WDC_WERA_TEMP_20: Management of Diseases Caused by Systemic Pathogens in Temperate and Sub-Tropical Fruit Crops and Woody Ornamentals
(Multistate Research Coordinating Committee and Information Exchange Group)
WDC_WERA_TEMP_20: Management of Diseases Caused by Systemic Pathogens in Temperate and Sub-Tropical Fruit Crops and Woody Ornamentals
Duration: 10/01/2021 to 09/30/2022
Statement of Issues and Justification
WERA-20 Multi-State project has been providing evidence-based knowledge and practical solutions to diseases caused by systemic pathogens in economically important fruit crops grown in the U.S. Recognizing the value of this project, WERA-20 participants attending the annual meeting held virtually during May 20-22, 2020, have unanimously recommended to continue the project with expanded objectives to include diseases of economically important sub-tropical fruit crops and woody ornamentals that constitute a large segment of specialty crops grown in the U.S. Fruit crops (pome fruits such as apple and pear, stone fruits such as cherries and peaches, citrus, grapevines, and berries such as strawberries, blueberries) and woody ornamentals (trees, shrubs and vines planted for aesthetic landscaping) contribute significantly to the national economy with farmgate value in tens of billions of dollars.
The temperate and sub-tropical perennial fruit crops and woody ornamentals are affected by a wide range of diseases caused by obligate and intracellular parasites, such as viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas, and systemic bacterial pathogens. The following examples highlight the threat of diseases caused by systemic pathogens leading to profound socio-economic impacts to fruit crop and woody ornamental industries in the U.S.
• Huanglongbing or citrus greening, caused by the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus and vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is causing devastation to Florida’s citrus industry.
• Pierce's Disease, caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, emerged as a serious problem to California vineyards after the introduction of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar).
• Little cherry disease complex, caused by X-disease phytoplasma and Little cherry virus 2 and transmitted by leafhoppers and mealybugs, respectively, is threatening the long-term economic sustainability of the Pacific Northwest sweet cherry (Prunus avium) industry. The X-disease phytoplasma is also affecting other crops, such as peaches, nectarines and plums.
• Grapevine leafroll disease (GLD) is seriously affecting vineyard sustainability in many wine regions in the U.S. The spread of GLD occurred more rapidly in California vineyards subsequent to the introduction of the vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus Signoret), a vector with prolific reproductive and vectoring capacity compared to native mealybug species. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3, an insidious virus consistently found in vines showing GLD symptoms, is efficiently transmitted by several species of mealybugs causing widespread damage to health and productivity of vineyards throughout North America.
• Grapevine red blotch virus is causing economic damage to wine grape production across North American vineyards by affecting fruit yield and grape quality.
• The growing risk of virus diseases to berry crops (strawberry, blueberry, blackberry and raspberry) is alarming and affecting sustainability of berry crop industries in the U.S.
• Rose rosette, a damaging virus disease of roses transmitted by the eriophyid mite Phyllocoptes fructiphilus, is seriously affecting the American rose industry and causing significant decline of garden roses and urban landscapes.
• If there are no control measures implemented, several of the new viruses reported in recent years could cause significant losses in fruit crops and woody perennials.
In general terms, diseases caused by systemic pathogens are affecting plant growth and vigor, thereby diminishing gross yields and produce quality. In addition to these deleterious effects to growers and consumers, there are other significant indirect and induced multiplier impacts on allied business sectors dependent on fruit crop and woody ornamentals. It is worth noting that, besides crop losses due to diseases, time lost and cost in maintaining nursery stock and bringing perennial fruit crops and woody ornamentals to bearing is significant to nurseries, growers and producers. Deploying evidence-based strategies to protect these specialty crops from disease threats is critical not only to advance their sustainability and ensure the global competitiveness of producers in the U.S., but also a matter of vital importance to national food security and agricultural biosecurity.
As obligatory intracellular parasites, systemic pathogens are disseminated via clonal/vegetative propagation and grafting. Thus, movement of infected propagation material serves as the principal means of long-distance spread of systemic pathogens. In addition, many of these systemic pathogens can be transmitted by vectors, including arthropods (aphids, mites, thrips, beetles, hoppers, psyllids, mealybugs and whiteflies), nematodes, and plasmodiophorids. Changing farming practices, shifting cropping patterns and climate alterations are creating many opportunities for several of these pathogens and their vectors to spread into new geographic areas leading to disease epidemics with devastating crop losses. Once a pathogen is introduced into a new area via compromised planting stock, it can spread within a field or region by naturally occurring or invasive vectors. Eradication of alien pathogens introduced into new locations can be extremely laborious and highly expensive proposition. For example, over 57 million dollars have been spent in the U.S. and Canada for detection and eradication of Plum pox virus following its first observation in Pennsylvania in 1999. Concerted efforts at the regional or national level are important considerations for exclusion of alien pathogens and controlling introduced or local vectors to prevent the spread of vector-transmitted pathogens in nurseries and grower fields. A coordinated approach between scientific communities and state and federal regulatory agencies will help strengthening sanitary and phytosanitary issues to protect U.S. specialty crops from increasing threats of harmful diseases and facilitate the distribution of superior quality planting stock for healthy crops.
In recent years, information is emerging about new viruses and virus-like agents through high throughput sequencing in several fruit crops and woody ornamentals. Some of these viruses and virus-like agents are specialists, infecting only certain plant species or genera and others are generalists, having broad host range including plants in many plant families. Due to clonal propagation and grafting, co-infections of different viruses or viruses with other pathogens are more common in fruit crops and woody ornamentals making it difficult to associate symptoms with a specific pathogen under field conditions. In addition, plants co-infected with multiple viruses can exhibit phenotypes ranging from asymptomatic to severe decline and death. Since symptom expression depends on multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors and disease diagnosis based on visual symptoms is unreliable, a comprehensive elucidation of etiological and epidemiological aspects of diseases caused by systemic pathogens in different agro-ecologies will help advancing sustainable strategies to control diseases in fruit crops and woody ornamentals.
Since no effective chemical remedies or prophylactic measures are available to control obligate intracellular pathogens, diverse array of alternative control measures needs to be deployed to help specialty crop industries remain competitive and sustainable in the global marketplace. Unfortunately, there is no ‘one-size-fits-all’ approach to mitigate negative impacts of divergent pathogens due to their varying epidemiological characteristics. Although planting with pathogen-tested plant materials is recognized as the first line of defense in prevention and exclusion of diseases in perennial fruit crops and woody ornamentals, integrated strategies, consisting of different components conferring additive effect, are necessary in reducing and/or suppressing disease incidence in an eco-friendly manner. This requires a sound understanding of pathogen biology and their epidemiology and the mode of action and effectiveness of individual control measures to successfully implement integrated disease management strategies.
Due to the complex biology of systemic pathogens and the diseases they cause, multi-disciplinary, cross-institutional collaborations are critical to advance scientific knowledge and deploy effective strategies for mitigating negative impacts of diseases in specialty crops. The WERA-20 multi-state project has been actively contributing to this goal by bringing together expertise from different disciplines and institutions and providing an open forum for sharing scientific information and practical solutions to a wide range of disease problems. A large number of research and Extension faculty from universities and representatives from federal research programs, state and federal regulatory agencies and private sector are actively participating in WERA-20 annual meetings. Members of the WERA-20 are generating knowledge on viruses through high-throughput sequencing and other scientific approaches and deploying robust diagnostic methods to manage viral diseases in grower fields and reduce the risk of inadvertent introduction and dissemination of viral pathogens through planting materials from both foreign and domestic sources. With growing number of disease threats and the shortage of critical mass of research expertise in individual institutions, collaborations and synergistic partnerships facilitated through the WERA-20 project will ensure sustained coordination efforts at the national level for understanding and managing diseases caused by a wide range of systemic pathogens in perennial fruit crops and woody ornamentals. By aligning with mission-oriented goals of the National Clean Plant Network (NCPN) established by The Farm Bill - H.R. 6124 Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, the WERA-20 will continue pursuing a holistic strategy with NCPN Centers to enable the distribution of pathogen-tested propagation material for nurseries, growers and other stakeholders benefiting perennial specialty crop industries throughout the U.S. The WERA-20 project will also serve as a hub facilitating cross-institutional collaborations with state and federal regulatory agencies aiming to the harmonization of phytosanitary policies for cross-border exchange of pathogen-tested planting stock and to safeguard nurseries from disease threats in a seamless manner.
Promote and improve communication and cooperation among entomologists, plant pathologists, horticulturists, and other professionals concerned about plant health to investigate epidemiology of diseases caused by systemic pathogens and implement strategies for controlling diseases caused by these obligate, intracellular pathogens.
Encourage, facilitate, and enhance collaborative research on the cause and control of newly detected diseases and disorders by increasing contacts and communication on newly discovered problems likely to be caused by viruses or virus-like agents or other systemic pathogens.
Facilitate rapid adoption and proper use of newly developed techniques and information that aid in the characterization and detection of systemic pathogens.
Provide information and expertise (research and extension) for the acquisition, development and distribution of planting stock free of systemic pathogens.
Provide a source of research information and service to quarantine and certification agencies, germplasm repositories, experiment station and government administrative agencies and perennial specialty crop industries nationwide.
Procedures and Activities
• Annual meetings are conducted to facilitate participation of research and extension faculty from universities, scientists from federal research institutions, members of the state and federal regulatory agencies, private sector scientists and others of diverse interests from commodity groups and specialty crop industries. The meetings will bring together individuals representing different disciplines and educational backgrounds and diverse agricultural sectors to pursue integrated research-based approaches to resolve complex issues for practical applications.
• Attendees will make presentations on current research on different aspects of systemic pathogens, diseases caused by these agents and their management. Timely sharing of research results during the meetings benefits the membership in addressing the challenges of current methods in pathogen detection and discuss new developments for overcoming bottlenecks in diagnostics. Deliberations at the meeting encourages collaborations among participants to address specific issues associated with emerging disease situations and promotes development of solutions for recalcitrant problems.
• Meetings are scheduled to enhance the exchange of information between research and regulatory professionals ensuring that all participants are aware of emerging disease situations. Participation from different regions in the U.S. and Canada ensures that diseases caused by systemic pathogens in fruit crops and woody ornamentals grown in diverse ecological regions of North America are addressed in a holistic manner during meeting deliberations.
• Meetings are held in different regions of the country to provide greater opportunity for the membership to interact with colleagues at local and regional institutions and organizations. Meetings also involve field visits to observe disease symptoms in target crops allowing those who are new to the subject and the region to become familiar with diseases, to expose participants to disease problems that are of restricted distribution, and also to showcase how growers, nurseries and specialty crop industries are dealing with challenges posed by diseases.
• The WERA-20 project will continue collaborations with members of the NCPN, USDA-ARS and USDA-APHIS and allied programs in Canada to pursue a broader approach in facilitating the production and distribution of pathogen-tested, vegetatively propagated perennial crops across North America. Members of these organizations address specific topics at the annual meeting related to appropriate disease diagnosis and elimination, identification of diseases of regional/national importance that will be considered for inclusion in certification and pathogen testing programs, and preparing crop-specific list of systemic pathogens. Critical discussions will also focus on developments in new methods to identify and characterize systemic pathogens, conduct research on disease epidemiology, revising phytosanitary permit requirements for the scientists, improving the ability of NCPN Centers to move valuable cultivars more quickly through State and Federal quarantines and certification programs.
• In addition to annual meetings, the entire membership is invited to engage in discussion through an established email exchange list. The diverse membership of this group assists in maximizing the distribution of information to all sectors of the specialty crop industry. Formal and informal participation of all groups (research, extension, and industry) in this project is encouraged.
Expected Outcomes and Impacts
- WERA-20 is a platform for timely communication of fundamental and translational research results on systemic pathogens and diseases they cause in different specialty crops.
- Sharing results on the biology and epidemiology of diverse pathogens leads to adoption of disease management strategies.
- Networking opportunities among the membership helps to build synergies leading to interdisciplinary and multi-institutional collaborative research and publications.
- Project meetings facilitate exchange of reference collections of infected plant samples with APHIS-authorized permits for developing and optimizing diagnostic assays and to share standardized detection protocols among the membership.
- Sharing information on new and emerging systemic pathogens helps implementing measures to prevent their introduction and spread in nurseries and grower fields.
- Adoption of standardized diagnostic protocols leads to reliable identification of systemic pathogens for the production and distribution of pathogen-tested planting stock to nurseries and growers.
- The membership provides scientific expertise to state certification programs for harmonization of quarantine and certification rules and regulations.
- Effective outreach and communication to growers and nurseries, and working closely with stakeholders will advance sustainability of American specialty crop industries and their competitiveness in the global market.
Projected ParticipationView Appendix E: Participation
Minutes of annual meetings and written progress reports will provide documentation of accomplishments and deliverables from the membership during the preceding year. These documents are shared with participating institutions and displayed at the NIMSS web-site (http://www.nimss.org) for public access. A stable email address has been established to facilitate regular communications among the membership throughout the year for sharing information and facilitate knowledge exchange as needed. Members share research accomplishments on diseases affecting specialty crops via peer-reviewed and extension publications and presentations at professional and industry-sponsored meetings. Members of the project maintain individual websites to allow broad dissemination of timely information to stakeholders and the general public not served through the extension meetings and publications. Members communicate project activities via several dissemination pathways, including printed and electronic media, popular press articles, webinars and TV media, to ensure that stakeholders gain the knowledge they need for mitigating impacts of diseases in specialty crops. Project members serve in subject-matter task force to offer comprehensive responses to disease outbreaks guided by research. Members are involved in leadership activities to bring the project outcomes to bear on policy and regulatory issues pertinent to specialty crops. Members of the project actively participate in grower meetings, organize field days and other outreach events to share research outcomes. Information presented at the annual meetings is integrated into the NCPN programs and plant disease diagnostic clinics and incorporated into mission-oriented activities of federal and state regulatory agencies. Several members of this committee have large impacts in the education of both undergraduate and graduate students and training of early career professionals to prepare the next generation of scientists and competent workforce. The committee will continue inviting stakeholders to its annual meetings for participatory approaches to advance the goals of the project benefiting the industries that we serve.
Governance of the project include a Chair and a Secretary with an oversight from the Administrative Advisor and USDA-NIFA Advisor. Before the conclusion of each annual meeting, a chair and a secretary are elected for the next meeting and the location for the next meeting is identified. The Chair and Secretary positions rotate among members annually and will transition each year at the annual meeting. If warranted by the membership, the meeting will be held in conjunction with another regional or national professional scientific meeting in the same timeframe to expand participation beyond the WERA-20 membership. The Chair will arrange for the annual meeting, solicit items of business, prepare agenda, and preside at the annual meeting. The secretary will record meeting minutes and collect annual reports from the project membership, and submit these documents to the administrative advisor for entering into the NIMMS system. The secretary will become Chair for next year’s annual meeting and a new individual is elected to serve as secretary. Annual meetings include individual State reports and round-table discussions on selected topics. In addition, special tours of technical interest will be organized during the meeting to visit local farms, nurseries and research institutions. Additional participants are encouraged to attend annual meetings. If needed, the Chair can appoint a subcommittee at the annual meeting to accomplish specific tasks identified by the membership.
A selective list of publications from the previous WERA-20 project are listed to provide background for the proposed project and to convey the broad scope of the project activities.
Alabi, O.J., Gaytan, B.C., Al Rwahnih, M. and Villegas, C. 2020. A description of the possible etiology of the cilantro yellow blotch disease. Plant Disease 104: 630-633.
Beaver-Kanuya, E. and Harper, S. J. 2020. Development of RT-qPCR assays for the detection of three latent viruses of pome. Journal of Virological Methods 278: 113836.
Brewer, E., Cao, M., Gutierrez, B.L., Bateman, M. and Li, R. 2020. Discovery and molecular characterization of a novel trichovirus infecting sweet cherry. Virus Genes 56: 380-385.
Britt, K., Gebben, S., Levy, A., Al Rwahnih, M. and Batuman, O. 2020. The detection and surveillance of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri)-associated viruses in Florida citrus groves. Frontiers in Plant Science, 10: 1687.
Cieniewicz, E., Poplaski, V., Brunelli, M., Dombroswkie, J. and Fuchs, M. 2020. Two distinct Spissistilus festinus genotypes in the United States revealed by phylogenetic and morphological analyses. Insects 11:80.
Cieniewicz, E.J., Qiu, W., Saldarelli, P. and Fuchs, M. 2020. Seeing is believing: Lessons from emerging viruses in grapevine. Journal of Plant Pathology 102:619-632.
Diaz-Lara, A., Golino, D., Preece, J.E. and Al Rwahnih, M. 2020. Development of RT-PCR degenerate primers to overcome the high genetic diversity of grapevine virus T. Journal of Virological Methods 282:113883.
Diaz-Lara, A., Martin, R.R., Al Rwahnih, M., Vargas, O.L. and Rebollar-Alviter, Á. 2020. First evidence of viruses infecting berries in Mexico. Journal of Plant Pathology 102:183-189.
Diaz-Lara, A., Stevens, K., Klaassen, V., Golino, D. and Al Rwahnih, M., 2020. Comprehensive real-time RT-PCR assays for the detection of fifteen viruses infecting Prunus spp. Plants 9:273.
Fuchs, M. 2020. Grapevine red blotch virus. In: Invasive Species Compendium and Crop Protection Compendium, CABI International, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom.
Fuchs, M. 2020. Grapevine viruses: A multitude of diverse species with simple but poorly adopted management solutions in the vineyard. Journal of Plant Pathology 102:643-653.
Gao, Z., Khot, L.R., Naidu, R.A. and Zhang, Q. 2020. Early detection of grapevine leafroll disease in a red-berried wine grape cultivar using hyperspectral imaging. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 179:105807.
Green, J.C., Rwahnih, M.A., Olmedo-Velarde, A., Melzer, M.J., Hamim, I., Borth, W.B., Brower, T.M., Wall, M. and Hu, J.S., 2020. Further genomic characterization of pineapple mealybug wilt-associated viruses using high-throughput sequencing. Tropical Plant Pathology 45:64-72.
Hoffmann, M., Talton, W., Nita, M., Jones, T., Al Rwahnih, M., Sudarshana, M.R. and Almeyda, C. 2020. First report of grapevine red blotch virus, the causal agent of grapevine red blotch disease, in Vitis vinifera in North Carolina. Plant Disease 104:1266.
Katsiani, A., Stainton, D., Lamour, K. and Tzanetakis, I.E. 2020. The population structure of Rose rosette virus in the United States. Journal of General Virology 101:676-684.
Larrea-Sarmiento, A., Olmedo-Velarde, A., Green, J.C., Al Rwahnih, M., Wang, X., Li, Y-H., Wu, W., Zhang, J., Brower, T.M., Wall, M. and Hu, J.S. 2020. Identification and complete genomic sequence of a novel sadwavirus discovered in pineapple (Ananas comosus). Archives of Virology 165:1245–1248.
Maree, H.J., Blouin, A.G., Diaz-Lara, A., Mostert, I., Al Rwahnih, M. and Candresse, T. 2020. Status of the current vitivirus taxonomy. Archives of Virology 165:451-458.
Thekke-Veetil, T., Ho, T., Postman, J.D. and Tzanetakis, I. E. 2020. Blackcurrant waikavirus A, a new member of the genus Waikavirus, and its phylogenetic and molecular relationship with other known members. European Journal of Plant Pathology 157:59–64.
Wang, Y., Wang, Q., Yang, Z., Li, R., Liu, Y., Li, J., Li, Z. and Zhou, Y. 2020. Development of a sensitive and reliable reverse transcription-droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (RT-ddPCR) assay for the detection of Citrus tristeza virus. European Journal of Plant Pathology 156:1175-1180.
Wright, A. A., Cross, A. R. and Harper, S. J. 2020. A bushel of viruses: Identification of seventeen novel putative viruses by RNA-seq in six apple trees. Plos One 15:e0227669.
Zhang, S., Yang, L., Ma, L., Tian, X., Li, R., Zhou, C. and Cao, M. 2020. Virome of Camellia japonica: discovery and molecular characterization of new viruses of different taxa in camellias. Frontiers in Microbiology 11:945.
Zheng, L., Chen, M. and Li, R. 2020. Camellia ringspot associated virus 4, a proposed new foveavirus from Camellia japonica. Archives of Virology 165:1707-1710.
Adiputra, J., Jarugula, S. and Naidu, R.A. 2019. Intra-species recombination among strains of the ampelovirus Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 4. Virology Journal 16:139.
Alabi, O.J., McBride, S., Appel, D.N., Al Rwahnih, M. and Pontasch, F.M. 2019. Grapevine virus M, a novel vitivirus discovered in the American hybrid bunch grape cultivar Blanc du Bois in Texas. Archives of virology 164:1739-1741.
Al Rwahnih, M., Alabi, O.J., Hwang, M.S., Stevens, K. and Golino, D., 2019. Identification and genomic characterization of grapevine Kizil Sapak virus, a novel grapevine-infecting member of the family Betaflexiviridae. Archives of Virology 164:3145-3149.
Alzubi, H., Yepes, L.M. and Fuchs, M. 2019. In vitro storage at low temperature of micropropagated grapevine rootstocks. In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology – Plant. 55:334-341.
Arnold, K.L., McRoberts, N., Cooper, M.L., Smith, R. and Golino, D. 2019. Virus surveys of commercial vineyards show value of planting certified vines. California Agriculture 73:90-95.
Beaver-Kanuya, E. and Harper, S. J. .2019. Detection and quantification of four viruses in Prunus pollen: Implications for biosecurity. Journal of Virological Methods 271:113673.
Beaver-Kanuya, E., Szostek, S. and Harper, S. J. 2019. Development of real-time RT-PCR assays for two viruses infecting pome fruit. Journal of Virological Methods 266:25-29.
Cieniewicz, E., Flasco, M., Brunelli, M., Onwumelu A., Wise, A. and Fuchs, M.F. 2019. Differential spread of grapevine red blotch virus in California and New York vineyards. Phytobiomes Journal 3:203-211.
Diaz-Lara, A., Brisbane, R.S., Aram, K., Golino, D. and Al Rwahnih, M., 2019. Detection of new vitiviruses infecting grapevine in California. Archives of virology 164:2573-2580.
Diaz-Lara, A., Navarro, B., Di Serio, F., Stevens, K., Hwang, M.S., Kohl, J., Vu, S.T., Falk, B.W., Golino, D. and Al Rwahnih, M. 2019. Two novel negative-sense RNA viruses infecting grapevine are members of a newly proposed genus within the family Phenuiviridae. Viruses 11: 685.
Druciarek, T., Lewandowski, M. and Tzanetakis I.E. 2019. A new, sensitive and efficient method for taxonomic placement in the Eriophyoidea and virus detection in individual eriophyoids. Experimental and Applied Acarology 78:247-261.
Hamim, I., Borth, W.B., Melzer, M.J., Suzuki, J.Y., Wall, M.M. and Hu, J.S. 2019. Occurrence of tomato leaf curl Bangladesh virus and associated subviral DNA molecules in papaya in Bangladesh: molecular detection and characterization. Archives of Virology 164:1661-1665.
Hamim, I., Al Rwahnih, M., Borth, W.B., Suzuki, J.Y., Melzer, M.J., Wall, M.M., Green, J.C. and Hu, J.S. 2019 Papaya ringspot virus isolates from papaya in Bangladesh: detection, characterization and distribution. Plant Disease 103:2920-2924.
James D., Phelan, J. and Sanderson, D. 2019. Detection by high throughput sequencing and molecular characterization of complexes of fabviruses infecting Staccato® sweet cherry (Prunus aviam) in Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 41:519-534.
Lan, P., Tian, T., Pu, L., Rao, W., Li, F. and Li, R. 2019. Characterization and detection of a new badnavirus infecting Epiphyllum spp. Archives of Virology 164:1837-1841.
Larrea-Sarmiento, A., Wang, X., Borth, W.B., Barone, R.P., Olmedo-Velarde, A., Melzer, M.J., Sugano, J.S.K., Galanti, R., Suzuki, J.Y., Wall, M.M. and Hu, J.S. 2019. First report of bean common mosaic virus infecting flowering ginger (Alpinia purpurata) in Hawaiʻi. Plant Disease 104:603.
Liu, H., Wu, L., Zheng, L., Cao, M. and Li, R. 2019. Characterization of three new viruses of the family Betaflexiviridae associated with camellia ringspot disease. Virus Research 272:197668.
Liu, Q., Xuan, Z., Wu, Y., Li, M., Zhang, S., Wu, D., Li, R. and Cao, M. 2019. Loquat is a new natural host of apple stem grooving virus and apple chlorotic leaf spot virus. Plant Disease 103: 3290.
Martínez-Lüscher, J., Plank, C.M., Brillante, L., Cooper, M.L., Smith, R.J., Al-Rwahnih, M., Yu, R., Oberholster, A., Girardello, R. and Kurtural, S.K., 2019. Grapevine red blotch virus may reduce carbon translocation leading to impaired grape berry ripening. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 67: 2437-2448.
Nikolaeva E.V., Knier R., Molnar C., Peter K., Jones T. and Costanzo S. 2019. First Report of Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) as a Host of a ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma americanum’-Related Strain in the United States. Plant Disease 104: 560.
Olmedo-Velarde, A., Park, A.C., Sugano, J., Uchida, J.Y., Kawate, M., Borth, W.B., Hu, J.S. and Melzer, M.J. 2019. Characterization of Ti ringspot-associated virus, a novel emaravirus associated with an emerging ringspot disease of Cordyline fruticosa (L.) Plant Disease 103: 2345-2352.
Olmedo-Velarde, A., Roy, A., Belanger, C.A., Watanabe, S., Hamasaki, R.T., Mavrodieva, V.A., Nakhla, M.K., Melzer, M.J. 2019. First report of tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid infecting greenhouse tomato in Hawaii. Plant Disease 103: 1049.
Pechinger, K., Chooi, K. M., MacDiarmid, R. M., Harper, S. J. and Ziebell, H. 2019. A new era for mild strain cross-protection. Viruses 11: 670.
Peng, L., Wu, L., Grinstead, S.C., Kinard, G.R. and Li, R. 2019. Molecular characterization and detection of two novel carlaviruses infecting cactus. Archives of Virology 164:1873-1876.
Sanderson, D. and James, D. 2019. Analysis of the genetic diversity of genome sequences of variants of apple hammerhead viroid. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 41:551-559.
Thompson, B.D., Dahan, J., Lee, J., Martin, R.R. and Karasev, A.V. 2019. A novel genetic variant of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus-3 (GLRaV-3) from Idaho grapevines. Plant Disease 103:509-518.
Thompson, B.D., Eid, S., Vander Pol, D., Lee, J. and Karasev, A.V. 2019. First report of grapevine red blotch virus in Idaho grapevines. Plant Disease 103:2704.
Wu, L., Du, T., Liu, H., Peng, L. and Li, R. 2019. Complete genomic sequence of tea-oil camellia associated deltapartitivirus, a novel virus from Camellia oleifera. Archives of Virology 165:227-231.
Wu, L., Liu, H., Bateman, M., Komorowaka, B. and Li, R. 2019. First identification and molecular characterization of apricot symptomless virus. Archives of Virology 164:3103-3106.
Zurn, J.D., Ho, T., Li, R., Bassil, N.V., Tzanetakis, I., Martin, R.R. and Postman, J.D. 2019. First
report of Blackcurrant reversion virus in Ribes nigrum germplasm in the United States. Plant Disease. 103:1051.
Debat, H.J., Zavallo, D., Brisbane, R.S., Voncina, D., Almeida, R.P., Blouin, A.G., Al Rwahnih, M., Gomez-Talquenca, S. and Asurmendi, S. 2019. Grapevine virus L: a novel vitivirus in grapevine. European Journal of Plant Pathology 155:319-328.
Druciarek, T., Lewandowski, M. and Tzanetakis I.E. 2019. First report of European mountain ash ringspot-associated emaravirus in Sorbus aucuparia in Poland. Plant Disease 103:166.
Feng, X., Orellana, G.E., Green, J.C., Melzer, M.J., Hu, J.S. and Karasev, A.V. 2019. A new strain of Bean common mosaic virus from lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus): Biological and molecular characterization. Plant Disease 103:1220-1227.
Fuller, K. B, Alston, J.M. and Golino, D.A. 2019. Economic benefits from virus screening: A case study of grapevine leafroll in the north coast of California. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 70:139-146.
Hassan, M. and Tzanetakis I.E. 2019. Population structure, evolution and detection of blackberry leaf mottle associated virus, an emerging Emaravirus. Plant Pathology 68:775-782.
James D., Phelan, J. and Sanderson, D. 2019. Detection by high throughput sequencing and molecular characterization of complexes of fabaviruses infecting Staccato® sweet cherry (Prunus aviam) in Canada. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 41:519-534.
Milusheva, S., Phelan, J., Piperkova, N., Nikolova, V., Gozmanova, M. and James, D. 2019. Molecular analysis of the complete genome of an unusual virus detected in sweet cherry (Prunus avium) in Bulgaria. European Journal of Plant Pathology 153:197-207.
Moore, P.P., Hoashi-Erhardt, W., Finn, C.E., Martin, R.R. and Dossett, M. 2019. ‘WSU 2166’ Red raspberry. HortScience 54:564-567.
Osterbaan, L. and Fuchs, M. 2019. Dynamic interplays between plant virus and their host interactants for symptom development. Journal of Plant Pathology 101:885–895.
Osterbaan, L.J., Choi, J., Kenney, J., Flasco, M., Vigne, E., Schmitt-Keichinger, C., Rebelo, A.R., Heck, M. and Fuchs, M. 2019. The identity of a single residue of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of grapevine fanleaf virus modulates vein clearing symptoms in Nicotiana benthamiana. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 32:790-801.
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