.3168/jds.2018-16199. Epub 2019 Dec 19. PMID: 31864733.

Biscarini F, Cremonesi P, Castiglioni B, Stella A, Bronzo V, Locatelli C, Moroni P. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Teat-Sealant and Antibiotic Dry-Cow Treatments for Mastitis Prevention Shows Similar Effect on the Healthy Milk Microbiome. Front Vet Sci. 2020 Sep 2;7:581. doi: 10.3389/fvets.2020.00581. PMID: 32984415; PMCID: PMC7492605.

Mann S, Curone G, Chandler TL, Moroni P, Cha J, Bhawal R, Zhang S. Heat treatment of bovine colostrum: I. Effects on bacterial and somatic cell counts, immunoglobulin, insulin, and IGF-I concentrations, as well as the colostrum proteome. J Dairy Sci. 2020 Oct;103(10):9368-9383. doi: 10.3168/jds.2020-18618. Epub 2020 Aug 20. PMID: 32828510.

Wemette M, Greiner Safi A, Wolverton AK, Beauvais W, Shapiro M, Moroni P, Welcome FL, Ivanek R. Public perceptions of antibiotic use on dairy farms in the United States. J Dairy Sci. 2021 Jan 14:S0022-0302(21)00003-5. doi: 10.3168/jds.2019-17673. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 33455793.

 

University of Idaho

Tsai, C. Y. R. Hassan, H. C. Hung, T. Weber, W. J. Price, P. Rezamand*, and Q. Huo. 2020. A Rapid Blood Test to Monitor the Immune Status Change of Dairy Cows and to Evaluate their Disease Risk during the Periparturient Period.  Sensors International. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sintl.2020.100078

 

University of Tennessee

Amenu K, Agga GE, Kumbe A, Shibiru A, Desta H, Tiki W, Kerro Dego O, Wieland B, Grace D, S. A. 2020. Community-tailored training to improve the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of women regarding hygienic milk production and handling in the Borana pastoral area of southern Ethiopia. Journal of Dairy Science 103:9748 – 9757. DOI:https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2020-18292.

 

Kerro Dego O. Bovine mastitis part I, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.93483, Published online (September 2, 2020), Available from, https://www.intechopen.com/online-first/bovine-mastitis-part-i.

Kerro Dego O. Control and Prevention of Mastitis: Part Two. IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.93484, Published online (August 27, 2020). Available from, https://www.intechopen.com/online-first/control-and-prevention-of-mastitis-part-two.

Kerro Dego O. Current Status of Antimicrobial Resistance and Prospect for New Vaccines against Major Bacterial Bovine Mastitis Pathogens.IntechOpen, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.94227, Published online (October 19, 2020), Available from: https://www.intechopen.com/online-first/current-status-of-antimicrobial-resistance-and-prospect-for-new-vaccines-against-major-bacterial-bov 

Kerro Dego O, Pacha PA, Gillespie BE, Pighetti GM. Experimental Staphylococcus aureus Mastitis Infection Model by Teat Dipping in Bacterial Culture Suspension in Dairy Cows. MDPI Animals 2020, 10(5), 751.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10050751.

Lee, A, S Schexnayder, L Schneider, S Oliver, G Pighetti, C Petersson-Wolfe, J Bewley, S Ward, P Krawczel. 2019. Dairy producers in the Southeast United States are concerned with cow care and welfare. J Dairy Res. 1-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0022029919000943.

Vaughn JM, Abdi RD, Gillespie BE, Kerro Dego O. 2020. Genetic diversity and virulence characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from cases of bovine mastitis. Microb Pathog 144:104171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104171.

 

Abstracts

Oregon State University

Busato S. and M Bionaz. 2020. Selenium-biofortified alfalfa hay supplementation modulates liver and macrophage gene expression in periparturient dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 103 (Suppl. 1):124

 

Ohio State University

Enger, K.M., N.R. Hardy, and B.D. Enger. 2020. Effect of intramammary infection on colostrum antibody concentrations. Pages 209-210 in Natl. Mastitis Counc. Annu. Mtg. Proc., Orlando, FL, Natl. Mastitis Council Inc., New Prague, MN.

Hardy, N.R., K.M. Enger, and B.D. Enger. 2020. Quantifying mammary growth and proliferative effects of estradiol in Holstein heifer calves. J. Dairy Sci. 102 (Suppl. 2):XXX. Accepted.

Hardy, N.R., K.M. Enger, and B.D. Enger. 2020. Mammary blood vessel development in response to estradiol administration in heifer calves. J. Dairy Sci. 103. (Suppl. 1):168.

 

University of Minnesota

Lippolis, J. D., E. J. Putz, T. A. Reinhardt, E. Casas, W. J. Weber, B. A. Crooker. 2020. The effect of 50 years of breeding on the ability of Holsteins to fight mastitis. International Milk Genomics Consortium. 17th International Symposium (Virtual). October 13-16. Hosted by UC Davis.

Godden, S., F. Peña Mosca, E. Royster, B. Crooker, J. Hadrich, P. Raynor, R. Singer, and K. Janni. Investigation of the Relationship between Method of Processing Recycled Manure Solids Bedding and Udder Health and Production on Midwest Dairy Farms. Proc. Annu. Mtg. Am Assoc. Bovine Pract. Sept. 24-26, 2020. (virtual). 

Godden, S., F. Peña Mosca, E. Royster, B. Crooker, J. Hadrich, P. Raynor, R. Singer, and K. Janni. Investigation of the Relationship between Method of Processing and Bacteria Counts in Ready-to-Use Recycled Manure Solids Bedding on Midwest Dairy Farms Proc. Annu. Mtg. Am Assoc. Bovine Pract. Sept. 24-26, 2020. (virtual). 

Godden, S., E. Royster, J. Timmerman and N. O’Sell. Efficacy of a Stabilized Liquid Potassium Sorbate Preservative to Reduce Bacterial Proliferation in Colostrum or Tank Milk Stored by Refrigeration or at Room Temperature. Proc. Annu. Mtg. Am Assoc. Bovine Pract. Sept. 24-26, 2020. (virtual). 

Rowe, S.M*., Nydam, D.V., Godden, S.M., Gorden, P., Lago, A., Royster, E., Vasquez, A., Thomas, M. 2020. Partial budget analysis of selective dry cow therapy strategies. American Dairy Science Assoc. Annual Meeting, USA. June 22-24, 2020 (virtual)

Rowe, S.M.*, Godden, S.M., Nydam, D.V., Lago, A., Thomas, M., Royster, E., Vasquez, A., Timmerman. J., Thomas. M.. 2020. Randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of two selective dry cow therapy protocols on antibiotic use and udder health, Proc. 59th Annual meeting of the National Mastitis Council. Jan 28-30, 2020. Orlando, FL.

Rowe, S.M.*, Godden, S.M., Nydam, D.V., Lago, A., Royster, E., Vasquez, A., 2020. Randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of two commercial internal teat sealants in dairy cows. Proc. 59th Annual meeting of the National Mastitis Council. Jan. 28-30, 2020. Orlando, FL

Rowe, S.*, S. Godden, E. Royster, J. Timmerman, D.V. Nydam, A.K. Vasquez, P. Gorden, A. Lago, and M. Thomas. Selective Dry Cow Therapy on US Dairy Farms: Impact on Udder Health and Productivity. 2019 Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases. Nov. 2-5, 2019. Chicago, IL.

Rowe, S.*, S. Godden, E. Royster, J. Timmerman, D.V. Nydam, A.K. Vasquez, A. Lago. 2019. Randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of two commercial internal teat sealants in dairy cows. 2019 Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases. Nov. 2-5, 2019. Chicago, IL

Dean, C., Fernandes, L., Sharpe, K., Junior, A., Ray, T., Baumann, C., Wehri, T., Heins, B., Pinedo, P., Machado, V., Caixeta, L.S., Noyes, N. “Community research and education program to use the microbiome for the advancement of organic livestock production”. Proceedings of the 100th Annual Conference of Research Workers in Animals Diseases, Chicago, IL, 2019.

Baumann, C., Dean, C., Fernandes, L., Sharpe, K., Antunes Junior, A. M., Ray, T., Wehri, T., Heins, B., Pinedo, P., Formiga, A., Machado, V., Caixeta, L.S., Noyes, N. “Incidence rates of mastitis in heifers on organic dairy farms’. Proceedings of the 100th Annual Conference of Research Workers in Animals Diseases, Abstract 041. Poster presentation. Chicago, IL, 2019.

Fernandes, L., Guimaraes, I., Noyes, N.R., Caixeta, L.S., Machado, V.S. “Impact of subclinical mastitis during the first month of lactation on milk yield, fertility, and culling of dairy cows on USDA-certified organic herds”. ADSA Conference. Virtual Conference, 2020.

 

University of Missouri

Kurban D, Bolduc E, Roy JP, DeVries T, Gervais R, Adkins P, Middleton JR, Keefe G, France A, Dufour S.  2020.  An observational transversal study on the prevalence of staphylococcal intramammary infections after calving in primirparous vs multiparous cows milked using an automatic milking system.  Journée de la recherche FMV - Research day at FVM. University of Montreal, Quebec, Canada.  19 March 2020.

 

University of Vermont

F.-Q. Zhao, T.B. McFadden, R.K. Choudhary, E.M. Shangraw, R.O. Rodrigues, A.J. Spitzer. Intramammary endotoxin challenge elicits time-dependent local and systemic effects on lactating bovine mammary glands. CRWAD 2019, Chicago. Oral

Choudhary RK, Spitzer A, McFadden TB, Shangraw EM, Rodrigues RO, Linder HF, Zhao F-Q (2019) Quantitative histological changes in lactating bovine mammary gland after endotoxin challenge. ADSA Annual Meeting 2019, Cincinnati, Ohio. Oral

 

Conference Proceedings

Michigan State University

Erskine, R.J. and A. J. Swan. The Veterinarian’s/Consultant’s Role in Milk Quality. Short course presented at the 60th Annual Meeting of the National Mastitis Council, Orlando, FL, January 30th, 2020.

Erskine, R.J. Three ways to lose money on a farm: A view from the udder. Seminar presented at the Western Canadian Dairy Seminar, Red Deer, Alberta, March 11th, 2020.

Erskine R.J. Dry cow management for udder health. Webinar presented for University of Wisconsin webinar series-Dry cow management for a successful lactation. June 11th, 2020. 

Erskine R.J. and R.S. Thomson. Podcast presented for the A.A.B.P. Why udder prep matters. November 19th, 2020.

Ruegg, P.L.  Understanding the economic impact of mastitis.  The role of duration and drug selection.  2020. Pp 84-91 in Proc. 3rd Am. Assoc. Bov. Pract. Recent Graduate Conf. Columbus OH, Feb 21-22, 2020.  Available online:  www.aabp.org  

 

University of Minnesota

Bedding management and udder health – Getting better results from recycled manure solids and sand bedding. Godden, S., F. Pena Mosca, E. Royster, J. Timmeran, B. Crooker. 2020. Proc. Annu. Mtg. MN Dairy Health Conference. Aug. 6, 2020. (virtual).

Using Rapid Culture Systems to Guide Selective Treatment of Clinical Mastitis and at Dry-off. S. Godden, E. Royster and J. Timmerman. 3 hrs Short Course #1 at 59th Annu Meeting of the National Mastitis Council. Jan 28-30, 2020. Orlando, FL.

 

University of Missouri

Kurban D, Bolduc E, Roy JP, DeVries T, Gervais R, Adkins P, Middleton JR, Keefe G, France A, Dufour S.  2020.  An observational transversal study on the prevalence of staphylococcal intramammary infections after calving in primirparous vs multiparous cows milked using an automatic milking system.  Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the National Mastitis Council, Orlando, FL. 

Ankney SR, Rivero LA, Witzke MC, Naclerio A5, Adkins PRF, Middleton JR. 2020.  Comparison of two techniques for collecting milk samples to diagnose intramammary infection in dairy cattle.  Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the National Mastitis Council, Orlando, FL

Witzke MC, Rodrigues RO, Shangraw EM, Ericsson AC, McFadden TB, Adkins PRF. 2020 Feed restriction and heat stress alters the fecal microbiome.  Proceedings of the 59th Annual Meeting of the National Mastitis Council, Orlando, FL

 

University of Vermont

F.-Q. Zhao, T.B. McFadden, R.K. Choudhary, E.M. Shangraw, R.O. Rodrigues, A.J. Spitzer. Intramammary endotoxin challenge elicits time-dependent local and systemic effects on lactating bovine mammary glands. CRWAD 2019, Chicago. Oral

Choudhary RK, Spitzer A, McFadden TB, Shangraw EM, Rodrigues RO, Linder HF, Zhao F-Q (2019) Quantitative histological changes in lactating bovine mammary gland after endotoxin challenge. ADSA Annual Meeting 2019, Cincinnati, Ohio. Oral

 

Utah State University

Wilson DJ, Britten JE, Clancy CS, Rood KA: Bovine mammary gland involution histology and morphometry following casein hydrolysate and other dry treatments. Proc 63rd Ann Conf Am Assoc Vet Lab Diag: 2020.

 

Poster Presentations

Michigan State University

Leite de Campos, J., A. Steinberger, T. Goldberg, N. Safdar, A. Kates, J. Sutske, A. Sethi, G. Suen and P. Ruegg.  2020.  Distribution of antimicrobial usage for mastitis using two metrics.  Pp 223-224 in Proceedings 59th Ann. Meeting NMC.  Jan 28-31, 2020.  Available www.NMConline.org

Kolar, Q. K., S. M. Godden, and P.L. Ruegg.  2020.  Duration of subclincial mastitis prior to occurrence of non-severe clinical mastitis – results of a preliminary analysis. Proceedings 59th Ann. Meeting NMC.  Jan 28-31, 2020.  Available www.NMConline.org

 

Rutgers University

Schaeffer L.M., Begum-Gafur R., Zaidel L., Crane S., Norabuena-Morales J., Boyd J.M., The effect of Zinc and tin of the growth and oxidative stress response of key oral bacteria. International Association for Dental Research Meeting. Washington D.C. 3/2020.

Norambuena J.,  Boyd J.M., Aeration Influences Copper Toxicity in Staphylococcus aureus. Rutgers Microbiology Symposium. New Brunswick, NJ. 2/2020.

Esquilin-Lebron K., Foley M., Carabetta V., Beavers W., Skaar E., Boyd J.M., Iron-Sulfur Protein Assembly in Gram Positive Bacteria. Rutgers Microbiology Symposium. New Brunswick, NJ. 2/2020.

Almeda-Ahmadi A., McGinley C.M., Boyd J.M., The Effects of Varying Concentrations of Cetylpyridinium Tetrachloride with Tin on the Growth of Common Oral Cavity Bacteria. Rutgers Microbiology Symposium. New Brunswick, NJ. 2/2020.

Norambuena J., Al-Tameemi H., Boyd J.M. Staphylococcus aureus lacking a functional MntABC manganese import system have increased resistance to copper. American Society National Meeting.  Virtual 7/2020.

Price, E.E. Mashruwala A.A., Boyd J.M. Examining Activators of SaeRS in S. aureus Fermentative Biofilm Formation American Society National Meeting.  Virtual 7/2020.

Norambuena J., Al-Tameemi H., Boyd J.M. Staphylococcus aureus lacking a functional MntABC manganese import system have increased resistance to copper. Boston Bacteriology Meeting.  Virtual 7/2020.

Esquilín-Lebrón K., Foley M., Carabetta V., Beavers W., Skaar E.P., Boyd J.M. Investigating the role of YlaN in iron homeostasis in Staphylococcus aureus. Boston Bacteriology Meeting.  Virtual 7/2020.

 

University of Minnesota

Rowe, S.M.*, Godden, S.M., Nydam, D.V., Lago, A., Royster, E., Vasquez, A. 2020. Randomized controlled trial evaluating the efficacy of two commercial internal teat sealants in dairy cows. Poster presentation. National Mastitis Council Annual Meeting. Jan. 28-30, 2020. Orlando, FL, USA

Rowe, S.M.*, S.M. Godden, E. Royster, J. Timmerman and M. Boyle. Cross-sectional study of the relationship between cloth udder towel management, towel bacteria counts and intramammary infection in late lactation dairy cows. Poster Presentation. 2019 Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases. Nov. 2-5, 2019. Chicago, IL.

Rowe, S.M.*, S.M. Godden, E. Royster, J. Timmerman and M. Boyle. Cross-sectional study of bedding bacteria counts and intramammary infection in late lactation dairy cows. Poster presentation. 2019 Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases. Nov. 2-5, 2019. Chicago, IL.

 

University of Vermont

Shangraw E, Rodrigues R, Witzke M, Linder HF, Choudhary R, Spitzer A, Zhao, F-Q, McFadden TB (2019) Intramammary lipopolysaccharide infusion elicits local or systemic effects depending on milk component. ADSA Annual Meeting 2019, Cincinnati, Ohio. Poster

 

Other Publications

 

Ohio State University

Enger, B.D. 2020. Blanket, selective, or no dry cow therapy: Which should I choose? OARDC Extension. Dairy in brief (DIB) # 22-20.

Enger, B.D. 2020. Therapy of Clinical Mastitis in Tough Economic Times. OARDC Extension. Dairy in brief (DIB) # 41-20.

 

University of Tennessee

Eckelkamp, E., K. Hash, and G. Pighetti. 2020. On-Farm Culture Setup. UT Extension Publication, W 946.

Hash, K., E. Eckelkamp, and G. Pighetti. 2020. Aseptic Milk Sampling Guide: Taking Clean Samples. UT Extension Publication, W 945.

Cox, M., E. Eckelkamp, G. Pighetti, P. Krawczel, and R. Trout Fryxell. 2019. Dairy parlor management: Fly control. UT Extension Publication, W 817.

Couture, V. G. Pighetti, P. Krawczel, and E. Eckelkamp. 2019. Managing mastitis in heifers and dry cows. UT Extension Publication, W 813.

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Non Land Grant Participating States/Institutions

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