S1059: Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Program for Development of Virginia-type Cultivars with High Oleic Trait
(Multistate Research Project)
S1059: Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Program for Development of Virginia-type Cultivars with High Oleic Trait
Duration: 10/01/2013 to 09/30/2018
Statement of Issues and Justification
The Virginia-Carolina (VC) region including Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina, is the most important peanut production region for the large seeded virginia-type peanut in the United States. Over 80,000 ha are grown annually with production ranging from 200,000 to over 400,000 tons. For example in 2012, the production value was $30,000,000 in Virginia and $210,000,000 in the VC region (USDA-NASS). Virginia-market type peanut cultivars are produced on over 90% of this area, for which Virginia and the Carolinas are lead producers not only in the U.S.A. but also the world.
Desirability of the virginia-market type vs. other peanut types, e.g., runner and valencia, is related to its kernel size, flavor, and the industry that evolved in the VC region around this particular type of peanut. Virginia-type peanuts have larger seeds than other types, which garner a premium price. For example, 450 g of seed has an average of 825 seeds for runners and valencia, and 475 for virginia-type. That is the virginia-type peanuts are almost twice the weight per seed of the runner or valencia-type. Therefore, in addition to revenues from pod yield farmers receive premiums from the extra large (ELK) and super extra large kernels (SELK) of virginia-type cultivars. In an average $355 per ton load of farmer stock, the farmer receives about $15-18 of premium based on the ELK. In shelled goods, the largest of the extra large kernels carry the highest value of any of the virginia-type kernels. These kernels, called super extra large, provide the backbone for the gourmet processing trade which sets Virginia apart from the other peanut growing states since the majority of these firms are located in Virginia. Part of the ongoing effort of the VC breeding program involves finding cultivars with higher percentages of these SELK. Consumers recognize the size of kernels attributable to the virginia-type peanut and desire the crunchiness and flavor for which they are known. Ultimately, the combination of peanut type and growing environment contributed to establishment of specific peanut markets in the VC region, with in-shell peanut trade, the gourmet peanut market, export markets, as well as the edible peanut being the predominant markets.
The VC region is not only home for virginia-type peanut farming, but also virginia-type cultivar development. The Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation (PVQE) program has provided multi-state variety testing for virginia-type cultivar development for over 38 years through several multi-state projects, i.e., S-1038, S-1003, and S-140. With leadership at Virginia Techs Tidewater Agricultural Research and Extension Center (TAREC) in Suffolk, VA, the PVQE is currently funded by Virginia Tech, North Carolina Agricultural Research Service, Virginia-Carolina Peanut Association, and South Carolina Peanut Growers and serves as a source of unbiased information for the peanut breeding lines across multiple years and locations. The PVQE program also provides a forum for various segments of the peanut production, shelling, and processing industries to determine future directions for the breeding program to better address the industry needs. Created in 1968, the PVQE is unique among established peanut programs at universities throughout the U.S.A., and is internationally recognized as a strong multi-state data support program for the virginia-type cultivar development.
Among future priorities, development of virginia-type cultivars with the high oleic trait was identified as the most important for the VC region. Increased oleic and decreased linoleic fatty acid content, the so called high oleic trait, has been shown to improve peanut shelf life, reduce rancidity, and increase safety for consumers. In the VC region where edible peanut markets are predominant, replacement of non-high oleic with high oleic cultivars is imperative. Very few of the existing cultivars that occupy significant acreage in the VC region are high oleic, even though the trait is in great demand by the manufacturing industry and efforts towards development of high oleic cultivars have begun in 1990. Since 2001, 47 high oleic breeding lines from the NCSU breeding program were included in the PVQE multi-state tests, but the backcross-derived high oleic lines, based on the cultivars existing in 1990, were too susceptible to diseases. Therefore, disease resistance was rather emphasized by the program. In 2006, Brantley peanut was released , as a backcross-derived high oleic NC 7. However, comingling the high oleic Brantley seed with non-high oleic seed of other cultivars resulted in Brantley being removed from the market in 2009. It quickly became apparent that high and normal oleic cultivars could not be commingled in commercial streams but rather all cultivars must be high oleic for processing to be economically feasible and seed purity preserved. Other states are also moving towards development and production of only high oleic peanuts. For example, in Texas 100% of the runner and spanish peanut production is based on high oleic cultivars developed in the past decade. Besides Texas, other peanut breeding programs in Georgia and Florida are well underway with development of high oleic runner and valencia-type peanut cultivars. In our program, there was a gap in the entry of new high oleic lines from 2005 through 2009. Since 2010, high oleic breeding lines were reintroduced in the PVQE program from which three lines were recently approved by the PVQE Advisory Committee as acceptable for release. However, bringing a sufficient number of high oleic virginia-type cultivars on the market will require further testing over multiple years and locations. Disease response along with the agronomic and quality factors will have to be determined for the specific disease pressure, soil type, and general environmental conditions specific for various regions within each state of the VC region. That will mean several additional years of testing past 2013, when the present project S1038 expires, before a sufficient number of high oleic virginia-type cultivars will be produced to cover the diversity of environments in the VC region. The ultimate plan is to have enough high oleic varieties tested and released so that all peanuts grown in our three states are high oleic which will essentially guarantee a pure high oleic shelled product. This would most benefit the VC in-shell industry, for which shelf life is critical, and the consumers of the gourmet peanut products.
Related, Current and Previous Work
The multi-state Project S-1038 Peanut Variety and Quality Evaluation Program (0213776), initially lead by Dr. F.M. Shokes and later by Dr. M. Balota, will end September 30, 2013. The objectives of this program, not specifically including development of high oleic cultivars, are (1) to examine the yield, grade, quality, maturity, insect and disease response of advanced virginia-type peanut breeding lines and released cultivars in replicated tests within key growing areas, (2) to develop a database for virginia-type peanut genotypes allowing knowledge-based selection for release of adapted cultivars that will meet all of the criteria for market success within the peanut industry within the respective states, and (3) to discover virginia-type peanut lines that would be well adapted to the southernmost part of the VC growing region and be suitable for development into cultivars. As has been its history, the program has and continues to address and solve these issues. In less than five years, the program has addressed, and for certain aspects exceeded its expectations. For example, three new virginia-type cultivars were released from the PVQE program during 2008-2012: Bailey , Sugg , and Titan . The virginia-type cultivar Bailey is highly productive and has an excellent disease resistance package; in particular it is partially resistant to early leaf spot caused by Cercospora arachidicola Hori, late leaf spot caused by Cercosporidium personatum (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Deighton, Cylindrocladium black rot (CBR) caused by Cylindrocladium parasiticum Crous, M.J. Wingf. & Alfenas, Sclerotinia blight (SB) caused by S minor Jagger, and tomato spotted wilt (TSW) caused by Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus . It also has partial resistance to southern stem rot caused by Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. Sugg produces high yields and is nearly as good as Bailey to late leaf spot, CBR, and Sclerotinia blight but has larger pods and seeds than Bailey . Titan is an extra-large seeded peanut with an exceptionally high content of jumbo pods and super extra large kernels (SELK) . Release of all three cultivars was the direct result of PVQE testing, and collaboration with Dr. T.G. Isleib, the NCSU peanut breeder, and Drs. J. Chapin and W.S. Monfort, peanut specialists at Clemson University. Other virginia-type cultivars that have previously passed through this program include CHAMPS , Brantley , and Phillips , NC 17 , NC Fla 14 , NC 6 , NC 7 , NC 8C , NC 9 , NC 10C , NC-V 11 , NC 12C , Gregory , Perry , VA 72R , VA 81B , VA-C 92R , VA 93B , VA 98R , and Wilson .
None of these cultivars possess the high oleic characteristic and no other breeding program in the country is aimed at development of high oleic virginia-type cultivars for the VC region as proposed in this project. For example, a search of the CRIS database resulted in identification of several peanut breeding and genetics projects in Florida (0216938, 0199617, 0199437, and 0177295), Texas (0214725, 0161373), Georgia (0199874), and New Mexico (0216351) but they are developing runner, spanish, and valencia-type peanut. The new project differs significantly from S-1038 and all the other CRIS projects by shifting the interest towards development of high oleic virginia-type cultivars. Therefore, the new project will have an increased emphasis on peanut quality as suggested by Pattee, et al. (2002)  and Mozingo et al. (2004) . Also, the new project has potential for increased contribution and participation from South Carolina as result of Clemson recently hiring a peanut breeder, Dr. Shyam Tallury, former NCSU peanut breeder and PVQE collaborator for the past 3 years. The program will also benefit from a recent collaboration agreement between Virginia Tech and University of Florida for development of high oleic virginia-type breeding lines to be entered in PVQE trials by the Virginia Tech.
To examine maturity, pod yield, crop gross value, insect, and disease response of high oleic advanced virginia-type peanut breeding lines in comparison with commercial cultivars in replicated field experiments within the VC region.
To develop a database for farmer stock grade and quality factors through extensive laboratory analysis of high oleic cultivars that will also meet all other criteria for market success within each state.
To identify high oleic virginia-type peanut lines which are well adapted to the southernmost part of the VC growing region and are suitable for development into cultivars.
MethodsReplicated experiments will be conducted at multiple locations in Virginia (1 location), North Carolina (3 locations), and South Carolina (1or 2 locations). Entries will be lines with desirable traits selected from breeder tests conducted independently in the participating states. Within the PVQE small-plot tests, all selected virginia-type genotypes will be compared to standard cultivars currently in production. All genotypes in PVQE tests will be thoroughly evaluated for quality factors and judged against industry standards. Data will be analyzed and presented to a PVQE Advisory Committee before release as cultivars. Plots will be seeded with a precision vacuum planter in 0.9-m beds at four seed per foot of row in all tests. Plots will be 2 rows end-trimmed after full emergence to 10 m and treatments will be replicated two or three times as dictated by resource allocation analysis and practical concerns such as seed supply and travel budget. In advance of the planting window, seed will be packaged at the TAREC and delivered to the cooperating state(s). Treatments will be arranged in randomized complete block or lattice designs. Soil fertility, herbicide, insecticide, and fungicide inputs will be made according to extension service recommendations. Virginia Tech personnel will manage field trials from planting through harvest in three locations in North Carolina, and one location in Virginia. For greater efficiency, plot planting, harvesting, and maintenance in South Carolina will be performed by staff at the Edisto Research and Education Center in Blackville, SC. Complete quality evaluation will be performed however by the Virginia Tech personnel within the PVQE program at the TAREC. Seed of new high oleic lines will be initially provided by the peanut breeder at the NCSU and later, depending on availability, by Clemson University and Virginia Tech. Existing trucks, tractors, planters, combines, sprayers, computers, insect monitoring equipment, laboratory space, experiment farm acreage, peanut grading, drying, and storage facilities will be used to implement this study. A complete cleaning, sizing, shelling, and grading facility is available within the PVQE Program at the TAREC. Freezers for germplasm storage are also available at TAREC as is equipment for seed treatment. Data from all trials will be subjected to appropriate statistical analysis for evaluation. Objective 1 - Field Measurements: To develop an agronomic and pest response database relative to different locations and environments, field measurements will be made to include: (a) Susceptibility to tomato spotted wilt virus, late leaf spot, southern stem rot, and any other diseases of regional importance. (b) Susceptibility to thrips, southern corn rootworm and other insect pests. (c) Growth habit and maturity. (d) Yield, value per pound, and value per acre based on yield and farmer stock grading factors. Objective 2 - Laboratory Measurements: To allow selection of genotypes based on quality factors that determine suitability for the industry, laboratory measurements will be taken on lines with proven agronomic potential for the region. These measurements include all of the following: (a) Pod brightness (Hunter L score); (b) Farmer stock grade factors including jumbo and fancy pod fractions, and fractions of shelled goods falling into various US grades; (c) Fatty acid composition; (d) Kernel Ca concentration; (e) Blanchability of extra-large and medium kernels; (f) Potential consumer acceptability of processed peanuts. Objective 3 - Evaluation of the high oleic breeding lines in the southernmost growing area (South Carolina) of the VC region. Requirements for genotype maturity and pest resistance differ from the more northerly to the more southerly latitude. Genotypes may be identified that perform well in South Carolina but would not be acceptable for the more northerly latitude. This research will insure that the peanut industry in the VC region will have access to desirable high oleic virginia-type cultivars. Timely results will become available to all segments of the peanut industry each year. Stakeholders for this project include breeders, producers, extension agents, consumers, retailers, and shellers. A multi-state approach is the best mechanism to meet the research and educational needs of these groups. The PVQE program will involve testing in Virginia and the Carolinas, and will be aligned with the needs of growers, shellers, manufacturers, and processors in the development of high oleic cultivars.
Measurement of Progress and Results
- Annual publication of reports of agronomic data on high oleic lines tested at five locations through the PVQE Program. Data will give comparisons of lines to standard cultivars to determine suitability for the in-shell and roasted peanut markets. Results will include growth habit, plant height, yields, grades, pods in different size classes, and projected market value. Disease and insect resistance/susceptibility data will be included.
- Annual publication of reports on quality data of high oleic lines tested at five locations through the PVQE Program. Data will give quality comparisons of kernel blanching for the different size classes, calcium content of seed, fatty acid composition, seed size distribution, mill outturn, appearance of kernels, flavor, pod brightness, cooking qualities, suitability for roasting, suitability for peanut brittle, etc. These data coupled with the agronomic data are essential for determining whether a breeding line will be acceptable to various segments of the peanut industry and have the potential to succeed in the market place.
- Presentation of data will be made to the PVQE Advisory Committee as well as at appropriate industry meetings and scientific meetings.
- Papers on high oleic breeding lines and cultivars will be published in appropriate scientific journals.
- Data will be sufficient to make knowledge-based decisions for high oleic cultivar releases adapted to the various areas of the VC growing region.
Outcomes or Projected Impacts
- Determination of the suitability of high oleic breeding lines to meet the needs of various segments of the peanut industry will be made.
- Development of new high oleic virginia-type cultivars will conform to different standards compared to older cultivars.
- New high oleic breeding lines will be tested as made available through appropriate channels within each state.
- Thorough testing of new high oleic cultivars prior to their release will assure that they perform well agronomically for farmers and have the high oleic characteristics desired by shellers, manufacturers, and consumers.
Milestones(0):Breeder Tests will be conducted in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Virginia and high oleic lines tested therein will be selected for PVQE Testing. Lines selected for comparison and advancement become available for PVQE testing. (VT, NCSU, and Clemson University)
(0):Advanced lines with the high oleic characteristic will be tested in PVQE experiments in Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina for agronomic characteristics, adaptability to the growing areas, and physiological qualities for use by all segments of the VC peanut industry. Research will be presented and published. (VT, NCSU, and Clemson University)
(0):Elite line(s) with high oleic characteristic, high pod yield, disease and insect resistance, and favorable quality factors will be annually selected for release approval by the PVQE Advisory Committee in their March meeting every year. Elite line(s) will be chosen for release as cultivar(s) (VT, NCSU, and Clemson University)
Projected ParticipationView Appendix E: Participation
Findings will be published by the investigators in their annual reports (hardcopy, web, and CD), discussed in production meetings, used to update harvest information provided by the state Peanut Production Guides, and published in appropriate refereed journals. Data will be scrutinized by the PVQE Advisory Committee annually and pertinent information will be presented to the V-C Peanut Advisory Committee every other year.
Virginia will serve as the lead state for this project. Virginia Tech will provide salary, fringe benefits, and general operating support for the Project Leader and lead technician. Each participating state will be expected to contribute financially to the project by transferring funds to Virginia Tech for partial support of technical and clerical personnel, travel, and supplies associated with the research.
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