S1087: Sustainable Practices, Economic Contributions, Consumer Behavior, and Labor Management in the U.S. Environmental Horticulture Industry

(Multistate Research Project)

Status: Active

S1087: Sustainable Practices, Economic Contributions, Consumer Behavior, and Labor Management in the U.S. Environmental Horticulture Industry

Duration: 10/01/2020 to 09/30/2025

Administrative Advisor(s):


NIFA Reps:


Statement of Issues and Justification

Project Summary

This multi-state project will conduct applied research and outreach education in support of improved production, management and marketing practices in the U.S. environmental horticulture or “green” industry. The project encompasses four broad objectives:

  1. Investigate environmental, social, and economically sustainable practices in ornamental crop production and landscape systems
  2. Evaluate structural economic characteristics and economic contributions of the U.S. green industry to the national and state economies of the United States.
  3. Evaluate consumer preferences for environmental plants and related horticultural products, and their contribution to health and well-being.
  4. Investigate labor management practices and automation/mechanization in the nursery and greenhouse industry 

These objectives support the “Sustainable Ag Intensification” and “Ag Climate Adaptation” themes identified in the USDA Science Blueprint: A Roadmap for USDA Science from 2020 to 2025. A team of research and extension faculty from numerous public universities will participate, including both agricultural economists and horticulturists. This group, known as the Green Industry Research Consortium, has a longstanding history of interdisciplinary collaboration since 1976. Project investigators will utilize various scientific methods to address these research objectives, such as mail and online surveys, experimental auctions, conjoint analysis procedures, consumer eye-tracking, input-output analysis, enterprise budgeting, field trials, energy and water audits, and life-cycle analysis. The project will develop outreach materials for industry audiences, including, trade press articles, workshops, presentations at industry conferences, and various electronic media such as websites, blogs, webinars, and podcasts, while also developing materials for academic audiences, including peer-reviewed publications and presentations at professional meetings.

Statement of Issues and Justification

The environmental horticulture industry, also known as the green industry, includes nursery and greenhouse producers, landscape service providers, horticultural product wholesalers/retailers, and various allied professionals. Nursery and floriculture (greenhouse) crops include a wide variety of ornamental plants for landscaping purposes such as trees, shrubs, ground covers, turfgrass, bulbs, and propagation stock, as well as plants used for interior or patio decoration such as cut flowers and greens, potted flowering plants, foliage plants, and bedding/garden plants.

The United States green industry generates over 2 million jobs in the U.S., however, information on labor use, demographics and employment characteristics is very scant for this industry. Labor costs have risen about 40% since the “Great Recession” of 2008.  Labor shortages, immigration reform and legal status of employees are widely reported as some of the most critical issues in the U.S. green industry. Competitive rivalry in the green industry is intensifying, especially at the retail level. One of the impacts of the mass marketing of nursery and floricultural crops has been to bring about an increase in size of growing operations.  The capital requirements and infrastructure to produce these mass quantities of product have increased. Larger growers have started partnering, usually on a contract basis, with smaller growers to handle the volumes required to supply large retail chains.  Several dozen growers may be involved to satisfy a retail chain’s product supply needs in one market area. This may help to spread the risk among several producers. Still, there are numerous examples of producers who supply 50 to 100 percent of their output to one box store. The focus on mass markets by large growers has also created opportunities for smaller growers to develop niches serving independent retailers/landscapers or to go into retailing themselves, selling directly to the consumer. Some producers have also used their own retail outlets as a diversification tactic for risk management. Another impact of mass marketers has been consolidation within the production sector. These stresses have created intense market pressures and heightened competitive rivalry among larger producers. The smaller producers’ struggle to remain competitive in a viable niche can be difficult in markets inundated by competing chains.

One of the most widely discussed topics in the green industry today is the issue of environmental sustainability brought about by consumers with a greater degree of environmental awareness. A common assumption is that using environmentally friendly practices will bring profits (Majsztrik et al, 2019). However, sustainable alternatives often require a price premium in the marketplace or a cost reduction within production to be economically viable. Project investigators have and continue to evaluate consumer acceptance of environmentally friendly products as well as the costs associated with green industry firms becoming more environmentally sustainable. 

With respect to consumer acceptance, producers need information around the impact of labeling, including such labels as organic, native, locally grown, and sustainable.  Though project investigators have examined the impact of some of these labels (e.g., Behe et al., 2013; Zaffou and Campbell, 2016; Zaffou and Campbell, 2017; Khachatryan et al., 2017; Khachatryan et al., 2018a), the green industry has relatively little research-based information to help professionals understand how consumers view horticultural products, product attributes, and services through this new and important environmental lens. As consumer preferences, perceptions, and purchase behaviors continue to evolve, producers need updated information on consumer and market characteristics to evaluate opportunities that provide a good return on investment.

On the production side, project investigators have been and are continuing to examine water usage and mechanization.  Water issues, specifically irrigation scheduling and efficiency, surface and groundwater water management, and water quality are quickly becoming topics of major concern to the ornamental plant industry even in states that have previously had ample water resources. Drought, urban competition for surface and groundwater water reserves, salinity and runoff water quality, and increasing regulation at national, state and county levels are increasing the need for ornamental crop producers to manage water more effectively.  Increased regulation and competition for water resources call for improved water management techniques with respect to application and runoff. Recycling water for residential use, including the landscape, can help provide water for landscaping (McClaren et al 2020). Landscape plants in urban areas provide critical environmental ecosystem services for nutrient cycling, pollution absorption, shade, moderation of temperatures, and noise buffers (Hall and Dickson, 2011). 

Mechanization is normally defined as the replacement of a human task with a machine, but true automation encompasses the entire process, including bringing material to and from the mechanized equipment and normally involves integrating several operations. Mechanization and automation have been important strategies for reducing labor costs in the nursery industry.  However, as noted by Krahe and Campbell (2016), producers do not seem to be substituting labor for mechanization, but rather reallocate labor to other areas.  Understanding the interface between labor shortages and cost-effectiveness of becoming more mechanized is essential.  

As the green industry continues to evolve, industry stakeholders need more information to help make critical decisions.  The lack of information was heightened by the “Great Recession” of 2007-09 as the USDA-NASS annual survey of wholesale growers of floral and nursery crops now only covers 15 states, the USDA-ERS has discontinued its annual Situation and Outlook reports, and The Census of Agriculture and the Census of Horticultural Specialties are conducted only every five years.  A multi-state collaborative effort is imperative because these issues are simply too comprehensive for any single researcher to adequately address alone and since state budgets for many land-grant institutions have been cut dramatically in recent years.  These collaborative efforts enable the research team to more effectively utilize constrained research dollars in a synergistic fashion. Moreover, since limited granting programs are available to conduct research in this area, the research collaborations (and teams formed) by these multi-state efforts will enable the research teams to more effectively compete for grant dollars.   Furthermore, the need to have a multi-state project in place with members already working on firm profitability that can rapidly respond to industry issues (e.g., the impact of Coronavirus on industry profitability, weather damage, and labor shortages, etc.) is critical and essential.

Related, Current and Previous Work

Related Current and Previous Work

Our multi-state research committee has a long history of interdisciplinary work through a series of 5-year projects dating back to 1976. The competitive relationships among states and regions continues to be a major issue for green industry business managers that make financial and marketing decisions for their firms regarding future investments and economic strategies. In the 2014 survey, we collected data on retail and landscape firms providing the opportunity to assess business and marketing practices of retail and landscape firms (Barton and Behe, 2017; Torres et al, 2017) and online advertising strategies (Torres et al., 2019). We implemented the most recent National Nursery Survey in 2019 with information collected in all 50 states.  Contributions of the green industry to state and regional economies are another area of ongoing research under this project.  This most recent study estimated the economic contributions of the green industry at $196.07 billion in output or revenues, 2.04 million full-time and part-time jobs, $121 billion in value added contribution to GDP, and $83 billion in labor income (Hodges et al., 2015). 

Project investigators have examined many of the issues facing the green industry.  Taking advantage of new experimental methods and technology advances like eye tracking has allowed researchers to portray a better picture of consumer preferences for green industry products. Recent work has looked at consumers’ willingness to pay for biodegradable containers (Yue et al., 2010a; Yue et al., 2010b; Hall et al., 2010), sustainable plant production practices (Khachatryan et al., 2018a; Knuth et al., 2018; Campbell et al., 2014; Khachatryan et al., 2014a; Khachatryan et al., 2014b; Dennis et al., 2010; Behe et al., 2010), intertemporal preferences and plant purchase intentions (Khachatryan et al., 2014a), preferences for local plants (Behe et al., 2013; Collart, Palma, and Carpio 2013), use of smart phones for gardening and plant selections (Behe et al., 2013), branding preferences (Collart, Palma, and Hall 2010), influence of plant guarantees (Behe and Fry, 2019), and effectiveness of promotion expenditures (Palma, et al., 2012). We recently implemented eye tracking in several consumer experiments (Behe et al., 2014). Several participants own eye tracking devices and will continue to investigate eye tracking (Behe et al., 2017; Khachatryan et al., 2018a and 2018b; Knuth et al., 2018) which allows for a more detailed look in to what is driving the decision to purchase as well as how consumers view products. We investigated branding on a small scale (Behe et al., 2017; Mundel et al., 2018). Furthermore, this multi-state team has examined the impact of retail distribution and promotion/advertising of ornamental plants (Barton and Behe, 2017), online advertising strategies (Torres et al., 2019), and consumer perceptions of retail outlets (Campbell and Campbell, 2019) 

On the production side, project investigators have examined automation and mechanization at wholesale nurseries and greenhouses located in the northern Gulf of Mexico region (Posadas et al., 2010, 2012, 2014) as well as throughout the U.S. (Krahe and Campbell, 2016).  Investigators have also examined the cost/benefit of biodegradable containers, which for example, translates into higher price premiums for ornamental products (Yue et al., 2010), but price does not reflect the environmental impact of several inputs (Brumfield et al., 2018). Project investigators also analyzed the carbon footprint of nursery production systems (Ingram and Hall, 2015.) Project members analyzed public preferences for ecosystem services (Duke et al., 2016) and assessed sustainable landscapes for their contribution to runoff nitrogen (Bachman et al., 2016) and potential as environmental resources (Barton and Contijo-Garcia, 2015). Project members studied public perception of sustainable landscapes (Saksa et al, 2012; Lucey and Barton, 2011) and perceptions regarding recycled water (Behe et al, 2018; McClaren et al, 2020). Given the increasing consumer concerns about environmental practices and sustainability, the members of the committee will continue to build upon the strong sustainability research and continue efforts to expand research to more specific topics and plant products.

Objectives

  1. Investigate environmental, social, and economically sustainable practices in ornamental crop production and landscape systems
  2. Evaluate structural economic characteristics and economic contributions of the U.S. green industry to the national and state economies of the United States.
  3. Evaluate consumer preferences for environmental plants and related horticultural products and their contribution to health and well-being.
  4. Investigate labor management practices and automation/mechanization in the nursery and greenhouse industry

Methods

Objective 1: Investigate environmental, social, and economically sustainable practices in ornamental crop production and landscape systems

Research will address methods of establishing sustainable landscape sites and managing those sites in a sustainable manner.  Specifically, we will study warm-season grass/forb meadow establishment and explore species composition for meadows providing pollinator habitat. The project will investigate developing new standards for landscape sustainability as currently outlined by the Sustainable Sites Initiative (https://www.asla.org/sites/) and assess the economics of implementing sustainable practices and certification programs. Management practices will focus on methodologies that enhance ornamental attributes and improve public perception of meadow landscapes. 

We will evaluate sustainable production systems for landscape trees, shrubs, annuals, and perennials with a focus on irrigation management, including irrigation scheduling, cultural practices, and runoff water. We will assess water use, fertilizer use, plant growth parameters and plant quality to determine the impact of various irrigation regimes on these species.

Evaluation of economic and environmental impacts of sustainable practices in ornamental plant production systems will include cost analyses, assessment of carbon and water use, worker efficiency, and shrinkage at the production, shipping, and retail level. Assessment of economic impacts on income and employment will use agricultural, labor, and industry statistics to estimate economic changes that would take place if containers based on domestic materials replaced petroleum-based pots. We will determine carbon footprints for container manufacturing, shipping, utilization, and disposal. We will calculate carbon sequestration and exchanges for the crops used in this research. We will determine data on shrinkage and reduced efficiencies during production for each pot type for economic analysis. 

Objective 2: Evaluate structural economic characteristics and economic contributions of the U.S. green industry to the national and state economies of the United States.

We will implement and analyze the sixth National Green Industry Survey, which this multi-state project has been conducting every 5 years for the last 30 years.  We will develop survey questionnaires in consultation with industry stakeholders to address current industry issues. The questions will focus on: general business characteristics; types of plant materials sold; container substrates used; sales transaction methods; discounts published; seasonal sales; contract production; market channels, regional (state) trade; advertising expenditures, sources of propagated plants; water conservation practices; pest management practices; labor-related human resource management strategies; and retail marketing practices. For continuity, we will use the same key questions used in previous surveys in this survey.  Given the Coronavirus pandemic, we will also ask questions related to the impact of Coronavirus on green industry businesses.   

We will develop regional economic models for the green industry for each state using the IMPLAN (Impact Analyses for Planning) Professional software and associated regional datasets (Implan Group LLC). Economic multipliers derived from these models estimate total contributions to the regional economy in terms of output (revenues), employment, and value added or income, including direct effects that represent the initial value of the industry in question, indirect effects of supply chain input purchases, and induced effects of local spending by employee households. IMPLAN is a standard tool for economic impact analysis in the U.S., used by over 500 universities, planning organizations and consultants. 

Objective 3: Evaluate consumer preferences for environmental plants and related horticultural products and their contribution to health and well-being.

We will conduct economic experiments to investigate consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for ornamental plants and specific attributes. Data generation methods will include internet surveys using reputable consumer panel providers and in-person experiments. We will use choice modeling and cluster analysis procedures to analyze data to identify consumer segments and help businesses better position their product. We will determine how product attributes impact purchase decisions, and consumers’ involvement regarding plants, attitudes about the environment, and demographic characteristics play a role in predicting consumer demand for ornamental plants and related services. We will investigate the relative importance of plant and container attributes using discrete choice modeling or experimental auctions methodologies. In addition to stated preferences, we will incorporate biometric measurement equipment (e.g., eye tracking devices) into traditional experiments to better assess attention and purchase intention of green industry product characteristics. 

Objective 4: Investigate labor management practices and automation/mechanization in the nursery and greenhouse industry

We will determine how nursery and greenhouse producers are changing their production practices given the move toward automation and mechanization as well as the impact of an evolving labor force.  Utilizing industry surveys, we will analyze the impacts of the tradeoff between labor and automation using data from the green industry survey and federal and state sources.  Notably, we will conduct statistical modeling to determine whether producers are changing their labor makeup when automating or whether they are simply reallocating labor to non-automated areas.

Measurement of Progress and Results

Outputs

  • Objective 1: Investigate sustainable practices in ornamental crop production and landscape systems Comments: ● Identify the most economically feasible sustainable landscape practice and conduct an economic analysis of costs of installing and maintaining sustainable landscapes, and a full cost analysis of the negative costs to the environment of conventional landscapes and will develop extension outreach materials and training sessions. ● Compare plant water requirements of several popular container-grown nursery crops with suitable replacement native plant selections. ● Determine water conserving irrigation scheduling based on water requirements for those plants and will determine plant growth and quality changes in response to water conserving irrigation schedules.
  • Objective 2: Evaluate economic contributions of the green industry Comments: ● Update the economic impact of the U.S. green industry and develop a full report in print and electronic form and disseminate via the internet. ● Develop extension outreach materials such as brochures, fact sheets, and trade magazine articles in print and electronic format. ● Make presentations at professional meetings. ● Prepare a comprehensive report that presents the survey results in a Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin and a series of articles in the Journal of Environmental Horticulture and distribute the results widely to industry stakeholders. ● Update financial benchmarks for greenhouses, nursery production operations, and other-related horticultural businesses. ● Update prevailing production and marketing practices in the U.S. green industry. ● Quantify the magnitude and direction of regional trade flows of nursery and greenhouse crops in the U.S.
  • Objective 3: Evaluate consumer preferences for environmental plants and their contribution to health and well-being Comments: ● Develop a report with consumer purchasing habits by different demographic segments highlighting differences in preferences among demographic groups. ● Profile consumers who comprise the market for organic, locally grown, and sustainably produced ornamental plants for use by the industry. ● Identify consumers who comprise the market for an increasingly growing branded plants segment. ● Identify key factors that influence consumers’ current and future decisions to purchase nursery products and landscaping services, along with their level of satisfaction with nursery/floral products and services ● Develop estimates of average household expenditures for nursery products and landscaping services. ● Summarize consumer perceptions of sustainable landscapes, recycled water, and native species and report the effect of raised awareness on those perceptions ● Hold targeted marketing and economics workshops throughout the U.S. ● Use eye tracking in combination with other economic studies to better understand factors that generate consumer attention and purchase intentions.
  • Objective 4: Investigate labor management and mechanization in the nursery and greenhouse industry Comments: ● Investigate the use of H2A and H2B labor by green industry firms. ● Study the impact of labor issues on green industry costs and the move toward mechanization and automation.

Outcomes or Projected Impacts

  • Increased wholesale value of nursery and greenhouse crops through increased sales to retail outlets and consumption by end-users and businesses.
  • More sustainable cultural practices for nursery/greenhouse operations through cost/analysis tools developed by this project.
  • More profitable nursery and greenhouse firms through better financial benchmark information published regionally and nationally.
  • Enhanced plant product portfolio selection achieved through recommended procedures for unit cost analysis.
  • Increased sales of environmentally friendly ornamental plants and related services.
  • Reduced water, chemical and fertilizer use by growers who adopt sustainable technologies and practices.
  • Improved farm incomes while sustaining environmental quality in nurseries and greenhouses who reduce carbon, water, and chemical footprints by using sustainable practices.

Milestones

(2020):2020-21. ● Complete publications stemming from the 2019 national green industry survey. ● Complete consumer preference studies on branded plants and demographics of green industry purchases. ● Conduct marketing workshops and webinars.

(2021):2021-22. ● Complete studies of consumer preferences using eye-tracking technology. ● Complete studies of grower-level labor utilization and automation/mechanization. ● Conduct marketing workshops and webinars.

(2022):2022-23. ● Update financial benchmarks for greenhouses, nursery production operations, and other-related horticultural businesses. ● Complete studies of consumers who comprise the market for sustainable landscapes. ● Complete studies of water-conserving irrigation practices in production and in the landscape. ● Conduct marketing workshops and webinars.

(2023):2023-24. ● Complete studies of factors influencing consumers’ decisions to purchase plants and landscaping services, and their level of satisfaction with plants and services. ● Conduct marketing workshops.

(2024):2024-25. ● Publish project results in scientific journals and various industry trade magazines. ● Conduct marketing workshops and webinars.

Projected Participation

View Appendix E: Participation

Outreach Plan

Outreach Plan

The research conducted for this project will generate peer-reviewed and trade press publications. Project members will present at international, national, regional, and state level professional meetings. The project website as well as websites of individual researchers will host publications. Researchers with extension appointments will take the lead on disseminating information through regional and state trade meetings. 

Extension agents and educators are often trained in production but very few can provide marketing and economic expertise to the specialty crop stakeholders they serve. Within the extension system, economic and community development specialists are trained to foster and develop increasing economic opportunities, but few are trained in providing those opportunities for specialty crops. This program will train extension agents to use information for floriculture and nursery marketing and economics from secondary sources and peer-reviewed research. Topics will range from where to find economic information such as weekly shipping reports to understanding the economic impact of the green industry and focus on building a marketing infrastructure for the ornamental, nursery and floricultural sectors.  We will deliver this two-tiered program in two states per year to reach the greatest number of producers and extension agents in the cooperating states. 

We solicited input into the prioritization of research objectives from various stakeholder groups prior to developing this proposal including nursery and landscape associations in various states, trade associations, national program leaders within NIFA, and representatives of the American Floral Endowment (AFE) and the Horticultural Research Institute (HRI) to align research objectives with their research priorities and to eliminate duplicating efforts.

Organization/Governance

The Technical Committee will be organized and operated in accordance with the regulations specified in the National Guidelines for Multistate Research Activities

Officers. All voting members of the technical committee are eligible for office, regardless of sponsoring agency affiliation. Officers include a chair and a secretary, each elected to two-year terms by committee members. The chair, in consultation with the administrative adviser, notifies the technical committee members of the time and place of meetings, prepares the agenda, and presides at meetings. The chair is responsible for preparing or supervising the preparation of the annual report of the regional project. The secretary records the minutes and prepares and distributes the minutes of official meetings to committee members. 

Subcommittees. An executive committee consisting of the chair and two or more other members of the technical committee may be designated to conduct the business of the committee between meetings and perform other duties as assigned by the technical committee. Subcommittees will be named by the chair as needed for specific assignments such as: to develop procedures, manuals, and phases of the regional project; to review work assignments; to develop research methods; and to prepare publications.

Literature Cited

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components of container-grown Chrysanthemum for their impact on carbon footprint and variable costs using life cycle assessment. HortScience 53(8):1139–1142.

Ingram, Dewayne, Charles Hall, and Joshua Knight. 2018. Global warming potential, variable

costs, and water use of a model greenhouse production system for 11.4-cm annual plant using life cycle assessment. HortScience. 53(4):441–444. 2018. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI12602-17.

Ingram, Dewayne, Charles Hall, and Joshua Knight. 2017. Modeling Global Warming

Potential, Variable Costs, and Water Use of Young Plant Production System Components Using Life Cycle Assessment. HortScience. 52(10):1356-1361.

Ingram, Dewayne, Charles Hall, and Joshua Knight. 2016. Carbon footprint and variable costs

of production components for a container-grown evergreen shrub using life cycle assessment; an east coast U.S. model. HortScience. 51(8):989–994.

Ingram, Dewayne and Charles Hall. 2015. Life cycle assessment used to determine potential

midpoint environment impact factors and water footprint of field-grown tree production inputs and processes. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Sciences 140(1):102–107.

Ingram, Dewayne and Charles Hall. 2015. Carbon footprint and related production costs of pot-

in-pot system components for red maple using life cycle assessment. Journal of Environmental Horticulture. 33(3):103–109.

Ingram, Dewayne and Charles Hall. 2015. Comparison of carbon footprint and variable costs

of selected nursery production systems for a 5-cm-caliper red maple. HortScience 51(4):383-387.

Khachatryan, H., A. Rihn, B. Campbell, B. Behe, and C. Hall. 2018a. How do consumer perceptions of ‘local’ production benefits influence their visual attention to state marketing programs? Agribusiness: An International Journal.  DOI: 10.1002/agr.21547

Khachatryan, H., A. Rihn, B. Behe, C. Hall, B. Campbell, J. Dennis, and C. Yue. 2018b. Visual behavior, buying impulsiveness, and consumer behavior. Marketing Letters. February 2018. 29(1):23-35. <https://doi.org/10.1007/s11002-018-9446-9>.

Khachatryan, Hayk, Alicia Rihn, Benjamin Campbell, Chengyan Yue, Charles Hall, and Bridget Behe. 2017. Visual attention to eco-labels predicts consumer preferences for pollinator friendly plants. Sustainability (9)1743; doi:10.3390/su9101743.

Khachatryan, Hayk, Alan Hodges, Marco Palma, and Charles Hall. 2016. Inter-regional trade flows within the U.S. green industry. Journal of Environmental Horticulture. 34(1):19-29.

Khachatryan, H., B.K. Behe, C.R Hall., Campbell, B.L. and Dennis, J.H. 2015). Environmental concerns and willingness to pay for sustainable attributes. Acta Hortic. 1090, 39-43, DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2015.1090.7

Khachatryan, H., C. Yue, B. Campbell, B. Behe, C. Hall, and J. Dennis. 2014a. The Effects of the Consideration of Future and Immediate Consequences on Willingness to Pay Decisions for Plant Attributes. Journal of Environmental Horticulture, 32(2), 64-70.

Khachatryan, H., B. Campbell, C. Hall, B. Behe, C. Yue, and J. Dennis. 2014b. “The Effects of Individual Environmental Concerns on Willingness to Pay for Sustainable Plant Attributes.” HortScience 49(1):69-75.

Knuth, Melinda, Bridget Behe, Charles Hall, Patricia Huddleston, and R. Fernandez. 2019.

Sit back or dig in: The role of activity level in landscape market segmentation. HortScience. 54(10):1818-1823. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI14158-19.

Knuth, Melinda, Bridget K. Behe, Charles R. Hall, Patricia T. Huddleston, and R. Thomas

Fernandez. 2018. Consumer perceptions of landscape plant water sources and uses in the landscape during real and perceived drought. HortTechnology 28(1):85-93.

Knuth, Melinda, Bridget K. Behe, Charles R. Hall, Patricia T. Huddleston, and R. Thomas

Fernandez. 2018. Consumer perceptions, attitudes, and purchase behavior with landscape plants during real and perceived drought periods. HortScience 53(1):49-54.

King, Andrew R., Marco A. Palma, Bridget K. Behe, R. Thomas Fernandez, Lynnnell Sage,

Charles R. Hall, and Michael A. Arnold. 2015. Garden consumers’ behavior and attitudes toward woody plants and water conservation in two selected communities. J. Environ. Hort. 33(3):110-118.

Knight, Joshua, Dewayne Ingram, and Charles Hall. 2019. Workshop: Understanding

irrigation water applied, consumptive water use, and water footprint using case studies for container nursery production and greenhouse crops. HortTechnology. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTTECH04290-19.

Krahe, J. and B.L. Campbell. 2016. “Impact of Technology on Labor and Sales in the U.S.

Green Industry.” HortTechnology 26(3):351-357.

Li, Yajuan, Marco Palma, Charles Hall, Hayk Khachatryan, and Oral Capps. 2018.

Measuring the effects of advertising on green industry sales: A generalized propensity score approach Applied Economics. Doi.org/10.1080/00036846.2018.1527448.

Lucey, A.K and S.S. Barton. 2011. Influencing Public Perception of Sustainable Roadside Vegetation Management Strategies.  Journal of Environmental Horticulture 29(3):119-124.

Majsztrik, John, Bridget Behe, Charlie Hall, Dewayne Ingram, Alexa Lamm, Laura Warner,

and Sarah White. 2019. Social and economic aspects of water use in specialty crop production: A Review. Water 2019, 11, 2337; doi:10.3390/w11112337.

McClaren, N., B. Behe, P. Huddleston, and R. Fernandez. 2020. Recycled or reclaimed? The

effect of terminology on water reuse perceptions. J. Environmental Psychology. 261: 6 pages. 

McClaren, N., B. Behe, P. Huddleston, and R. Fernandez. 2020. Recycled or reclaimed? The

effect of terminology on water reuse perceptions. J. Environmental Psychology. 261: 6 pages.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2020.110144

Mundel, J.  B.K. Behe, P.T. Huddleston. 2018. An Eye Tracking Study of Minimally Branded Products: Hedonism and Branding as Predictors of Purchase Intention. J. of Product and Brand Management 27(2):146-157, https://doi.org/10.1108/JPBM-07-2016-1282.

Palma, M.A., C.R. Hall, B. Campbell, H. Khachatryan, B. Behe and S. Barton. 2012. Measuring the Effects of Firm Promotion Expenditures on Green Industry Sales. J. Environ. Hort. 30(2):83-88. June 2012.

Palma, Marco, Michelle S. Segovia, Bachir Kassas, Luis A. Ribera, and Charles R. Hall. 2018.

Self-Control: Knowledge, or perishable resource? Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization. 145(1):80-94.

Palma, Marco A., Bridget K. Behe, Charles R. Hall, Patricia T. Huddleston, and Tom

Fernandez. 2016. Tracking position premiums in discrete choice experiments. Applied Economics Letters. Published online DOI:10.1080/13504851.2016.1150941.

Perez, Maria, Marco Palma, Bridget Behe, and Charles Hall. 2016. Structural Breaks and

Future Growth of the Green Industry. J. Environ. Hort. 34(2):52–55.

Pitton, Bruno J. L., Charles R. Hall, Darren L. Haver, Sarah A. White, Lorence R. Oki. 2018. A

cost analysis of using recycled irrigation runoff water in container nursery production: A

Southern California nursery case study. Irrigation Science. doi.org/10.1007/s00271-018-0578-8.

Posadas, B.C., P. R. Knight, C. H. Coker, R. Y. Coker, and S. A. Langlois. 2010. Socioeconomic Characteristics of Workers and Working Conditions in Nurseries and Greenhouses in the Northern Gulf of Mexico States.  Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station Bulletin 1182, Mississippi State, Mississippi. 

Posadas, Benedict C. 2012. Economic Impacts of Mechanization or Automation on Horticulture Production Firms Sales, Employment, and Workers’ Earnings, Safety, and Retention. HortTechnology, 22(3): 388-401.

Posadas, B.C., P. R. Knight, C. H. Coker, R. Y. Coker, and S. A. Langlois. 2014. Hiring Preferences of Nurseries and Greenhouses in Southern United States. HortTechnology, 24(1):107-117.

Raudales, Rosa, Paul Fisher, and Charles Hall. 2016. The cost of irrigation sources and water

treatment in greenhouse production. Irrigation Science. DOI 10.1007/s00271-016-0517-5.

Rihn, A., H. Khachatryan, B. Campbell, C. Hall and B. Behe. 2016. Consumer preferences

for organic production methods and origin promotions on ornamental plants: evidence from eye-tracking experiments. Agricultural Economics 47(2016):1–10.

Rihn, A., C. Yue, B.K. Behe, C.R. Hall. 2015. Consumer preferences for cut flower guarantees.

Acta Hortic. 1090, 45-54, DOI: 10.17660/ActaHortic.2015.1090.8

Rihn, Alicia, Hayk Khachatryan, Ben Campbell, Charles Hall, and Bridget Behe. 2015.

Consumer response to novel indoor foliage plant attributes: evidence from a rating-based conjoint experiment and gaze analysis. HortScience. 50(10):1524–1530.

Saksa K, T. Ilvento and S. Barton. 2012. Interpretation of Sustainable Landscapes Affects Student Perception of Sustainable Landscape Features. HortTechnology 22(3):402-409. June 2012.

Torres, A.P., B. Behe and S. Barton. 2019. The Online Advertising Strategies Adopted by Green Industry Firms. HortTechnology. Vol. 29 (3):374-381. https://journals.ashs.org/horttech/view/journals/horttech/29/3/article-p374.xml

Torres, A., S.S. Barton and B.K. Behe. 2017. Business and marketing practices of U.S. landscape firms. HortTechnology, 27 (6):884-892.

Yue, C., B.K. Behe, C.R. Hall, B.L. Campbell, R.G. Lopez, and J.H. Dennis. 2010a. “Investigating Consumer Preference for Biodegradable Containers” Journal of Environmental Horticulture 28(4): 239-243.

Yue, C., C.R. Hall, B.K. Behe, B.L. Campbell, R.G. Lopez, and J.H. Dennis. 2010b. “Are Consumers Willing to Pay More for Biodegradable Containers than for Plastic Ones.” Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics 42(4): 757-772.

Yue, Chengyan, Charles Hall, and Mary Meyer. 2016. Investigating factors affecting U.S.

consumer expenditures on fresh flowers and potted plants. HortTechnology 26(4):484-492.

Yue, Chengyan, Ben Campbell, Charles Hall, Bridget Behe, Jennifer Dennis, and Hayk

Khachatryan. 2015. Consumer preference for sustainable attributes in plants: evidence from experimental auctions. Agribusiness: An International Journal. doi: 10.1002/agr.21435.

Zaffou, M. and B. Campbell. 2016. “Consumer Preference and Willingness to Pay for Local

Labelling and Retail Outlet of Azaleas.” HortScience 51(8):1026-1030.

Zaffou, M., and B. Campbell. 2017. “Willingness to Pay for Retail Location and Product

Origin of Christmas Trees.” Agricultural and Resource Economics Review 46(3):464-478.

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