WERA77: Managing Invasive Weeds in Wheat
(Multistate Research Coordinating Committee and Information Exchange Group)
WERA77: Managing Invasive Weeds in Wheat
Duration: 10/01/2019 to 09/30/2024
Statement of Issues and Justification
Due to ease and efficiency, a herbicide-based approach to weed management has successfully helped secure income for local communities and provided food sources for billions of people. However, these systems also have selected herbicide-resistant (HR) weed bioytpes. Globally, 500 unique cases (species x site of action) of HR weeds have been documented. Many of these weeds also occur in wheat fields in the United States.
As a result, dense weed infestations result in significant losses in crop yield, crop quality, and harvesting efficiency. HR weed populations also negatively affect weed managers, complicating their day-to-day decisions and often reducing their bottom line. For example, winter annual grass weeds in wheat affect wheat well beyond in-season competition for resources. Once grain reaches an elevator, weed seeds contribute to dockage or foreign material, affecting the cash price for the producer and the marketability and end-use quality of their crop. To maintain the economic sustainability of wheat production systems, long-term, effective integrated weed management plans must be developed and shared.
Among the most difficult to manage herbicide resistant grass weeds in wheat-based cropping systems are Bromus tectorum (downy brome), Secale cereale (feral rye), Aegilops cylindrica (Jointed goatgrass), and Lolium perenne spp. multiflorum (Italian ryegrass). These weeds thrive due to their biological and ecological similarities to wheat and the existence of biotypes that are resistant to acetolactate synthase inhibiting (ALS), acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase), long chain fatty acid inhibiting (LCFAI) herbicides, and glyphosate resistance (EPSP synthase). Recently, three downy brome biotypes resistant to EPSP synthase have been documented in fallow fields in Washington state. Multiple resistant Italian ryegrass, resistant to ALS and ACCase herbicides, also has been documented. Furthermore, management decisions, such as wheat only cropping systems, the use of semi-dwarf wheat cultivars, and broadcast applications of fertilizer have resulted in a steady increase in the densities of some of these species.
Herbicide resistance in downy brome and Italian ryegrass are making cost-effective chemically-based control of these weeds extremely difficult. As a result, farmers across the region are turning to mechanically-based control, an approach that could result in increased soil erosion and a loss of stored soil water, particularly in areas with easily eroded soils and limited precipitation. Additionally, in instances where a herbicide site of action is still effective, these products are used heavily, further increasing the selection pressure for resistant biotypes.
A comprehensive understanding of the environmental, genetic, and management factors conditioning the abundance and spread of downy brome, feral rye, jointed goatgrass and Italian ryegrass grass in wheat-based cropping systems is a required step to develop best management practices to reduce their presence and impact. In this context, sharing research efforts and information, coordinating extension activities, and jointly developing integrated weed management strategies will improve our understanding of weeds and their management. Ultimately, this regional knowledge will facilitate the rapid transmission of new information to wheat growers across the western U.S.
The goal of the WERA 077 Multistate Research Coordinating Committee and Information Exchange Group is to develop a networking structure among scientists to ensure that wheat producers have access to the most accurate, non-biased information possible for economical and sustainable management of herbicide resistant downy brome, feral rye, jointed goatgrass, and Italian ryegrass in wheat.
Evaluate the integration of chemical, cultural, and mechanical approaches to manage downy brome, feral rye, jointed goatgrass, and Italian ryegrass in wheat-based cropping systems with special emphasis in the prevention and long-term management of herbicide resistant biotypes.
Coordinate research to develop integrated weed management practices to reduce the spread and impacts of ALS, ACCase, LCFAI, and EPSP synthase resistant downy brome and Italian ryegrass in wheat-based cropping systems.
Share information on the genetics, biology, ecology, and integrated management of downy brome, feral rye, jointed goatgrass, and Italian ryegrass, including herbicide resistant and herbicide susceptible biotypes, among members of the WERA 077 Multistate Research Coordinating Committee and Information Exchange Group.
Develop educational outreach/extension programs and disseminate information related to research findings on the integrated management of grass and broadleaf weeds in wheat-based cropping systems, targeting producers, crop consultants, grain merchandisers, grain processors, extension personnel, and other scientists.
Procedures and Activities
The WERA 077 Multistate Research Coordinating Committee and Information Exchange Group will meet annually to discuss and develop science-based information regarding the discovery, development, and integration of mechanical, chemical, biological, and cultural management technologies for controlling weeds in wheat-based cropping systems. Special emphasis will be allocated to assessing current and alternative weed management programs to reduce the spread and impact of ALS, ACCase, LCFAI, and EPSP synthase resistant downy brome and Italian ryegrass. Research will involve molecular, physiological, and ecological characterization of herbicide resistance, weed seedbank dynamics, and mechanisms driving crop-weed competitive interactions.
The knowledge generated in Objectives 1 and 2 will be shared among members of the WERA 077 Committee (Objective 3). To maximize participation of members of the Committee, we will coordinate our meeting with the Western Society of Weed Science annual conference. During the meeting, participants will present and discuss results of the specific projects conducted in their respective states. Examples of the research conducted in different states will include, but are not limited to, 1) integrated management of downy brome, feral rye, jointed goatgrass and Italian ryegrass 2) molecular characterization of herbicide resistance, 3) understating the seed biology, genetic and phenotypic variation among resistant and susceptible populations, and 4) assessment of existing and proposed technologies for weed control and crop safety. The information shared during the meeting will allow for the development of improved management strategies with an ultimate goal of utilizing more diversified approaches for wheat-based cropping systems while reducing the economic impact of invasive weeds on wheat growers.
To improve the efficacy of weed strategies in wheat-based cropping systems, we will develop and disseminate educational outreach/extension programs (Objective 4). This information will be disseminated among producers, crop consultants, grain merchandisers, grain processors, extension personnel, and other scientists. Examples of coordinated outreach/extension efforts include: 1) development of educational materials including fact sheets, technical bulletins, and news releases to manage herbicide resistant weeds and decrease the selective pressure and spread of herbicide resistance, 2) coordination of efforts to establish Best Management Practices (BMPs) for these problematic weed species that incorporate economic and herbicide resistance management components, 3) organization of field days and ag professional meetings, 4) web-publication of results, and 5) when appropriate, dissemination through webinars and other distant learning approaches. Collectively, this information will allow growers to understand approaches to develop integrated weed management practices tailored to the specifics of their cropping systems. Additionally, the information gathered by members of the WERA 077 Committee will be disseminated within the scientific community through publication of peer reviewed journal articles and presentations at regional and national professional meetings. Lastly, data collected will be used to support funding efforts that align with committee.
Expected Outcomes and Impacts
- Technical bulletins, news releases, and web-based material will provide growers and agricultural professionals with updated information on integrated approaches to manage weeds, with a special emphasis on management of herbicide resistant biotypes.
- Educational outreach programs on the integrated management of grass and broadleaf weeds in wheat-based cropping systems will allow growers and agricultural professionals to develop economical and sustainable weed management programs in these cropping systems.
- An augmented understanding of the physiological and ecological mechanisms responsible for herbicide resistance will improve growers’ tactics to minimize the spread and impact of resistant biotypes.
- Increased knowledge of the ecological and societal factors conditioning the success of integrated weed management programs will be reflected in the publication of peer reviewed journal articles, extension publications, and accessible databases.
Projected ParticipationView Appendix E: Participation
Since its creation in January 2009, the WERA 077 Project and previous similar projects (WRC77, WRCC77, and WCC77) has been associated with several collaborative research and outreach activities. Examples include the development and implementation of the National Jointed Goatgrass Research Program. The program’s website (www.jointedgoatgrass.wsu.edu) serves as a comprehensive research and education warehouse of information on the ecology and management of this invasive weed. This group continues to produce numerous multi-state research articles on the management of weeds in small grain-based systems and develop local educational programs on weed problems in wheat.
Future activities will build on the foundation set by the program over the past 10 years. Specifically, peer-reviewed research papers will explore: 1) different aspects of integrated management of downy brome, feral rye, jointed goatgrass, and Italian ryegrass in wheat-based cropping systems and 2) approaches to decrease the selective pressure and spread of herbicide resistance in the Great Plains, Intermountain states, and Pacific Northwest. Additionally, research findings will be presented and published in research reports, proceedings of regional and national weed science societies, or as a thesis or dissertation.
The information gathered will be used to educate farmers and agricultural professionals on BMPs in wheat. Dissemination of extension-outreach material will be conducted in each state to allow individuals to enhance their current weed management programs. Our educational activities will include online information databases, informational meetings, extension publications, field tours, popular press articles, and other media sources, such as the eXtension website (about.extension.org).
Chair: 1. Maintain a liaison with the Administrative Advisor, CSREES Advisor, and other organizations with related interests. 2. Arrange for the annual meeting (room, overhead/slide projector, etc.) at a site chosen by the membership. 3. Solicit items of business, prepare agenda, and preside at the annual meeting. 4. Appoint subcommittees as necessary to carry out WERA 077 business.
Recording Secretary: Record and submit minutes of the annual meeting to the Administrative Advisor and member participants. To provide continuity in leadership, the recording secretary becomes chair and a new individual is elected to serve as recording secretary.
Subcommittees: Appointed as necessary by the chair to accomplish specific tasks; no standing subcommittees are employed.
Aramrak, A., N.C. Lawrence, V.L. Demacon, A.H. Carter, K.K. Kidwell, I.C. Burke, and C.M Steber. 2018. Isolation of mutations conferring increased glyphosate resistance in spring wheat. Crop Science 58: 84-97.
Avila-Garcia, W. V., E. Sanchez, A.G. Hulting, and C. Mallory-Smith. 2012. Target-site mutation associated with glufosinate resistance in Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum) Pest Management Science 68(9): 1248-1254.
Ball, D. A., S. M. Frost, and A. I. Gitelman. 2004. Predicting timing of downy brome (Bromus tectorum) seed production using growing degree-days. Weed Science 52: 518-524.
Barroso, J., J. Gourlie, L. Lutcher, L. Mingyang, and C.A. Mallory-Smith. 2017. Identification of glyphosate resistance in Salsola tragus in Northeastern Oregon. Pest Management Science 74: 1089-1093.
Barroso, J, Z. Miller, E.A. Lehnhoff, P.G. Hatfield, and F.D. Menalled. 2015. Impacts of cropping system and management practices on the assembly of weed communities. Weed Research 55: 426-435.
Chatham, L.A., K.W. Bradley, G.R. Kruger, J.R. Martin, J.R. Micheal, D.K. Owen, D.E. Peterson, J. Mithila, and P.J. Tranel. 2015. A multi-state study of the association between glyphosate resistance and EPSPS gene amplification in waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus). Weed Science 63: 569-577.
DePrado, R., J. Gonzalez-Gutierrez, J. Menendez, J. Gasquez, J. W. Gronwald, and R. Gimenez-Espinosa. 2000. Resistance to acetyl CoA carboxylase-inhibiting herbicides in Lolium multiflorum. Weed Science 48: 311-318.
Gaines, T., W.B. Henry, P.D. Byrn, P. Westra, S.J. Nissen, and D.L. Shaner. 2008. Jointed Goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrical) by imidazolinone-resistant wheat hybridization under field conditions. Weed Science 56: 32-36.
Godar, A.S., P.W. Stahlman, M. Jugulam, and J.A. Dille. 2015. Glyphosate-resistant Kochia in Kansas: EPSPS gene copy number in relation to resistance levels. Weed Science 63: 587-595.
Hulting, A. G., J. T. Dauer , B. Hinds-Cook, D. Curtis, R. M. Koepke-Hill, and C. Mallory-Smith. 2012. Management of Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) in western Oregon with preemergence applications of pyroxasulfone in winter wheat. Weed Technology 26: 230-235.
Keren, I., F.D. Menalled, D. Weaver, and J. Robison-Cox. 2015. Interacting agricultural pest management practices and their effect on crop yield: Application of a Bayesian decision theory approach to the joint management of Bromus tectorum and Cephus cinctus. PloS One 10(2), article number 0118111.
Kniss, A.R. and D.J. Lyon. 2011. Winter wheat response to preplant applications of aminocyclopyrachlor. Weed Technology 25: 51-57.
Kniss, A.R. D.J. Lyon, and S.D. Miller. 2008. Jointed goatgrass management with imazamox-resistant cultivars in a winter wheat-fallow rotation. Crop Science 48: 2414-2420.
Kniss, A.R., D.J. Lyon, J.D. Vassios, and S.J. Nissen. 2011. MCPA synergizes imazamox control of feral rye (Secale cereale). Weed Technology 25: 303-309.
Kuk, Y. I., N. R. Burgos, and R. E. Talbert. 2000. Cross- and multiple resistance of diclofop-resistant Lolium spp. Weed Science 48: 412-419.
Kumar, V., P. Jha, D. Giacomini, E.P. Westra, and P. Westra. 2015. Molecular basis of evolved resistance to glyphosate and acetolactate synthase-inhibitor herbicides in kochia (Kochia scoparia) accessions from Montana. Weed Science 63(4): 758-769.
Kumar, V., J.F. Spring, P. Jha, D.J. Lyon, and I.C. Burke. 2017. Glyphosate-resistant Russian-thistle (Salsola tragus) identified in Montana and Washington. Weed Technology 31: 238-251.
Lawrence, N. and I.C. Burke. 2014. Control of rattail fescue (Vulpia myuros) in no-till winter wheat. Weed Technology 28: 471-478.
Lawrence, N.L., A.L. Hauvermale, A. Dhingra, and I.C. Burke. 2017. Population structure and genetic diversity of Bromus tectorum within the small grain production region of the Pacific Northwest. Ecology and Evolution 7(20): 8316-8328.
Lehnhoff, E., B. Keith, W. Dyer, and F. Menalled. 2013. Does multiple herbicide resistance modify crop-weed competitive interactions? Impact of biotic and abiotic stresses on multiple herbicide resistant wild oat (Avena fatua) in competition with wheat (Triticum aestivum). PloS One 8(5), article number e64478.
Lehnhoff, E., B. K. Keith, W. E. Dyer, R. K. Peterson, and F. Menalled. 2013. Characterization of multiple herbicide resistance in wild oat (Avena fatua) and its impacts on physiology, germinability, and seed production. Agronomy Journal 105: 854-862.
Liu, M., A. G. Hulting, and C. Mallory-Smith. 2014. Characterization of multiple-herbicide-resistant Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum). Pest Management Science 70(7): 1145-1150.
Lyon, D.J, and I.C. Burke. 2016. Integrated management of prickly lettuce in wheat production systems. Washington State University. PNW 688.
Lyon, D.J., I.C. Burke, and J.M. Campbell. 2018. Integrated management of mustard species in wheat production systems. PNW 703.
Lyon, D.J., I.C. Burke, A.G. Hulting, and J.M. Campbell. 2017. Integrated management of mayweed chamomile in wheat and pulse crop production systems. Washington State University. PNW 695.
Lyon, D.J., A.G. Hulting, D.W. Morishita, and F.L. Young. 2014. Integrated management of downy brome in winter wheat. PNW 668.
Lyon, D.J., D.R. Huggins, and J.F. Spring. 2016. Windrow burning eliminates Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne ssp. multiflorum) seed viability. Weed Technology 30: 279-283.
Mallory-Smith, C., A.G. Hulting, D. Thill, D. Morishita, and J. Krenz. 2007. Herbicide-resistant weeds and their management. PNW 437.
Miller, Z. and F.D. Menalled FD. 2015. Impact of species identity and phylogenetic relatedness on biologically-mediated plant-soil feedbacks in a low and a high intensity agroecosystem. Plant and Soil 389: 171-183.
Nakka, S., A.S. Godar, P.S. Wani, C.R. Thompson, D.E. Peterson, J. Roelofs, and M. Jugulam. 2017. Physiological and molecular characterization of hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibitor resistant palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S.Wats.). Frontiers in Plant Science 8, article number 555.
Ou J., P.W. Stahlman and M. Jugulam. 2018. Reduced absorption of glyphosate and decreased translocation of dicamba contribute to poor control of kochia (Kochia scoparia) at high temperature. Pest Management Science 74(5): 1134-1142.
Park, K. W., C. A. Mallory-Smith, D. A. Ball, and G. W. Mueller-Warrant. 2004. Ecological fitness of acetolactate synthase inhibitor-resistant and susceptible downy brome (Bromus tectorum) biotypes. Weed Science 52: 768-773.
San Martin, C., D. Long, J.A. Gourlie, and J. Barroso J. 2018. Weed responses to fallow management in Pacific Northwest dryland cropping systems. PloS One 13(9): 1-17. Article number 0204200.
Schlatter, D.C., C. Yin, I. Burke, S. Hulbert, and T. Paulitz. 2017. Impacts of repeated glyphosate use on wheat—associated bacteria are small and depend on glyphosate use history. Applied and Evironmental Microbiology 83(22), article number 01354-17.
Stone, A.E. and T.F. Peeper. 2004. Characterizing jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) x winter wheat hybrids in Oklahoma. Weed Science 52: 742-745.
Tautges, N. E., T. S. Sullivan, C. L. Reardon, and I. C. Burke. 2016. Soil microbial diversity and activity linked to crop yield and quality in a dryland organic wheat production system. Applied Soil Ecology 108: 258-268.
Tautges, N, Borrelli, E. P. Fuerst, and I. C. Burke. 2016. Competitive ability of rotational crops with weeds in dryland organic wheat production systems. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 32(1): 57-68.
Varanasi, V.K., S. Bayromov, P.V.V. Prasad and M. Jugulam. 2017. Expression profiles of psbA, ALS, EPSPS and other chloroplastic genes in response to PSII-, ALS-, and EPSPS-Inhibitor treatments in Kochia scoparia. American Journal of Plant Science. 8:451-470.
Varanasi, V.K., A.S. Godar, R.S. Currie, J.A. Dille, C.R. Thompson, P.W. Stahlman, and M. Jugulam. 2015. Field evolved resistance to four modes of action of herbicides in a single kochia (Kochia scoparia Schrad) population. Pest Management Science 71(9): 1207-1212.
White, A.D., P.W. Stahlman, and F.E. Northam. 2004. Impact of integrated management systems on jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) populations. Weed Science 52: 1010-1017.
White, A. D., D. J. Lyon, C. Mallory-Smith, C. R. Medlin, and J. P. Yenish. 2006. Feral rye (Secale cereale) in agricultural production systems. Weed Technology 20: 815-823.
Yenish, J. P. and F. L. Young. 2004. Winter wheat competition against jointed goatgrass as influenced by wheat plant height, seeding rate, and seed size. Weed Science 52: 996-1001.
Young, F. L. and M. E. Thorne. 2004. Weed-species dynamics and management in no-till and reduced-till fallow cropping systems for the semi-arid agricultural region of the Pacific Northwest. Crop Protection 23: 1097-1110.
Young, F. L., D. K. Whaley, N. C. Lawrence, and I. C. Burke. 2016. Feral rye (Secale cereale) control in winter wheat in the Pacific Northwest. Weed Technology 30: 163-170.