WERA1009: Systems to Improve End-use Quality of Wheat

(Multistate Research Coordinating Committee and Information Exchange Group)

Status: Inactive/Terminating

WERA1009: Systems to Improve End-use Quality of Wheat

Duration: 10/01/2012 to 09/30/2017

Administrative Advisor(s):

NIFA Reps:

Statement of Issues and Justification

Wheat quality is defined by its diverse end-uses. Wheat's unique and varied processing attributes, as well as tradition, produced many market classes based on end-use quality and food makers capture value from those classes. Many scientists, both public and private, seek to improve the end-use quality of all market classes of wheat. The entire wheat enterprise, from farm to processor, recognizes the need to coordinate quality improvement efforts. This project will create a multi-disciplinary committee for exchange of wheat quality information among growers, researchers and industry. Its primary goal is to use industry input to focus public research efforts and educate growers, researchers and industry about the wheat cultivars, newest wheat quality research tools, and wheat food product specifications. Past work of a similar committee led to shifts in acreage from lesser quality to higher quality varieties. Similar measurable results are anticipated from this project.


  1. Coordinate research on the improvement of wheat quality in all classes of PNW wheat for domestic and international end-uses.
  2. Facilitate the exchange of information among research, extension and industry representatives on wheat end-use quality.
  3. Evaluate the quality of regional, extension and breeding nurseries and improve quality evaluations of those trials.
  4. Use regional nursery and extension testing data to measure genotype and environmental effects on end-use quality of wheat and in turn improve PNW wheat marketing.
  5. Utilize advanced instrumentation, molecular biology, biochemistry, and cereal chemistry to improve end-use quality of adapted wheat cultivars.
  6. Explore functional quality of wheat for human health.

Procedures and Activities

1. With the exception of soft red wheat, all market classes of wheat are grown in the Western region. The historic target values and accepted ranges for many quality parameters are well-established. Newer quality parameter targets and ranges are less clear. However, none are static as industry processes and products evolve. The milling and baking industry, through large-scale tests can provide important guidance to the research community. The USDA/ARS Wheat Quality Laboratory in Pullman, Washington and the Wheat Marketing Center in Portland, Oregon can translate these needs and information to small-scale tests, allowing wheat breeders to utilize the procedures and information into cultivar development efforts. Further coordination of breeding and extension testing can identify environmental areas conducive to high quality wheat production for specific market classes. Expertise, superior germplasm and optimal production areas can combine to meet market needs and opportunities. This project will be venue for that combination to occur among research, extension, and industry partners.

2. Information exchange between interdisciplinary research groups and industry will occur at the yearly project meeting usually held mid to late January. Informal exchanges also occur among research groups and with industry throughout the year through working relationships developed in the project. A web site managed by the USDA/ARS Western Wheat Quality Laboratory is also available to facilitate information exchange in the interval between meetings.

3. Analysis of regional nursery samples by the USDA/ARS Wheat Quality Laboratory provides end-use quality information on a standard set of lines grown across a wide variety of environments. This information enables breeders to know how environmentally stable their cultivars are in terms of end-use quality and it allows the wheat industry to identify cultivars that have promise in terms of end-use quality for their purchasing areas. The relatively large amount of seed per cultivar generated by the regional nurseries allows the USDA/ARS Wheat Quality Laboratory to conduct more extensive quality evaluations. Most Western states also conduct extension testing of new cultivars in on-farm trials to determine the local adaptation of the new cultivars in farm production settings. Like the regional testing system, the grain produced in the extension testing system is evaluated for end-use quality.

4. The influence of genotype, environment, and their interaction on end-use quality can be established using regional and extension nursery samples as well as seed samples from each breeding program. Individual state and ARS laboratories will conduct small sample evaluation for protein quality (SDS sedimentation or SRC lactic acid), color (PPO tests on seed or Minolta values on noodle sheets), test weight, kernel hardness, falling number, milling quality, flour absorption capacities by water, sucrose and carbonate SRCs and baking tests for bread, cookie, and/or cake quality. This information is shared at either the annual meeting or on the Web. These trials are increasingly used by wheat quality laboratories to develop quality indices and to cull wheat cultivars of undesirable quality before the cultivars are released or reach wide spread production.

5. Molecular markers are becoming available that help pinpoint quality traits that can only be determined by extensive testing and baking. The ability to identify genes and/or linked markers associated with end-use quality genes is advancing rapidly, improving the ability of the breeders to select for genotypes with improved end-use quality potential. Instrumentation such as texture analyzers (food texture measurement) and the Rapid Viscoanalyzer (measurement of starch attributes) provide extensive measurements of end-use but without linkage to industry evaluation and criteria the significance of those measurements are largely lost. A primary goal of this project is to identify new methods for assessing quality and to tie those methods to measures of value important to wheat end-users.

6. Increased intake of non-starch polysaccharides and resistant starch improves human health by improving laxation, reducing GI, and lowering plasma cholesterol level. Cultivar and germplasm with high amylose and arabinoxylan content can be selected by screening of materials from NSGC and TILLING.

Expected Outcomes and Impacts

  • Public and private wheat breeding and cultivar testing programs in Idaho, Oregon and Washington will be coordinated for end-use quality evaluation with participation of other western state programs strongly encouraged.
  • Ideas and information will be exchanged among university and industry personnel during annual meetings.
  • Preferred cultivar lists will be published in cooperation with wheat grower organizations.
  • Methods of wheat quality testing will be standardized across participating institutions.
  • Acreage of cultivars with improved end-use quality will increase across the PNW and the greater western region of the United States.

Projected Participation

View Appendix E: Participation

Educational Plan

Annual meetings will provide the primary opportunity for educational outreach and exchange between industry and research. Project participants will meet in conjunction with the Pacific Northwest Wheat Quality Council (PNWWQC) and the Pacific Northwest Division of the American Association of Cereal Chemists (AACC-International). The PNWWQC is an industry centered group that meets to discuss quality issues in the region and collaborates on testing and quality evaluation of potential cultivars being considered for release by public and private wheat breeding programs in the Western Region. Interaction with this group has proved to be enlightening and invaluable. Wheat researchers throughout the Western Region gain early access to industry-developed techniques through industry collaboration in this project and the PNWWQC allowing for earlier selection of wheat genotypes with the end-use quality profiles that meet the industry's needs. Along with researchers, extension educators and industry representatives, participation by wheat growers and representatives of the region's state wheat commissions allows for input from the wheat producer's perspective. This participation by growers at the meeting is encouraged to improve wheat producer understanding of end products and markets available to their crops and how their cultural practices and cultivar choices impact the quality of the end-use products.

Researchers communicate the information gathered at the project meeting with growers at field days, in grower meetings and through technical bulletins. More involvement by quality lab personnel in these activities should occur. Quality evaluations produced by the project and the PNWWQC directly influence the release decisions of wheat breeders in the Western region. Similarly, quality evaluations produced by these joint councils are used by state wheat commissions in promoting superior quality wheats and in discouraging production of inferior quality wheats.


Elected officers consist of a chair, chair-elect and secretary.

In addition to participation by university faculty from Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Utah, and Colorado, this project has consistently had meeting participation by representatives from western state wheat and grain commissions, Agricultural Research Service grain quality labs, the Federal Grain Inspection Service, US Wheat Associates, the Wheat Marketing Center, and from private cereal breeding and milling companies. Examples of past and anticipated future participants include:

Idaho Wheat Commission

Oregon Wheat Commission

Washington Grain Alliance

Western Wheat Quality Lab

Wheat Marketing Center

US Wheat Associates

Federal Grain Inspection Service


Bayer Plant Sciences

Dow Agrosciences

Limagrain Cereal Seeds

WestBred, a unit of Monsanto

Continental Mills

General Mills

Horizon Milling


Pendleton Flour Mills

Literature Cited


Baik, B. K. and Czuchajowska, Z. 1997. Barley in udon noodles. Food Science and Technology International 3:423-435.

Baik, B. K. and Lee, M. R. 2003. Effects of starch amylose content of wheat on textural properties of white salted noodles. Cereal Chemistry 80:304-309.

Baik, B. K., Park, C. S., Paszczynska, B. and Konzak, C. F. 2003. Characteristics of noodles and bread prepared from double-null partial waxy wheat. Cereal Chemistry 80:627-633.

Bettge, A. D. and Morris, C. F. 2007. Oxidative gelation measurement and influence on soft wheat batter viscosity and end-use quality. Cereal Chemistry 84:237-242.

Bhave, M. and Morris, C. F. 2008. Molecular genetics of puroindolines and related genes: allelic diversity in wheat and other grasses. Plant Molecular Biology 66:205-219.

Brevis, J. C., Morris, C. F., Manthey, F. and Dubcovsky, J. 2010. Effect of the grain protein content locus Gpc-B1 on bread and pasta quality. Journal of Cereal Science 51:357-365.

Chen, F., Beecher, B. S. and Morris, C. F. 2010a. Physical mapping and a new variant of Puroindoline b-2 genes in wheat. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 120:745-751.

Chen, F., Zhang, F., Morris, C., He, Z., Xia, X. and Cui, D. 2010b. Molecular characterization of the Puroindoline a-D1b allele and development of an STS marker in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Journal of Cereal Science 52:80-82.

Chen, J., Souza, E.J., Hole, D., Guttieri, M.J., O'Brien, K.L., Wheeler, J., Sorensen, L., Clayton, J., Zemetra, R., Windes, J.M., and Chen, X.M. 2012. Registration of UI SRG Wheat. J. Plant Registration 6 (2): 66-70.

Chen, J., Souza, E.J., Bosque-Pérez, N.A., Guttieri, M.J., O'Brien, K.L., Windes, J.M. Guy, S.O., Brown, B.D., Chen, X.M., and Zemetra, R.S. 2010. Registration of UI Winchester Wheat. J. Plant Registration 4:1 - 4.

Chen, J., Souza, E. J., Zemetra, R. S., Bosque-Perez, N. A., Guttieri, M. J., Schotzko, D., O'Brien, K. L., Windes, J. M., Guy, S. O., Brown, B. D. and Chen, X. M. 2009. Registration of 'Cataldo' Wheat. Journal of Plant Registrations 3:264-268.

Crosbie, G. B., Chiu, P. C. and Ross, A. S. 2002. Shortened temperature program for application with a Rapid Visco Analyser in prediction of noodle quality in wheat. Cereal chemistry 79:596-599.

Crosbie, G. B. and Ross, A. S. 2004. Asian wheat flour noodles. The encyclopedia of grain science 2:304-312.

Crosbie, G. B., Ross, A. S., Moro, T. and Chiu, P. C. 1999. Starch and protein quality requirements of Japanese alkaline noodles (Ramen). Cereal Chemistry 76:328-334.

Demeke, T. and Morris, C. 2002. Molecular characterization of wheat polyphenol oxidase (PPO). TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics 104:813-818.

Epstein, J., Morris, C. F. and Huber, K. C. 2002. Instrumental Texture of White Salted Noodles Prepared from Recombinant Inbred Lines of Wheat Differing in the Three Granule Bound Starch Synthase (Waxy) Genes* 1. Journal of Cereal Science 35:51-63.

Finnie, S., Bettge, A. and Morris, C. 2006. Influence of flour chlorination and ingredient formulation on the quality attributes of pancakes. Cereal Chemistry:684-691.

Finnie, S. M., Jeannotte, R., Morris, C. F. and Faubion, J. M. 2010a. Variation in polar lipid composition among near-isogenic wheat lines possessing different puroindoline haplotypes. Journal of Cereal Science 51:66-72.

Finnie, S. M., Jeannotte, R., Morris, C. F., Giroux, M. J. and Faubion, J. M. 2010b. Variation in polar lipids located on the surface of wheat starch. Journal of Cereal Science 51:73-80.

Fuerst, E. P., Anderson, J. V. and Morris, C. F. 2006. Delineating the role of polyphenol oxidase in the darkening of alkaline wheat noodles. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 54:2378-2384.

Geera, B. P., Nelson, J. E., Souza, E. and Huber, K. C. 2006a. Composition and properties of A- and B-type starch granules of wild-type, partial waxy, and waxy soft wheat. Cereal Chemistry 83:551-557.

Geera, B. P., Nelson, J. E., Souza, E. and Huber, K. C. 2006b. Flour pasting properties of wild-type and partial waxy soft wheats in relation to growing environment-induced fluctuations in starch characteristics. Cereal Chemistry 83:558-564.

Geera, B. P., Nelson, J. E., Souza, E. and Huber, K. C. 2006c. Granule bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) gene effects related to soft wheat flour/starch characteristics and properties. Cereal Chemistry 83:544-550.

Gujral, H. S., Park, S. J. and Baik, B. K. 2008. Effects of added minerals on pasting of partial waxy wheat flour and starch and on noodle making properties. Cereal Chemistry 85:97-101.

Guttieri, M. J., O'Brien, K., Becker, C., Stark, J. C., Windes, J. and Souza, E. 2006a. Managing nitrogen fertility of irrigated soft white spring wheats for optimum quality. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 86:459-464.

Guttieri, M. J., Peterson, K. M. and Souza, E. J. 2006b. Agronomic performance of low phytic acid wheat. Crop Science 46:2623-2629.

Guttieri, M. J., Peterson, K. M. and Souza, E. J. 2006c. Milling and baking quality of low phytic acid wheat. Crop Science 46:2403-2408.

Guttieri, M. J., Peterson, K. M. and Souza, E. J. 2006d. Mineral distributions in milling fractions of low phytic acid wheat. Crop Science 46:2692-2698.

Guttieri, M. J., Souza, E. J. and Sneller, C. 2008. Nonstarch Polysaccharides in Wheat Flour Wire-Cut Cookie Making. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 56:10927-10932.

Guttieri, M. J., Souza, E. J. and Sneller, C. 2011. Laboratory Milling Method for Whole Grain Soft Wheat Flour Evaluation. Cereal Chemistry 88:1-5.

He, X. Y., He, Z. H., Morris, C. F. and Xia, X. C. 2009. Cloning and phylogenetic analysis of polyphenol oxidase genes in common wheat and related species. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 56:311-321.

Hou, G. and Kruk, M. 1998. Asian noodle technology. AIB technical bulletin 20:1-10.

Hou, G. 2010. Asian Noodles: Science, Technology, and Processing. Wiley.

Janto, M., Pipatsattayanuwong, S., Kruk, M. W., Hou, G. Q. and McDaniel, M. R. 1998. Developing noodles from US wheat varieties for the Far East market: Sensory perspective. Food Quality and Preference 9:403-412.

Kamal, A. H. M., Kim, K. H., Shin, K. H., Choi, J. S., Baik, B. K., Tsujimoto, H., Heo, H. Y., Park, C. S. and Woo, S. H. 2010. Abiotic stress responsive proteins of wheat grain determined using proteomics technique. Australian Journal of Crop Science 4:196-208.

Kidwell, K. K., Shelton, G. B., DeMacon, V. L., Chen, X. M., Kuehner, J. S., Baik, B., Engle, D. A., Carter, A. H. and Bosque-Perez, N. A. 2009a. Registration of 'Kelse' Wheat. Journal of Plant Registrations 3:269-272.

Kidwell, K. K., Shelton, G. B., DeMacon, V. L., Kuehner, I. S., Baik, B., Engle, D. A., Bosque-Perez, N. A., Burke, A., Carter, A. H. and Chen, X. M. 2009b. Registration of 'Whit' Wheat. Journal of Plant Registrations 3:279-282.

Knott, C. A., Van Sanford, D. A. and Souza, E. J. 2009. Genetic Variation and the Effectiveness of Early-Generation Selection for Soft Winter Wheat Quality and Gluten Strength. Crop Science 49:113-119.

Kongraksawech, T., Ross, A. S. and Ong, Y. L. 2010. Effect of Carbonate on Co-Extraction of Arabinoxylans with Glutenin Macropolymer. Cereal Chemistry 87:86-88.

Kweon, M., Martin, R. and Souza, E. 2009a. Effect of Tempering Conditions on Milling Performance and Flour Functionality. Cereal Chemistry:12-17.

Kweon, M., Slade, L. and Levine, H. 2009b. Oxidative Gelation of Solvent-Accessible Arabinoxylans is the Predominant Consequence of Extensive Chlorination of Soft Wheat Flour. Cereal Chemistry 86:421-424.

Kweon, M., Slade, L. and Levine, H. 2011a. Development of a Benchtop Baking Method for Chemically Leavened Crackers. I. Identification of a Diagnostic Formula and Procedure. Cereal Chemistry:19-24.

Kweon, M., Slade, L. and Levine, H. 2011b. Solvent Retention Capacity (SRC) Testing of Wheat Flour: Principles and Value in Predicting Flour Functionality in Different Wheat-Based Food Processes, as well as in Wheat Breeding - a Review. Cereal Chemistry Journal.

Kweon, M., Slade, L., Levine, H., Martin, R., Andrews, L. and Souza, E. 2009c. Effects of Extent of Chlorination, Extraction Rate, and Particle Size Reduction on Flour and Gluten Functionality Explored by Solvent Retention Capacity (SRC) and Mixograph. Cereal Chemistry:221-224.

Kweon, M., Slade, L., Levine, H., Martin, R. and Souza, E. 2009d. Exploration of Sugar Functionality in Sugar-Snap and Wire-Cut Cookie Baking: Implications for Potential Sucrose Replacement or Reduction. Cereal Chemistry 86:425-433.

Kweon, M., Slade, L., Levine, H. and Souza, E. 2010. Application of RVA and Time-Lapse Photography to Explore Effects of Extent of Chlorination, Milling Extraction Rate, and Particle-Size Reduction of Flour on Cake-Baking Functionality. Cereal Chemistry:409-414.

Lee, M. R., Swanson, B. G. and Baik, B. K. 2001. Influence of amylose content on properties of wheat starch and breadmaking quality of starch and gluten blends. Cereal Chemistry 78:701-706.

Li, S., Morris, C. F. and Bettge, A. D. 2009. Genotype and Environment Variation for Arabinoxylans in Hard Winter and Spring Wheats of the US Pacific Northwest. Cereal Chemistry 86:88-95.

Massa, A. N., Beecher, B. and Morris, C. F. 2007. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in wheat and wild relatives: molecular evidence for a multigene family. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 114:1239-1247.

Mikhaylenko, G. G., Czuchajowska, Z., Baik, B. K. and Kidwell, K. K. 2000. Environmental Influences on Flour Composition, Dough Rheology, and Baking Quality of Spring Wheat. Cereal Chemistry Journal 77:507-511.

Morris, C. F., Bettge, A. D., Pitts, M. J., King, G. E., Pecka, K. and McCluskey, P. J. 2008a. Compressive strength of wheat endosperm: Comparison of endosperm bricks to the single kernel characterization system. Cereal Chemistry 85:359-365.

Morris, C. F., Delwiche, S. R., Bettge, A. D., Mabille, F., Abecassis, J., Pitts, M. J., Dowell, F. E., Deroo, C. and Pearson, T. 2011. Collaborative Analysis of Wheat Endosperm Compressive Material Properties. Cereal Chemistry 88:391-396.

Morris, C. F. and King, G. E. 2007. Registration of 'Waxy-Pen' Soft White Spring Waxy Wheat. Journal of Plant Registrations 1:23-24.

Morris, C. F., Li, S., King, G. E., Engle, D. A., Burns, J. W. and Ross, A. S. 2009. A Comprehensive Genotype and Environment Assessment of Wheat Grain Ash Content in Oregon and Washington: Analysis of Variation. Cereal Chemistry 86:307-312.

Morris, C. F., Pitts, M. J., Bettge, A. D., Pecka, K., King, G. E. and McCluskey, P. J. 2008b. Compressive strength of wheat endosperm: Analysis of endosperm bricks. Cereal Chemistry 85:351-358.

Murphy, K. M., Hoagland, L. A., Reeves, P. G., Baik, B.-K. and Jones, S. S. 2009. Nutritional and quality characteristics expressed in 31 perennial wheat breeding lines. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 24:285-292.

Ohm, J. B., Ross, A. S., Ong, Y. L. and Peterson, C. J. 2006. Using Multivariate Techniques to Predict Wheat Flour Dough and Noodle Characteristics from Size-Exclusion HPLC and RVA Data. Cereal Chemistry Journal 83:1-9.

Ohm, J. B., Ross, A. S., Peterson, C. J. and Morris, C. F. 2009. Relationships of Quality Characteristics with Size-Exclusion HPLC Chromatogram of Protein Extract in Soft White Winter Wheats. Cereal Chemistry 86:197-203.

Ong, Y. L., Ross, A. S. and Engle, D. A. 2010. Glutenin Macropolymer in Salted and Alkaline Noodle Doughs. Cereal Chemistry 87:79-85.

Park, C. S. and Baik, B. K. 2002. Flour characteristics related to optimum water absorption of noodle dough for making white salted noodles. Cereal Chemistry 79:867-873.

Park, C. S. and Baik, B. K. 2004. Significance of amylose content of wheat starch on processing and textural properties of instant noodles. Cereal Chemistry 81:521-526.

Park, C. S. and Baik, B. K. 2007. Characteristics of french bread baked from wheat flours of reduced starch amylose content. Cereal Chemistry 84:437-442.

Park, C. S., Hong, B. H. and Baik, B. K. 2003. Protein quality of wheat desirable for making fresh white salted noodles and its influences on processing and texture of noodles. Cereal Chemistry 80:297-303.

Park, S. J. and Baik, B.-K. 2009. Quantitative and Qualitative Role of Added Gluten on White Salted Noodles. Cereal Chemistry 86:646-652.

Pasha, I., Anjum, F. M. and Morris, C. F. 2010. Grain Hardness: A Major Determinant of Wheat Quality. Food Science and Technology International 16:511-522.

Ramseyer, D. D., Bettge, A. D. and Morris, C. F. 2011a. Distribution of Total, Water-Unextractable, and Water-Extractable Arabinoxylans in Wheat Flour Mill Streams. Cereal Chemistry 88:209-216.

Ramseyer, D. D., Bettge, A. D. and Morris, C. F. 2011b. Endogenous and Enhanced Oxidative Cross-Linking in Wheat Flour Mill Streams. Cereal Chemistry 88:217-222.

Randhawa, H. S., Mutti, J. S., Kidwell, K., Morris, C. F., Chen, X. and Gill, K. S. 2009. Rapid and Targeted Introgression of Genes into Popular Wheat Cultivars Using Marker-Assisted Background Selection. Plos One 4.

Ross, A. S. 2006. Instrumental measurement of physical properties of cooked Asian wheat flour noodles. Cereal chemistry 83:42-51.

Ross A.S. 2012. Starch in foods. In: Carbohydrate Chemistry. R Wrolstad ed. IFT Press. In Press.

Ross, A. S. and Bettge, A. D. 2009. Passing the Test on Wheat End Use Quality.
Ross A.S. Whole-grain and fiber-enriched noodles. In: Wholegrain and fiber enriched foods: improving quality. J.A. Delcour and K Poutanen eds. Woodhead Publishing. In Press.

Ross A.S. & Crosbie G.B. 2010. Wheat-flour factors influencing noodle texture . In: Asian Noodles: Science, Technology, and Processing. G Hou ed. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Ross, A. S., Quail, K. J. and Crosbie, G. B. 1997. Physicochemical properties of Australian flours influencing the texture of yellow alkaline noodles. Cereal chemistry 74:814-820.

Saint Pierre, C., Peterson, C. J., Ross, A. S., Ohm, J.-B., Verhoeven, M. C., Larson, M. and Hoefer, B. 2008a. White wheat grain quality changes with genotype, nitrogen fertilization, and water stress. Agronomy Journal 100:414-420.

Saint Pierre, C., Peterson, C. J., Ross, A. S., Ohm, J. B., Verhoeven, M. C., Larson, M. and Hoefer, B. 2008b. Winter wheat genotypes under different levels of nitrogen and water stress: Changes in grain protein composition. Journal of Cereal Science 47:407-416.

Scudiero, L. and Morris, C. F. 2010. Field emission scanning electron and atomic force microscopy, and Raman and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization of near-isogenic soft and hard wheat kernels and corresponding flours. Journal of Cereal Science 52:136-142.

Smith, N., Guttieri, M., Souza, E., Shoots, J., Sorrells, M. and Sneller, C. 2011. Identification and Validation of QTL for Grain Quality Traits in a Cross of Soft Wheat Cultivars Pioneer Brand 25R26 and Foster. Crop Science 51:1424-1436.

Souza, E. J., Griffey, C., Kweon, M. and Guttieri, M. 2008a. Sources of variation for long-flow experimental milling. Crop Science 48:1432-1440.

Souza, E. J., Guttieri, M. and Sneller, C. 2011a. Nutritional Profile of Whole-Grain Soft Wheat Flour. Cereal Chemistry 88:473-479.

Souza, E. J., Guttieri, M. J., O'Brien, K. M. and Zernetra, R. S. 2008b. Registration of 'Juniper' Wheat. Journal of Plant Registrations 2:47-50.

Souza, E. J., Guttieri, M. J., O'Brien, K. M. and Zernetra, R. S. 2008c. Registration of 'UI Darwin'Wheat. Journal of Plant Registrations 2:43-46.

Souza, E. J., Guttieri, M. J. and Sneller, C. 2011b. Selecting Soft Wheat Genotypes for Whole Grain Cookies. Crop Science 51:189-197.

Souza, E. J., Guttieri, M. J. and Sneller, C. 2011c. Water-Extractable Nonstarch Polysaccharide Distribution in Pilot Milling Analysis of Soft Winter Wheat. Cereal Chemistry 88:525-532.

Souza, E. J., Lazar, M. D., Guttieri, M. J., Thill, D. and Rauch, T. 2006. Registration of 'Idaho 587' Wheat. Crop Science 46:1387-1389.

Zhang, J., Martin, J. M., Beecher, B., Morris, C. F., Hannah, L. C. and Giroux, M. J. 2009. Seed-specific expression of the wheat puroindoline genes improves maize wet milling yields. Plant Biotechnology Journal 7:733-743.

Zhou, X., Baik, B.-K., Wang, R. and Lim, S.-T. 2010. Retrogradation of waxy and normal corn starch gels by temperature cycling. Journal of Cereal Science 51:57-65.


Land Grant Participating States/Institutions


Non Land Grant Participating States/Institutions

USDA-ARS/Washington, Wheat Marketing Center
Log Out ?

Are you sure you want to log out?

Press No if you want to continue work. Press Yes to logout current user.

Report a Bug
Report a Bug

Describe your bug clearly, including the steps you used to create it.