S1076: Fly Management in Animal Agriculture Systems and Impacts on Animal Health and Food Safety
(Multistate Research Project)
S1076: Fly Management in Animal Agriculture Systems and Impacts on Animal Health and Food Safety
Duration: 10/01/2018 to 09/30/2023
Statement of Issues and Justification
Federal funding priorities are focused on major issues of national concern, climate change, food safety, food security, biofuels, and obesity. Entomologists play a key and vital role in helping to solve many of these national concerns by evaluating the potential impact of climate change on insect populations and how these changes can threaten the health and well-being of humans and animals, and compromise the nation’s safe and secure food supply. Few insects are more influenced by anthropogenic effects than nuisance and pest flies; the house fly, stable fly, horn fly, face fly and blow flies. There is a significant body of literature on the biology and economic impact of these pests but this multidisciplinary project examines closely predictive models influencing pest distribution in light of climate change, the effects of the microbial community of pest populations, and the dispersal of pathogenic microorganisms that compromise a safe and secure food supply. Advances developed in the course of this project will lead to the development of new and innovative pest management technologies to mitigate these threats.
Biting and nuisance flies are among the most important pests in livestock and poultry production systems. These flies are responsible for damage and control costs in excess of a billion dollars per year in the United States (e.g., see Taylor et al. 2012). In addition to the direct damage these flies inflict upon livestock, their presence as a byproduct of confined livestock and poultry operations has been repeatedly cited as a nuisance, especially when flies enter the vicinity of human habitations and urban environments. Law suits, zoning limitations and animosity between farmers and home owners have resulted (Thomas and Skoda 1993). In spite of their ubiquitous presence, importance as pests, and association with diseases of humans and livestock, our knowledge of the biology of these species is seriously wanting and available control technologies remain inadequate. The recent sequencing of the house fly genome and of the stable fly genome offer great potential for the identification of new opportunities for managing these pests.
House flies are considered to be the #1 nuisance pest associated with dairy and other confined animal operations (Geden and Hogsette 1994, Hinkle and Hickle 1999). House flies are capable of carrying more than 65 disease organisms that affect humans and animals (Greenberg 1971), such as the virulent Escherichia coli strain O157:H7 (Sasaki et al. 2000). In poultry production, house flies can transmit Salmonella among flocks; and the spotting of eggs with fly specks may reduce the eggs’ market value. Stable flies are among the most serious pests of cattle worldwide. With their painful bites, they can reduce weight gains of cattle on finishing rations up to 20% (Campbell et al. 1977). The total impact to U.S. cattle industries is estimated to exceed $2 billion dollars annually (Taylor et al. 2012). Given the economic importance of nuisance and biting flies, control of their populations is critically important. For decades insecticides have provided economical control of these pests. However, the evolution of insecticide resistance compromises the control achieved in many locations around the USA.
Stable flies develop as maggots in a wide array of decomposing organic matter, including soiled animal bedding and soiled feed debris that accumulates wherever cattle are confined (Moon, 2002). Populations build exponentially by continuous reproduction from spring to fall in northern temperate localities (Beresford and Sutcliffe, 2010; Taylor et al., 2012). Dairy farm surveys indicate calf hutch bedding is a prominent source of stable flies around dairies (Schmidtmann, 1988), and choice of bedding material can minimize stable fly production (Schmidtmann, 1991). More recently, it has also become apparent that feed debris and manure that accumulate during winter are important sources of stable flies, especially where overwintered debris piles remain intact into the following summer (Broce et al., 2005; Talley et al., 2009; Taylor and Berkebile, 2011).
The face fly is the primary pest of pastured cattle in most state north of the 35th parallel. Adult face flies overwinter in attics and out-buildings and colonize cattle in the spring (Krafsur and Moon 1997). The face fly feeds on lachrymal and mucosal secretions of the eyes and nose of cattle. Gravid flies lay eggs exclusively in fresh cattle dung pats, and the life cycle can be completed in as little as 14 days. When face flies are abundant, cattle change grazing habits, which often results in poor utilization of pasture. In addition to the annoyance and irritation associated with its feeding habits, the face fly is the primary means of transmission of Moraxella bovis, the causative agent of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK), also known as pinkeye (Glass et al. 1982, Glass and Gerhardt 1983, Krafsur and Moon 1997). Face fly infestations were estimated to cause annual losses of more than $53 million (Drummond et al. 1981). Action threshold levels of 10-15 flies per face were established to reduce the spread of pinkeye and maximize animal comfort (Krafsur & Moon 1997). In the northeast face fly numbers often exceed 100 flies per face.
The horn fly is an obligate blood-sucking parasite of cattle and is considered a serious pest of pastured cattle in US (Drummond 1988). Horn fly feeding annoys cattle, alters their grazing habits, and decreases both milk production and weight gains. Horn fly numbers as high as 10,000 per animal have been reported and they feed 10 to 12 times per day. Horn flies oviposit exclusively in fresh dung, and they do so immediately after it has been deposited (Bruce 1964). The fly can complete development in 9-12 days, with 50% adult survival at 5 weeks. Horn flies diapause beneath dung pats during the winter months. Horn fly control leads to increased milk production and calf growth (Jonsson and Mayer 1999). Unlike other kinds of flies that just visit cattle for brief moments, adult horn flies reside on their host animals, which makes then especially vulnerable to control. Organic dairy farmers rely on essential oil repellents to alleviate horn fly problems, but success of these products is limited. Horn flies have been incriminated in the transmission of bovine mastitis, also known as summer mastitis (Oliver et al. 1998, Gillespie et al. 1999, Edwards et al. 2000). In NC, 53% of horn flies collected from cattle were positive for S. aureus, and 39% of the cows were positive for the same genotype found in the flies (Anderson et al. 2012).
In 2003, the Northeastern IPM Center Livestock and Field Crop working group created a list of prioritized needs (http://northeastipm.org/work_livepriority.cfm). The group indicated that the “development of new integrated management of key pests of livestock and poultry in confined and pasture settings” was a top priority with specific reference to “stable fly breeding and migration in pasture systems” and “fly control methods for pasture and feedlot situations.” Ten of the working group’s 17 assessed needs and seven of the top 10 directly referred to muscid flies, including house flies, stable flies, and face flies as top priorities. The objectives of the current proposal address 10 of the 17 needs. Coordinated extension of the research outcomes derived from this proposal to stakeholders will address 2 additional priorities of this working group.
In 2001, research and extension needs for IPM of arthropods of veterinary importance that were identified as part of a USDA sponsored workshop in Lincoln, Nebraska nearly 20 years ago (Geden and Hogsette 1999) were reevaluated, updated, and the updated document is now available at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=10139. This document describes the IPM needs of eight animal commodity groups including poultry, dairy, beef cattle, and swine. For each of these commodity groups, muscid flies are noted as a very significant pest, and the working group makes strong recommendations for increased research and extension efforts to reduce the considerable economic losses resulting from pest activities. This workgroup also noted the decline to critical levels of extension personnel nationally, particularly related to domestic animal production. Increasing coordination and collaboration among veterinary entomologists nationally is needed to more efficiently disseminate research findings and management recommendations.
Successful completion of this project will provide a better understanding of the interactions between livestock production systems and the life cycles of pestiferous flies. Exploitation of these interactions will provide economically feasible and environmentally friendly technology for reducing the impact of flies on livestock production and human health. The project will provide quantitative data to analyze fly borne spread of pathogens from animal production systems into the urban environment. The project will develop new control technologies for biting and nuisance flies and will assess the fly resistance to insecticides that are currently available or under development. New technological innovations and comprehensive pest management information will be disseminated to producers through a multistate coordinated effort to provide the broadest reach for project outcomes thereby increasing the health and quality of livestock and reducing the economic impact of these pest flies.
The expertise to accomplish the objectives of this project exists within the university and USDA-ARS systems. However, expertise is widely dispersed with few states having more than one livestock entomologist and many having none. A Multistate Project will serve to coordinate this research effort, maximizing synergy and minimizing duplicated effort.
This project will replace the existing Multistate Project S-1060: Fly Management in Animal Agriculture Systems and Impacts on Animal Health and Food Safety (2013-2018).
Related, Current and Previous Work
See attachment for complete Related, Current and Previous Work section due to the character limit
New technologies for management of biting and nuisance flies in organic and conventional systems
Comments: a. Novel push-pull strategies (NE, NC, USDA-NE, USDA-FL) b. Evaluation of improved monitoring systems (USDA-NE, CA, TN, NM) c. Novel toxicants, biopesticides, and delivery systems (TX, USDA-FL, USDA-NE, FL, NE, PA, NM) d. Non-pesticide management options (mechanical) (FL, NC, NE, USDA-NE, USDA-FL, USDA-TX, PA, TN)
Insecticide resistance detection and management
Comments: a. Assessment of insecticide resistance (TX, NY, USDA) b. Leveraging the Stomoxys and Musca genomes for novel control measures (NY, USDA)
Investigation of the microbial ecology, epithelial immunity, and vector competence of biting and nuisance flies
Comments: a. Identification of the key bacterial strains and their metabolites playing a major role in oviposition and larval development of stable flies (TX, KS, USDA) b. Investigation of the innate immune response of filth flies (KS, USDA) c. Consequences of fly-bacteria interactions: selection effects and evolutionary outcomes (USDA, TX) d. Animal and human pathogen acquisition, dispersal and deposition by muscid flies (NC, MA, KS)
Characterize population biology of biting and nuisance flies
Comments: a. Characterize effects of climate and landscape features on dispersal (KS, TX, USDA NC) b. Phenological and environmental effects on biting and nuisance fly populations (FL, KS, TN, USDA)
Extension and community engagement
Comments: a. Improve project website to maximize extension and community engagement b. Demonstrate research value to stakeholders and funding decision-makers c. Seek funding to support these extension/outreach efforts by developing proposals that will be submitted to various granting agencies including our Regional IPM Centers.
Measurement of Progress and Results
- 1a. Create multistate pest management strategies for biting and nuisance livestock flies, identify repellants and attractants that will provide extended efficacy, and conduct trials and create reports looking at repellants.
- 1b. Develop sensor systems and algorithms for machine learning and define and quantify animal responses for monitoring
- 1c. Develop autodissemination device to deliver novel toxicants (pyriproxyfen) and biopesticides (Beauveria bassiana) for fly control and publish efficacy testing and extension outputs on results of product performance
- 1d. We will expand target pest range for the walk thru fly trap, measure production parameters of dairy cattle with and without fly traps in the southern region, develop and test a portable management device for stable flies, develop and test a multibehavior and visual olfactory trap, improve fly kill times through genetic selection of Beauveria, conduct efficacy testing of selected Beauveria strains for activity on target and non-target insects, conduct efficacy testing of entomopathogenic bacteria against house flies and stable flies, enhance our understanding of the interactions among flies and their associated pathogens and parasitoids, determine whether natural populations of parasitoids from high temperature locations are heat adapted, and assess heritability for horn fly resistance (hfr) in animals and identify hfr traits.
- 2a. We will improve our understanding of house fly and stable fly resistance profiles across the U.S. and the relative efficacy of new insecticides for fly control. We will establish baseline susceptibility to abamectin and other new insectices in fly populations across the U.S.
- 2b. Identification of the mutations responsible for stable fly and house fly resistance
- 3a. We will identify the key bacterial strains and/or the metabolites essential for stable fly development
- 3b. We will determine differences in gene expression profiles across larvae of four important veterinary pests (house flies, horn flies, stable flies, face flies) and how these profiles are related to their utilization of bacteria in manure. We will also generate new information about the antimicrobial peptides stored in the crop of the adult house fly and how they are involved in the destruction of pathogens imbibed and sent to the crop
- 3c. Identification of components of fly and bacterial genomes that are important for promoting and inhibiting interactions between flies and bacteria; generate surveys of bacterial taxa that respond to different thermal environments when in association with flies and the general phenotypic qualities of fly associated bacteria
- 3d. Determine if flies harbor and/or as serve as vectors of foodborne pathogens, livestock-associated pathogens and other microbes; identify pathogens associated with human and avian diseases that are carried by house flies in poultry facilities; assess the transmission of Salmonella between and among flies and cantaloupe; determine the role of the crop in pathogen harborage and transmission by house flies; provide a monitoring system to document the incidence or prevalence of mastitis and pinkeye in organic and conventional dairy cattle; catalogue the various genotypes of mastitis and pinkeye specific bacteria
- 4a. Application of new technology to document fly dispersal factors in pasture.
- 4b. Population dynamic models for stable flies relative to developmental substrates
- 4c. Publications on genetic structure and distribution of Culicoides sonorensis; DNA barcodes, phylogenetic trees, and distribution maps for tabanid identification; population structure, gene flow, and dispersal patterns of stable flies within North America
- 5a. Improvements to our project website (Insect Pests of Animals – www.veterinaryentomology.org) to more effectively provide pest management training and education to animal producers, extension personnel, funding agencies, and decision makers. Content will be developed to support extension and community engagement goals. Content may range from documents to videos to interactive displays
- 5b. Economic impact statements for flies of veterinary importance; update of the Research and Extension Needs for IPM of Arthropods of Veterinary Importance document last reviewed in 2001; and one-page impact statements that clearly state value of this multistate research project.
- 5c. Project members will write funding proposals to the various Regional IPM Centers to support development of Pest Management Strategic Plans or that support other extension and community engagement goals of this project. Project members will include in research proposals a request for funds to support the production of research impact statements and for the development of relevant educational content for the multistate project website.
Outcomes or Projected Impacts
- 1a. Distribute information on new push-pull products and strategies for improved animal health to stakeholders.
- 1b. Improved surveillance methods for pestiferous flies and introduction of new technologies for insect monitoring that are adoptable by the industry.
- 1c. Reduce fly populations on livestock farms using new toxicants and delivery systems and generate new pesticide options for livestock producers
- 1d. Develop fly management system with minimal use of pesticide; provide improved control of horn flies on dairies; make available new heat-tolerant strains of parasitoids for use in augmentative biocontrol programs against filth flies; provide an improved non-pesticide control agent that could be used in conjunction with other biological control to reduce filth fly pests on poultry facilities; provide recommendations on the compatibility of B. bassiana with fly parasitoids.
- 2a. Development of fly baseline susceptibility to abamectin in house fly populations; surveys of abamectin resistance in house flies; identification of permethrin resistance in stable fly populations across the U.S.; develop and disseminate to livestock producers overall insecticide resistance management plans including new compounds for fly control, such as abamectin.
- 2b. Improved insecticide resistance management strategies based on improved understanding of resistant populations
- 3a. Augment stable fly control efforts through the identification of biological requirements for larval development
- 3b. Inform efforts to identify targets or mitigation points for filth fly larval population reduction; gain information about how the fly imbibes various pathogens into the crop and what happens to them while there, which will shed further light on the role of the crop in pathogen transmission.
- 3c. Data will be applied to risk assessment regarding the ability of certain flies to regularly harbor specific microbes, and how those microbes are harbored and transmitted; we will provide information necessary for controlling the development of nuisance and biting flies, and for restricting the role that flies play as vectors of pathogenic bacteria
- 3d. Projects will impart a greater understanding of the role that house flies serve as carriers and transmitters of pathogens under several conditions (livestock operations, produce farms, food safety), which can help in mitigation strategies. Such strategies include integrated management programs for food safety at diversified farms and confined livestock health and safety
- 4a. Fly dispersal is actuated by repellent use and in the absence of host animal, dispersing fly mortality increases.
- 4b. Improved predictive models for stable fly life history parameters and population dynamics; improved understanding of parameters defining the quality of stable fly developmental substrates.
- 4c. Nation-wide distribution map for Culicoides sonorensis; ecological distribution and molecular phylogeny of Tabanus species; identification of populations associated with different phenotypes (e.g., geography, collection site, age).
- 5a. Industry stakeholders (livestock and poultry producers, and others involved in animal agriculture) and university/government researchers accessing the project website will have increased awareness and knowledge of pest management strategies. Project members will have an enhanced connection to animal producers, extension agents, and decision makers.
- 5b. Pest Management Strategic Plans and the revised Research and Extension Needs for IPM of Arthropods of Veterinary Importance document will focus future research efforts towards areas of greatest concern and impact to animal producers.
- 5c. Project members will successfully acquire funding to support project goals, particularly those related to extension of project outcomes and development of training and education content for the project website
Milestones(1):1a. Assess products for evaluation and establish protocols. Conduct field tests demonstrating PPS. Evaluate and refine products in initial field trials. 1b. Identify best attractants for stable fly traps. Evaluate digital imaging tools to quantify images. Conduct feasibility testing of sensors and robotic quantification methods. Develop sensors in laboratory and algorithms. Conduct attractant assays in laboratory and field. 1c. Identify novel toxicants and delivery systems. Evaluate novel toxicants and delivery systems in lab and field and develop a novel toxicant autodissemination device for testing. 1d. Develop expertise in production of P. protegens. Conduct bioassays on effects of B. bassiana-infected pupae on parasitoid adults and immatures. Survey poultry systems for naturally occurring Beauveria bassiana isolates; screen and select isolates for further testing. Identify livestock with putitive hfr traits and their offspring. Initiate field trials on economic impact of biting flies on dairies. Complete P. protegens bioassay with house flies. Assess ability of parasitoids to detect and avoid pathogen infected fly pupae. Conduct B. bassiana bioassays with M. raptor and M. zaraptor. Testing compatibility of selected B. bassiana strains with biological control agents completed. Testing compatibility of selected strains with biological control agents completed. Continue monitoring of putative hfr cattle. Initiate genetic testing of hfr cattle. 2a. Develop assay protocols and establish LC50 and LC99 values for to be able to monitor abamectin susceptibility in field populations of house flies. Sample stable flies for permethrin resistance in at least 8 states, with 5 states sampled across multiple years. Monitor resistance levels in field populations for current and new insecticides. 2b. Use bulk segregant analysis to identify the loci responsible insecticide resistance and identify genes for further study. Validate the mutations responsible for resistance. 3a. Obtain and process diverse stable fly development substrates for metagenomic analysis. Culture, isolate, and sequence Herpetomonas spp. nov. 3b. Generate, analyze, and validate transcriptomes and microbiomes. Identify and characterize AMPs used in the house fly crop. 3c. Determine which bacteria are associated with filth flies. Identify immune genes in filth fly genomes. Characterize the effects of bacteria on fly behavior and development. Identify taxa for study in different thermal environments and preliminary collection of data on thermal performance. 3d. Identify study sites and the integrated roles of flies, cattle, and/or produce in pathogen transmission. Design and assess experiments for fly to fly and fly to food transmission of pathogens. Characterize the fly populations on cooperating dairies and conduct diagnostics on collected flies to characterize the disease specific bacteria. Identify importance of peptides in fly crop function and ability of fly to imbibe, store and regurgitate pathogens. Initiate fly control measures on the participating farms and continue disease monitoring. Complete screening of flies from poultry facilities for common pathogenic bacteria. 4a. Quantify pasture-based fly dispersal based on distance, endurance, age, and feeding status. 4b. Complete laboratory diet and field substrate studies. 4c. Complete midge collections and sequencing. Identify population structure and gene flow of stable flies. 5a. Develop a framework for management of the project website, including type of content to make available and responsibility for update of this content. 5b. Identify opportunities for funds to produce Pest Management Specific Plans. Work with animal producers and industry representatives to initiate workshops to develop these Specific Plans. Identify flies for which economic impacts are most critically needed and organize project members into teams to assess the economic impacts of these important pest flies. 5c. Identify opportunities for funding from Regional IPM Centers. Encourage project members to include support for development of extension content (both online and print) as part of any suitable funding proposal.
(4):1a. Execute final field trials and develop recommendations. 1b. Evaluate sensors in the field. Field test algorithms. Conduct attraction field assays and develop extension programs and guides. 1c. Evaluate novel toxicants and delivery systems in the field. Develop a novel toxicant autodissemination device and testing. 1d. Complete field trials on economic impact of biting flies on dairies. Complete P. protegens bioassays with stable flies. Conduct bioassays with S. cameroni and S. endius. Develop a B. basssiana autodissemination device and testing completed. Development of autodissemination devices and testing completed. 2a. Continue to monitor resistance levels in field populations for current and new insectides. Obtain stable fly resistance data from missing states. 2b. Continue to validate the mutations responsible for resistance. 3a. Identify common microflora among diverse larval substrates. 3b. Continue analysis and validation of transcriptomes and microbiomes. 3d. Replicated field season monitoring disease incidence and prevalence on the farms and continue monitoring fly population densities following control measures. Conduct stakeholder interviews on study outcomes and summarize results. Complete assessment of the vector competence of house flies for low pathogenic avian influenza virus. 4c. Complete midge data analysis. Identify barcodes, distribution maps and species complexes of Tabanus species. Describe dispersal and phenotype associations of stable flies. 5a. Update and modernize project website. Maximize reach of website through availability of content that stakeholders find valuable. 5b. Finalize and publish Pest Management Strategic Plans. Complete economic impact analyses for important pest flies associated with animal agriculture.
Projected ParticipationView Appendix E: Participation
Albuquerque, T.A., and L. Zurek. 2014. Temporal changes in the bacterial community of animal feces and their correlation with stable fly oviposition, larval development, and adult fitness. Frontiers Microbiol. 5: 590.
Alexander, D. 2010. Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis: A review of cases in clinical practice. Cet. Clin Food Anim. 26: 487-503.
Anderson, K.L., R. Lyman, K. Moury, D. Ray, D.W. Watson, and M.T. Correa. 2012. Molecular epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy heifers. J. Dairy Sci. 95: 4921-4930.
Annan, I.B, J.M. Alvarez, H.E. Portillo, R. Edoliya, J. Wiles. 2011. DuPont Cyazypyr™ (DPX-HGW86, cyantraniliprole): a novel insecticide for aphid pest management and plant protection. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Am.
Ascunce, M.S., C.C.S. Yang, C. Geden, and D. Shoemaker. 2009. Twenty-three new microsatellite loci in the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae). Mol. Ecol. Resour. 9: 271–273.
Bailey, D.L., T.L. Whitfield, and B. J. Smittle. 1973. Flight and dispersal of the stable fly. J. Econ. Entomol. 66: 410-411.
Bastista, G.E., E.J. Keogh, A.M. Neto, and E. Rowton. 2011. SIGKDD demo: sensors and software to allow computational entomology, an emerging application of data mining. In Proceedings of the 17th ACM SIGKDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining. Pp. 761-764.
Beresford, D.V. and J.F. Sutcliffe. 2006. Studies on the effectiveness of coroplast sticky traps for sampling stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae), including a comparison to Alsynite. J. Econ. Entomol. 99: 1025-1035.
Beresford, D.V. and J.F. Sutcliffe. 2010. Assessing pest control using changes in instantaneous rate of population increase: treated targets and stable fly populations case study. J. Dairy Sci. 93: 2517–2524.
Biale, H., C.J. Geden, and E. Chiel. 2017. Effects of pyriproxifen on wild populations of the house fly, Musca domestica, and compatibility with its principal parasitoids. Pest Manage.Sci. 2017 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ps.4638/epdf
Blume, R. R., R. H. Roberts, J. L. Eschle, and J. J. Matter. 1971. Tests of aerosols of Deet for protection of livestock from biting flies. J. Econ. Entomol. 64: 1193-1196.
Boxler, D.J., G.J. Brewer, J. Zhu, and R.N. Funston. 2017. Bio-pesticide management of pasture flies in the great plains via a push-pull strategy. J. Animal Sci. 95(supplement 2): 8-8.
Broce, A.B. 1988. An improved Alsynite trap for stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae). J. Med. Entomol, 25: 406-409.
Broce, A.B., J. Hogsette, and S. Paisley. 2005. Winter feeding sites of hay in round bales as major developmental sites of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae) in pastures in Spring and Summer. J. Econ. Entomol. 98: 2307-2312.
Brown, A.H., C.D. Steelman, Z.B. Johnson, C.F. Rosenkrans, and T.M. Brasuell. 1992. Estimates of repeatability and heritability of horn fly resistance in beef cattle. J. An. Sci. 70: 1375–1381.
Bruce, W.G. 1940. A cattle trap for the control of horn flies. U.S. Dept. of Agri. E-498.
Bruce, W.G. 1964. The history and biology of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) with comments on control. N. C. Agric. Exp. Stn. Tech. Bull. 157.
Bull, D.L. and R.W. Meola. 1994. Efficacy and toxicodynamics of pyriproxifen after treatment of insecticide-susceptible and -resistant strains of the house fly (Diptera: Muscidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 87: 1407-1415.
Campbell, J.B., R.G. White, J.E. Wright, R. Crookshank, and D.C. Clanton. 1977. Effects of stable flies on weight gains and feed efficiency of calves on growing or finishing rations. J. Econ. Entomol. 70:592-594.
Castro, E., A. Gil, M.A. Solari, and N.A. Farias. 2005. Validation of a subjective counting method for horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans) (Diptera: Muscidae) populations in a cattle herd. Vet. Parasitol. 133: 363-367.
Chakrabarti, S., P. Liehl, N. Buchon, and B. Lemaitre. 2012. Infection-induced host translational blockage inhibites immune responses and epithelial renewal in the Drosophila gut. Cell Host Microbe. 12: 60-70.
Chen, Y., A. Why, G. Batista, A.M. Neto, and E. Keogh. 2014. Flying insect classification with inexpensive sensors. J. Insect. Behav. 27: 657-677.
Cook, D.F., D.V. Telfer, J.B. Lindsey, and R.A. Deyl. 2017. Substrates across horticultural and livestock industries that support the development of stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae). Austral. Entomology. doi: 10.1111/aen.12282.
Cook, S.M., Z.R. Khan, and J.A. Pickett. 2007. The use of push-pull strategies in integrated pest management. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 52: 375-400.
Cortivo, P.D., E. Dias, J.O.J. Barcellos, V. Peripolli, J.B.G. Costa Jr., B.S.L. Dallago, C.M. McManus. 2016. Use of thermographic images to detect external parasite load in cattle. Comput. Electron. Agric. 127: 413-417.
Crooks E.R., M.T. Bulling, and K.M. Barnes. 2016. Microbial effects on the development of forensically important blow fly species. Forensic Sci. Int. 266: 185-190.
Cullen, J.N., A. Lithio, A.S. Seetharam, Y. Zheng, G. Li, D. Nettleton, and A.M. O’Connor. 2017. Microbial community sequencing analysis of the calf eye microbiota and relationship to infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis. Vet. Microbiol. 207: 267-279.
Denning, S.S., S.P. Washburn, and D.W. Watson. 2014. Development of a novel walk-through fly trap for the control of horn flies and other pests on pastured dairy cows. J. Dairy Science, 97: 4624-4631.
Depristo, M.A., E. Banks, R. Poplin, K.V. Garimella, J.R. Maguire, C. Hartl, A. A. Philippakis, G. del Angel, M.A. Rivas, M. Hanna, A. McKenna, T.J. Fennell, A.M. Kernytsky, A.Y. Sivachenko, K. Cibulskis, S.B. Gabriel, D. Altshuler, and M.J. Daly. 2011. A framework for variation discovery and genotyping using next-generation DNA sequencing data. Nat. Genet. 43: 491–501.
Devine, G.J., E.Z. Perea, G.F. Killeen, J.D. Stancil, S J. Clark, and A.C. Morrison. 2009. Using adult mosquitoes to transfer insecticides to Aedes aegypti larval habitats. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106: 11530-11534.
De Vliegher, S., L.K. Fox, S. Piepers, S. McDougall, and H.W. Barkema. 2012. Mastitis in dairy heifers: Nature of the disease, potential impact, prevention and control. J. Dairy Sci. 95:1025-1040.
Drummond, R. 1988. Economic aspects of ectoparasites of cattle in North America. pp. 9-24. In The economic impact of parasitism in cattle. Proceedings World Vet. Cong. Lawrenceville, NJ.
Drummond, R. O., G. Lambert, H. E. Smalley, and S. E. Terrill.1981. Estimated losses of livestock to pests. In: D. Pimentel (Ed.) CRC Handbook of Pest Management in Agriculture. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.
Edwards, J. F., S. E. Wikse, R. W. Field, C. C Hoelscher and D. B. Herd. 2000. Bovine teat atresia associated with horn fly (Haematobia irritans irritans L.) induced dermatitis. Vet. Pathol. 37: 360-364.
El-Bassiony, G.M. and J.G. Stoffolano, Jr. 2016. Comparison of sucrose intake and production of elimination spots among adult Musca domestica, Musca autumnalis, Phormia regina and Protophormia terraenovae. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed. 6: 640–645
El-Bassiony, G.M. and J.G. Stoffolano, Jr. 2016. In vitro antimicrobial activity of maggot excretions/secretions of Sarcophaga (Liopygia) argyrostoma (Robineau-Desvoidy).
Afr. J. Microbiol. Res. 10: 1036-1043.
El-Bassiony, G.M., J.G. Stoffolano, Jr., and A. Purdy. 2016. House fly, Musca domestica, as a vector and host for Vibrio cholera. Med. Vet. Entomol. 30: 392-402.
Foil, L.D. and C.D. Younger. 2006. Development of treated targets for the control of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae). Vet. Parasitol. 137: 311-315.
Fox, L.K. 2009. Prevalence, incidence and risk factors of heifer mastitis. J. Dairy Sci. 134: 82-88.
Fried, J.H., D.J. Levey and J.A. Hogsette. 2005. Habitat corridors function both as drift fences and movement conduits for dispersing flies. Oecologia 143: 645-651.
García-Munguía, C.A., F. Reyes-Villanueva, M.A. Rodriguez-Perez, H. Cortez-Madrigal, M. Acosta-Ramos, L.A. Ibarra-Juárez, M.A. Velazquez-Machuca, J.T. Silva-García, M. Rebollar-Plata, and A.M. Garcia-Munguia. 2015. Autodissemination of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana in Musca domestica L. results in less oviposition and short gonotrophic cycle. Southwest. Entomol. 40: 519-529.
Gaugler, R., D. Suman, and Y. Wang. 2011. An autodissemination station for the transfer of an insect growth regulator to mosquito oviposition sites. Med. Vet. Entomol. 26: 37-45.
Geden, C.J. 2005. Methods for monitoring outdoor population of house flies, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae). J. Vector Ecol. 30: 244-250.
Geden, C.J. 2012. Status of biopesticides for control of house flies. Journal of Biopesticides.5, Issue SUPPL., 1-11
Geden, C.J. and J.A. Hogsette [eds.]. 1994. Research and Extension Needs for Integrated Pest Management of Arthropods of Veterinary Importance. Proceedings of a Workshop in Lincoln, Nebraska (Last Updated – October 2001). Accessible at: http://www.ars.usda.gov/Services/docs.htm?docid=10139
Geden, C.J. and G.J. Devine. 2012. Pyriproxyfen and house flies (Diptera: Muscidae): effects of direct exposure and autodissemination to larval habitats. J. Med. Entomol. 49: 606-613.
Gerry, A.C., and D. Zhang. 2009. Behavioral resistance of house flies, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) to imidacloprid. U.S. Army Med. Depart. J.: 54-59.
Gerry, A.C., G.E. Higginbotham, L.N. Periera, A. Lam, and C.R. Sheton. 2011. Evaluation of surveillance methods for monitoring house fly abundance and activity on large commercial dairy operations. J. Med. Entomol. 104: 1093-1102.
Gersabeck, E.F. and R.W. Merritt. 1985. Dispersal of adult Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) from known immature developmental areas. J. Econ. Entomol. 78: 617-621.
Gilles, J., J.-F. David, and G. Duvallet. 2005. Temperature effects on development and survival of two stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans and Stomoxys niger niger (Diptera: Muscidae), in La Réunion Island. J. Med. Entomol. 42: 260-265.
Gillespie, B. E., W. E. Owens, S. C. Nickerson and S. P. Oliver. 1999. Deoxyribonucleic acid fingerprinting of Staphylococcus aureus from heifer mammary secretions and from horn flies. J. Dairy Sci. 82: 1581-1585.
Glass, H.W. and R.R. Gerhardt. 1984. Transmission of Moraxella bovis by regurgitation from the crop of the face fly (Diptera: Muscidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 77: 399-401.
Glass, H.W., R.R. Gerhardt and W.H. Greene. 1982. Survival of Moraxella bovis in the alimentary tract of the face fly. J. Econ. Entomol. 75: 545-546.
Godden, S., P. Rapnicki, S. Stewart, J. Fetrow, A. Johnson, R. Bey, and R. Farnsworth. 2003. Effectiveness of an internal teat seal in the prevention of new intramammary infections during the dry and early lactation periods in dairy cows when used with a dry cow intramammary antibiotic. J. Dairy Sci. 86: 3899-3911.
Goolsby, J. A., J. Jung, J. Landivar, W. McCutcheon, R. Lacewell, R. Duhaime, D. Baca, R. Puhger, H. Hasel, K. Varner, B. Miller, A. Schwartz, and A. Perez de Leon. 2016. Evaluation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for detection of cattle in the Cattle Fever Tick Permanent Quarantine Zone. Subtrop. Agric. & Environ. 67: 24-27.
Greenberg, B. 1971. Flies and disease, Vol. 1. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 856 pp.
Guerra, L., J.G. Stoffolano Jr, M.C. Belardinelli, and A.M. Fausto. 2016. Serotonergic innervation of the salivary glands and central nervous system of adult Glossina pallidipes Austen (Diptera: Glossinidae), and the impact of the salivary gland hypertrophy virus (GpSGHV) on the host. J. Insect Sci. 16: 8: 1–7.
Guerra, L., J.G. Stoffolano Jr., G. Gambellini, V. Laghezza Masci, M.C. Belardinelli and A.M. Fausto. 2013. Ultrastructure of the salivary glands of non-infected and infected glands in Glossina pallidipes by the salivary glands hypertrophy virus. J. Invertebr. Pathol. 112: S53–S61.
Guerra, L., J.G. Stoffolano Jr, M.C. Belardinelli, G. Gambellini, A.R. Taddei, V.L. Masci, and A.M. Fausto. 2015. Disruption of the salivary gland muscle in tsetse, Glossina pallidipes Austen, due to salivary gland hypertrophy virus infection. Med. Vet. Entomol. 29: 361-370.
Hall, R.D. and K.E. Doisy. 1989. Walk-through trap for control of horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on pastured cattle. J. Econ. Entomol. 82: 530-534.
Hao, Y., B. Campana, and E. Keogh. 2013. Monitoring and mining animal sounds in visual space. J. Insect Behav. 26: 466-493.
Harris, J. A., J. E. Hillerton, and S. V. Morant. 1987. Effect on milk production of controlling muscid flies, and reducing fly-avoidance behaviour, by the use of Fenvalerate ear tags during the dry period. J Dairy Res. 54: 165–171.
Hatakoshi, M., H. Kawada, S. Nishida, H. Kisida, and I. Nakayama. 1987. Laboratory evaluation of 2-[1-methyl-2-(4-phenoxyphenoxy)-ethoxy] pyridine against larvae of mosquitoes and housefly. Jpn. J. Sanit. Zool. 38: 271-274.
Heinze, S.D., T. Kohlbrenner, D. Ippolito, A. Meccariello, A. Burger, C. Mosimann, G. Saccone, and D. Bopp. 2017. CRISPR-Cas9 targeted disruption of the yellow ortholog in the housefly identifies the brown body locus. Scientific Reports 7.
Hinkle, N.C. and L.A. Hickle. 1999. California caged layer pest management evaluation. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 8: 327-338.
Hogsette, J. A., and J. P. Ruff. 1985. Stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) migration in northwest Florida. Environ. Entomol. 14: 170-175.
Hogsette, J.A. and D.L. Kline. 2017. The knight stick trap and knight stick sticky wraps: new tools for stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) management. J. Econ. Entomol. 110: 1384-1389.
Hogsette, J.A., J.P. Ruff, and C.J. Jones. 1987. Stable fly biology and control in northwest Florida. J. Agric. Entomol. 4: 1-11.
Hogsette, J.A., R.D. Jacobs, and R.W. Miller. 1993. The sticky card: device for studying the distribution of adult house fly (Diptera: Muscidae) populations in closed poultry houses. J. Econ. Entomol. 86: 450-454.
Højland, D.H., J.G. Scott, K.-M.V. Jensen, and M. Kristensen. 2014. Autosomal male determination in a spinosad resistant house fly strain from Denmark. Pest Man. Sci. 70: 1114-1117.
Holbrook, F.R., W.J. Tabachnick, E.T. Schmidtmann, C.N. McKinnon, R.J. Bobian, and W.L. Grogan. 2000. Sympatry in the Culicoides variipennis complex (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae): a taxonomic reassessment. J. Med. Entomol. 37: 65-76.
Hollis, J.H., F.W. Knapp, and K.A. Dawson. 1985. Influence of bacteria within bovine feces on the development of the face fly (Diptera: Muscidae). Env. Entomol. 14: 568–571.
Invest, J.F. and J.R. Lucas. 2008. Pyriproxyfen as a mosquito larvicide. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Urban Pests, pp. 239-245. Edited by W. H. Robinson & D. Bajomi. Veszprem, Hungary: OOK-Press Kft.
Iranpour, M., A.M. Schurko, G.R. Klassen, and T.D. Galloway. 2004. DNA fingerprinting of tabanids (Diptera: Tabanidae) and their respective egg masses using PCR - Restriction fragment profiling. Can. Entomol. 136: 605-619.
Ito, Y., M. Nakamura, T. Hotani, and T. Imoto. 1995. Insect lysozyme from house fly (Musca domestica) larvae: possible digestive function based on sequence and enzymatic properties. J Biochem. 118: 546–551.
Jacquet, S., K. Huber, H. Guis, M.-L. Setier-Rio, M. Goffredo, X. Allène, I. Rakotoarivony, C. Chevillon, J. Bouyer, T. Baldet, T. Balenghien, and C. Garros. 2016. Spatio-temporal genetic variation of the biting midge vector species Culicoides imicola (Ceratopogonidae) Kieffer in France. Parasite. Vector. 9: 141.
Jarzen, D. M., J. A. Hogsette, I. N. Gainesville, and D. M. Jarzen. 2008. Pollen from the exoskeletons of stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus 1758), in Gainesville, Florida, U.S.A. Palynology. 32: 77–81.
Johnson, D. M. 2017. Combining bacterial pathogens with Beauveria bassiana to improve house fly (Musca domestica) management. MS thesis, University of Florida, 133 pp.
Jones, C.J., J.A. Hogsette, and R.S. Patterson. 1991. Origin of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on west Florida beaches: electrophoretic analysis of dispersal. J. Med.Entomol. 28: 787–795.
Jonsson, N. N., and D. G. Mayer. 1999. Estimation of the effects of buffalo fly (Haematobia irritans exigua) on the milk production of dairy cattle based on a meta-analysis of literature data. Med. Vet. Entomol. 13: 372–376.
Kasai, S., H. Sun, and J.G. Scott. 2017. Diversity of knockdown resistance alleles in a single house fly population facilitates adaptation to pyrethroid insecticides. Insect Mol. Biol. 26: 13-24.
Kavi, L.A.K., P.E. Kaufman, and J.G. Scott. 2014. Genetics and mechanisms of imidacloprid resistance in house flies. Pestic. Biochem Physiol. 109: 64-69.
Kawada, H., K. Dohara, and G. Shinjo. 1987. Evaluation of larvicidal potency of insect growth regulator, 2- 1-methyl-2-(4-phenoxyphenoxy)ethoxy pyridine, against the house fly, Musca domestica. Jpn. J. Sanit. Zool. 38: 317-322.
Khater, H.F., A. Hanafy, A.D. Abdel-Mageed, M.Y. Ramadan, R.S. El-Madawy. 2011. Control of the myiasis-producing fly, Lucilia sericata, with Egyptian essential oils. Int. J. Dermatol. 50: 187-194.
Kienitz, M.A.J. 2016. Calf and fly management options for organic dairies. MS Thesis, University of MN.
Kinzer, H. G., J. M. Reeves, and J. W. Atmar. 1978. Host location by the horn fly: Field evaluation of an artificial device for measuring attraction to various stimuli. Environ. Entomol. 7: 375-378.
Kneeland, K. M., S. R. Skoda, and J. E. Foster. 2013. Amplified fragment length polymorphism used to investigate genetic variability of the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) across North America. J. Med. Entomol. 50: 1025–1030.
Kobayashi, M., T. Sasaki, N. Saito, K. Tamura, K. Suzuki, H. Watanabe, and N. Agui. 1999. Houseflies: Not simple mechanical vectors of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 61: 625-629.
Kozaki, T., S.G. Brady, and J.G. Scott. 2009. Frequencies and evolution of organophosphate insensitive acetylcholinesterase alleles in laboratory and field populations of the house fly, Musca domestica L. Insect Mol. Biol. 95: 6-11.
Krafsur, E.S. 1993. Allozyme variation in stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae). Biochem. Genet. 31: 231–240
Krafsur, E.S. and R.D. Moon. 1997. Bionomics of the face fly, Musca autumnalis. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 42: 503-23.
Lachance, S. and G. Grange. 2014. Repellent effectiveness of seven plant essential oils, sunflower oil and natural insecticides against horn flies on pastured dairy cows and heifers. Med. Vet. Entomol. 28: 193-200.
Larson, K. and J.G. Stoffolano Jr. 2011. Effect of high and low concentrations of sugar solutions fed to adult male, Phormia regina (Diptera: Calliphoridae), on ‘bubbling’ behavior. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 104: 1399-1403.
Lempereur, L., C. Sohier, F. Smeets, F. Maréchal, D. Berkvens, M. Madder, F. Francis and B. Losson. 2018. Dispersal capacity of Haematopota spp. and Stomoxys calcitrans using a mark–release–recapture approach in Belgium. Med. Vet. Entomol. doi: 10.1111/mve.12297.
Lemos, F., and W.R. Terra. 1991. Digestion of bacteria and the role of midgut lysozyme in some insect larvae. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B. 100: 265–268.
Li, M., W.R. Reid, L. Zhang, J.G. Scott, X. Gao, M. Kristensen, and N. Liu. 2013. A whole transcriptomal linkage analysis of gene co-regulation in insecticide resistant house flies, Musca domestica. BMC Genomics. 14: 803.
Li, X., B.A. Degain, V.S. Harpold, P.G. Marçon, R.L. Nichols, A.J. Fournier, S.E. Naranjo, J.C. Palumbo, P.C. Ellsworth. 2012. Baseline susceptibilities of B- and Q-biotype Bemisia tabaci to anthranilic diamides in Arizona. Pest Manag. Sci. 68: 83-91.
Liscia, A., P. Solari, S.T. Gibbons, A. Gelperin, and J.G. Stoffolano Jr. 2012.
Effect of serotonin and calcium on the supercontractile muscles of the adult blowfly crop. J. Insect Physiol. 58: 356–366.
Liu, W., M. Longnecker, A.M. Tarone, J.K. Tomberlin. 2016. Responses of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to compounds from microbial decomposition of larval resources. Anim. Behav. 115: 217-225.
Lole, M.J. 2005. Nuisance flies and landfill activities: an investigation at a West Midlands landfill site. Waste Management Res. 23: 420-428.
Lysyk, T. J. 1998. Relationships between temperature and life-history parameters of Stomoxys calcitrans (Diptera: Muscidae). J. Med. Entomol. 35: 107–119.
Lysyk, T.J. and R.C. Axtell. 1986. Field evaluation of three methods for monitoring populations of house flies (Musca domestica) (Diptera: Muscidae) and other filth flies in three types of poultry housing systems. J. Econ. Entomol. 79: 144-151.
Ma, Q., A. Fonseca, W. Liu, A.T. Fields, M.L. Pimsler, A.F. Spindola, A.M. Tarone, T.L. Crippen, J.K. Tomberlin, and T.K. Wood. 2012. Proteus mirabilis interkingdom swarming signals attract blow flies. Microb. Ecol. 6:1356-66.
Machtinger, E.T, E.N.I. Weeks, and C.J Geden. 2016. Oviposition deterrence and immature survival of filth flies (Diptera: Muscidae) when exposed to commercial fungal products. J. Insect Sci. 54: 1-6.
Machtinger, E.T, E.N.I. Weeks, C.J. Geden, and P.E. Kaufman. 2016. House fly (Musca domestica) (Diptera: Muscidae) mortality after exposure to commercial fungal formulations in a sugar bait. Biocontrol Sci. Technol. 26: 1444-1450.
Marquez, J.G., M. A. Cummings, and E. S. Krafsur. 2007. Phylogeography of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) estimated by diversity at ribosomal 16S and cytochrome oxidase I mitochondrial genes. J. Med. Entomol. 44: 998–1008.
McDougall, S., K.I. Parker, C. Heuer, and C.W.R. Compton. 2009. A review of prevention and control of heifer mastitis via non-antibiotic strategies. Vet. Microbiol. 134: 177-185.
Meerburg, B.G., H.M. Vermeer, and A. Kijlstra. 2007. Controlling risks of pathogen transmission by flies on organic pig farms: A review. Outlook Agric. 36: 193–197.
Mellor, P.S., J. Boorman, and M. Baylis. 2000. Culicoides biting midges: their role as arbovirus vectors. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 45: 307–340.
Mihok, S., E. K. Kang’ethe, and G. K. Kamau. 1995. Trials of traps and attractants for Stomoxys spp. (Diptera: Muscidae). J. Med. Entomol. 32: 283-289.
Moon, R.D. 2002. Muscid Flies (Muscidae), pp. 279-303. In G. R. Mullen and L. A. Durden [eds.], Medical and Veterinary Entomology. Academic Press, San Diego.
Moore, S.J. and M. Debboun. 2007. History of insect repellents. In Insect Repellents: Principles, methods and uses. Eds. Mustapha Debboun, Stephen Frances and Daniel Strickman. CRC Press. pp. 3-30.
Moore, S.J., A. Lenglet, and N. Hill. 2007. Plant-based insect repellents. In Insect Repellents: Principles, methods and uses. Eds. Mustapha Debboun, Stephen Frances and Daniel Strickman. CRC Press. pp. 275-304.
Moreland, T.W., L.G. Pickens, and R.W. Miller. 1995. Livestock walkthrough fly trap. Patent No. 5:419076. Assignee. The United States of America (Washington, DC) and the University of Maryland. (College Park, MD). U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Washington, DC.
Mullens, B.A., W.G. Reifenrath, and S.M. Butler. 2009. Laboratory trials of fatty acids as repellents or antifeedants against houseflies, horn flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae). Pest Manag. Sci. 65 (12): 1360 – 1366.
Mullens, B.A., D. Soto, and A.C. Gerry. 2016. Estimating field densities of Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae) using direct visual field counts versus photographic assessments. J. Med. Entomol. 53: 703-706.
Mullens, B.A., D.W. Watson, A.C. Gerry, B.A Sandelin, D. Soto, D. Rawls, S. Denning, L. Guisewite, and J. Cammack. 2017. Field trials of fatty acids and geraniol applied to cattle for suppression of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae), with observations on fly defensive behaviors. Vet. Parasitol. 245: 14-28.
Müller, G.C., A. Junnila, J. Butler, V.D. Kravchenko, E.E. Revay, R.W. Weiss, and Y. Schlein. 2009. Efficacy of the botanical repellents geraniol, linalool, and citronella against mosquitoes. J. Vector Ecol. 34: 2-8.
Munks, R.J.L., J.V. Hamilton, S.M. Lehane, and M.J. Lehane. 2001. Regulation of midgut defensin production in the blood?sucking insect Stomoxys calcitrans. Insect Mol Biol. 10: 561–571.
Nathan, R. 2001. The challenges of studying dispersal. Trends Ecol. Evol. 16: 481-483.
Nathan, R., Perry, G., Cronin, J. T., Strand, A. E., Cain, M. L. 2003. Methods for estimating long-distance dispersal. Oikos. 103: 261–273.
Nilssen, A.C. and J.R. Anderson. 1995. Flight capacity of the reindeer warble fly, Hypoderma tarandi (L.) and the reindeer nose bot fly, Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer) (Diptera:Oestridae). Can. J. Zool. 73:1228-1238.
Nayduch, D. and C. Joyner. 2013. Expression of lysozyme in the life history of the house fly (Musca domestica L.). J. Med. Entomol. 50: 847–852.
Nayduch, D., H. Cho, and C. Joyner. 2013. Staphylococcus aureus in the house fly: temporospatial fate of bacteria and expression of the antimicrobial peptide defensin. J. Med. Entomol. 50: 171–178.
Nilssen, A.C. and J.R. Anderson. 1995. Flight capacity of the reindeer warble fly, Hypoderma tarandi (L.), and the reindeer nose bot fly, Cephenemyia trompe (Modeer)(Diptera: Oestridae). Canadian J. Zool. 73: 1228-1238.
Olafson, P.U., J.B. Pitzer, and P.E. Kaufman. 2011. Identification of a mutation associated with permethrin resistance in the para-type of sodium channel of the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 104: 250-257.
Olde Riekerink, R.G.M., H.W. Barkema, D.F. Kelton, and D.T. Scholl. 2008. Incidence rate of clinical mastitis on Canadian dairy farms. J. Dairy Sci. 91: 1366-1377.
Oliver, S.P., B.E. Gillespie, S.J. Headrick, M.J. Lewis and H.H. Dowlen. 2005. Prevalence, risk factors and strategies for controlling mastitis in heifers during the periparturient period. Intern J. Appl. Res. Vet Med. 3: 150-162.
Oliver, S. P., B.E. Gillespie, S.J. Headrick, H. Moorehead, P. Lunn, H.H. Dowlen, D.L. Johnson, K.C. Lamar, S.T. Chester, and W.M. Moseley. 2004. Efficacy of extended ceftiofur intramammary therapy for treatment of subclinical mastitis in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 87: 2393-2400.
Onyango, M.G., G.N. Michuki, M. Ogugo, G.J. Venter, M.A. Miranda, N. Elissa, A. Djikeng, S. Kemp, P.J. Walker, and J.-B. Duchemin. 2015. Delineation of the population genetic structure of Culicoides imicola in East and South Africa. Parasite. Vector. 8: 660.
Ozoe Y., M. Asahi, F. Ozoe, K. Nakahira, and T. Mita. 2010. The antiparasitic isoxazoline A1443 is a potent blocker of insect ligand-gated chloride channels. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 391: 744-749.
Palacios, S.M., A. Bertoni, Y. Rossi, R. Santander, and A. Urzúa. 2009. Efficacy of essential oils from edible plants as insecticides against the house fly, Musca domestica L. Molecules. 14: 1938-1947.
Peixoto, M.G., L.M. Costa-Júnior, A.F. Blank, A. da Silva Lima, T.S.A. Menezes, D. de Alexandria Santos, P.B. Alves, S.C. de Holanda Cavalcanti, L. Bacci, and M. de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank. 2015. Acaricidal activity of essential oils from Lippia alba genotypes and its major components carvone, limonene, and citral against Rhipicephalus microplus. Vet. Parasitol. 210: 118-122.
Pavela, R. 2008. Acute and synergistic effects of some monoterpenoid essential oil compounds on the house fly (Musca domestica L.). J. Essent. Oil Bear. Pl. 11: 451-459.
Péchy?Tarr, M., D.J. Bruck, M. Maurhofer, E. Fischer, C. Vogne, M.D. Henkels, K.M. Donahue, J. Grunder, J.E. Loper, and C. Keel. 2008. Molecular analysis of a novel gene cluster encoding an insect toxin in plant?associated strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens. Environ. Microbiol. 10:2368-2386.
Pickett, J.A., L.J. Wadhams, and C.M. Woodcock. 1997. Developing sustainable pest control from chemical ecology. Ag. Eco. Environ. 64: 149-156.
Pitzer, J.B., P.E. Kaufman, and S.H. TenBroeck. 2010. Assessing permethrin resistance in the stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) in Florida using laboratory selections and field evaluations. J. Econ. Entomol. 103: 2258-2263.
Pitzer, J.B., P.E. Kaufman, S.H. Tenbroeck, and J.E. Maruniak. 2011. Host blood meal identification by multiplex polymerase chain reaction for dispersal evidence of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) between livestock facilities. J. Med. Entomol. 48: 53–60.
Postma, G.C., J.C. Carfagnini, and L. Minatel. 2008. Moraxella bovis pathogenicity: an update. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 31: 449-458.
Rangel, L.I., M.D. Henkels, B.T. Shaffer, F.L. Walker, E.W. Davis II, V.O. Stockwell, D. Bruck, B.J. Taylor, and J.E. Loper. 2016. Characterization of toxin complex gene clusters and insect toxicity of bacteria representing four subgroups of Pseudomonas fluorescens. PloS one. 11: p.e0161120.
Regnault-Roger, C., C. Vincent, and J.T. Arnason. 2012. Essential oils in insect control: Low-risk products in a high-stakes world. Ann. Rev. Entomol 57: 405-424.
Rinker, D.C., R.J. Pitts, and L.J. Zwiebel. 2016. Disease vectors in the era of next generation sequencing. Genome Biology 17.
Rinkevich, F.D., R.L. Hamm, C.J. Geden, and J.G. Scott. 2007. Dynamics of insecticide resistance alleles in two different climates over an entire field season. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 37: 550-558.
Rinkevich, F.D., C.A. Leichter, T.A. Lazo, M.C. Hardstone, and J.G. Scott. 2013. Variable fitness costs for pyrethroid resistance alleles in the house fly, Musca domestica, in the absence of insecticide pressure. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 105: 161-168.
Sackton T.B, B.P. Lazzaro, and A.G. Clark. 2017. Rapid expansion of immune-related gene families in the house fly, Musca domestica. Mol. Biol. Evol. 34: 857-872.
Sasaki, T., M. Kobayashi, and N. Agui. 2000. Epidemiological potential of excretion and regurgitation by Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) in the dissemination of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to food. J. Med. Entomol. 37: 945-949.
Schmidtmann, E.T. 1988. Exploitation of bedding in dairy outdoor calf hutches by immature house and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae). J. Med. Entomol. 25:484-488.
Schmidtmann, E.T. 1991. Suppressing immature house and stable flies in outdoor calf hutches with sand, gravel, and sawdust bedding. J. Dairy Sci. 74: 3956-3960.
Schmidtmann, E.T., and P.A.W. Martin. 1992. Relationship between selected bacteria and the growth of immature house flies, Musca domestica, in an axenic test system. J. Med. Entomol. 29: 232–235.
Scott, J.G. 2017. Evolution of pyrethroid resistance in Musca domestica. Pest Manag. Sci. 73: 716-722.
Scott, J.G., C.A. Leichter, F.D. Rinkevich, S.A. Harris, C. Su, L.C. Aberegg, R. Moon, C.J. Geden, A.C. Gerry, D.B. Taylor, R.L. Byford, W. Watson, G. Johnson, D. Boxler, and L. Zurek. 2013. Insecticide resistance in house flies from the United States: Resistance levels and frequency of pyrethroid resistance alleles. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. 107: 377-384.
Scott, J.G., W.C. Warren, L.W. Beukeboom, D. Bopp, A.G. Clark, S.D. Giers, M. Hediger, A.K. Jones, S. Kasai, C.A. Leichter, M. Li, R.P. Meisel, P. Minx, T.D. Murphy, D.R. Nelson, W.R. Reid, F.D. Rinkevich, H.M. Robertson, T.B. Sackton, D.B. Sattelle, F. Thibaud-Nissen, C. Tomlinson, L. van de Zande, K.K.O. Walden, R.K. Wilson, and N. Liu. 2014. Genome of the house fly (Musca domestica L), a global vector of diseases with adaptations to a septic environment. Genome Biol. 15: 466.
Scudder, H., 1947. A new technique for sampling the density of housefly populations. Public Health Reports (1896-1970). pp.681-686.
Seng, C., T. Setha, J. Nealon, D. Socheat, and M.B. Nathan. 2008. Six months of Aedes aegypti control with a novel controlled-release formulation of pyriproxyfen in 32 domestic water storage containers in Cambodia. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Publ. Health 39: 822-826.
Seraydar, K.R. and P.E. Kaufman. 2015. Does behaviour play a role in house fly resistance to imidacloprid-containing baits? Med. Vet. Ent. 29: 60-67.
Serra, N.S.J., H.F. Goulart, M.F. Triana, S.S. Tavares, C.I.M. Almeida, J.G. da Costa, A.E.G. Santana, and J.J. Zhu. 2017. Identification of stable fly attractant compounds from vinasse, a sugarcane ethanol distillation byproduct. Med. Vet. Entomol. 31: 381-391.
Shen, J. and F.W. Plapp Jr. 1990. Cyromazine resistance in the house fly (Diptera: Muscidae): genetics and cross-resistance to diflubenzuron. J. Econ. Entomol. 83: 1689-1697.
Sheppard, D.C. 1994. Dispersal of wild-captured, marked horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae). Environ. Entomol. 23: 29-34.
Silva, D.F., V. M. A. Souza, D. P.W. Ellis, E.J. Keogh, G. E.A.P.A. Bastista. 2015. Exploring low cost laser sensors to identify flying insect species. J. Intell. Robot. Syst. 80: 313-330.
Singh, B., T.L. Crippen, L. Zheng, A.T. Fields, Z. Yu, Q. Ma, T.K. Wood, S.E. Dowd, M. Flores, J.K. Tomberlin, A.M. Tarone. 2015. A metagenomic assessment of the bacteria associated with Lucilia sericata and Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae). Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 99: 869-83.
Solari, P., J.G. Stoffolano Jr., F. de Rose, I.T. Barbarossa, and A. Liscia. 2015. The chemosensitivity of labellar sugar receptor in female Phormia regina is paralleled with ovary maturation: effects of serotonin. J. Insect Physiol. 82:38-45.
Solari. P., N. Rivelli, F. de Rose, L. Picciau, L. Murru, J.G. Stoffolano Jr., A. Liscia. 2017. Opposite effects of 5HT/AKH and octopamine on the crop contractions in adult Drosophila melanogaster: Evidence of a double brain-gut serotonergic circuitry. PLoS ONE 12(3): e0174172. https://doi. org/10.1371/journal.pone.0174172.
Solari, P., J.G. Stoffolano Jr., J. Fitzpatrick, A. Gelperin, A. Thomson, G. Talani, E. Sanna, A. Liscia. 2013. Regulatory mechanisms and the role of calcium and potassium channels controlling supercontractile crop muscles in adult Phormia regina. J. Insect Physiol. 59: 942–52.
Sousa, A., N. Frazao, R.S. Ramiro, and I. Gordo. 2017. Evolution of commensal bacteria in the intestical tract of mice. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 38: 114-121.
Steelman, C.D., A.H. Brown Jr., E.E. Gbur, and G. Tolley. 1991. Interactive response of the horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) and selected breeds of beef cattle. J. Econ. Entomol. 84: 1275–82.
Steelman, C.D., E.E. Gbur, G. Tolley, and A.H. Brown. 1993. Individual variation within breeds of beef cattle in resistance to horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae). J. Med. Entomol. 30: 414–20.
Stelljes, H., and K. Barry. 1999. The bluetongue triangle. Agricultural Research.
Stoffolano Jr., J.G. and A.T. Haselton. 2013. The adult, dipteran crop: A unique and overlooked organ. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 58: 205-225.
Stoffolano Jr., J.G., M. Rice and W L. Murphy. 2013. The importance of antennal mechanosensilla of Sepedon fuscipennis (Diptera: Sciomyzidae). Can. J. Entomol. 145: 1-8.
Stoffolano Jr, J.G., L. Danai, and J. Chambers. 2013. Effect of channel blockers on the smooth muscle of the adult crop of the queen blowfly, Phormia regina. J. Insect Sci. 13:97. Available online: http://www.insectscience.org/13.97.
Stoffolano, J.G. Jr., B. Patel, and L. Tran. 2014. The crop of adult house fly (Musca domestica L.), crop contraction rate, and volume of sucrose phosphate glutamate ingested. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 107: 848-852.
Stoffolano Jr., J.G., M. Rice and W.L. Murphy. 2015. Sepedon fuscipennis Loew (Diptera:
Sciomyzidae): Elucidation of external morphology by use of SEM of the head, legs, and postabdomen of adults. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 117: 209-225.
Stoffolano Jr., J.G., K. Croke, J. Chambers, G. Gade, P. Solari, A. Liscia. 2014. Role of Phote-HrTH (Phormia terraenovae hypertrehalosemic hormone) in modulating the supercontractile muscles of the crop of adult Phormia regina Meigen. J. Insect Physiol. 71: 147–155.
Surgeoner, G.A., S.M. Butler, L.R. Lindsay, and J.D. Heal. 1998. Efficacy and feasibility of a walk through fly trap for control of nuisance flies on dairy cattle in Ontario. Dept. of Environ. Biolo., University of Guelph. Ontario, Canada. http://188.8.131.52/beefupdate/articles96/aefficacy_and_feasibility_of_a_wa.htm
Sun, H., S. Kasai, and J.G. Scott. 2017. Two novel house fly Vssc mutations, D600N and T929I, give rise to new insecticide resistance alleles. Pestic. Biochem. Physiol. In Press.
Sun, H., K.P. Tong, S. Kasai, and J.G. Scott. 2016. Overcoming super-kdr mediated resistance: Multi-halogenated benzyl pyrethroids are more toxic to super-kdr than kdr house flies. Insect Mol. Biol. 25: 126-137.
Sutherst, R.W. and R.S. Tozer. 1995. Control of buffalo fly (Haematobia irritans exigua de Meijere) on dairy and beef cattle using traps. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 46: 269-284.
Szalanski, A.L., D.B. Taylor, and R.D. II Peterson. 1996. Population genetics and gene variation of stable fly populations (Diptera: Muscidae) in Nebraska. J. Med. Entomol. 33: 413–420
Talley, J., A. Broce, and L. Zurek. 2009. Characterization of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larval developmental habitat at round hay bale feeding sites. J. Med. Entomol. 46: 1310-1319.
Talley, J., R. Pace, and A. Wayadande. 2013. Human enteric bacteria transmission to leafy greens by flies. Phytopath. 103:185.
Talley, J.L., A.C. Wayadande, L.P. Wasala, A.C. Gerry, J. Fletcher, U. DeSilva, and S.E. Gilliland. 2009. Association of Escherichia coli O157:H7 with filth flies (Muscidae and Calliphoridae) captured in leafy greens fields and experimental transmission of E. coli O157:H7 to spinach leaves by house flies (Diptera: Muscidae). J. Food Prot. 72:1547-52.
Tangtrakulwanich, K., T.A. Albuquerque, G.J. Brewer, F.P. Baxendale, L. Zurek, D.N. Miller, D.B. Taylor, K.A. Friesen, and J.J. Zhu. 2014. Behavioral responses of stable flies to cattle manure slurry associated odorants. Med. Vet. Entomol. 29: 82-87.
Tay, W.T., P.J. Kerr, and L.S. Jermiin. 2016. Population genetic structure and potential incursion pathways of the bluetongue virus vector Culicoides brevitarsis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Australia. PLoS ONE. 11: e0146699.
Taylor, D.B. and D.R. Berkebile. 2011. Phenology of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae in round bale hay feeding sites in eastern Nebraska. Environ. Entomol. 40: 184-193.
Taylor, D.B., R.D. Moon, and D.R. Mark. 2012. Economic impact of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on dairy and beef cattle production. J. Med. Entomol. 49:198-209.
Taylor, D.B., K. Hale, J.J. Zhu, and K. Sievert. 2012. Efficacy of cyromazine to control immature stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) developing in winter hay feeding sites. J. Econ. Entomol. 105: 726-35.
Taylor, D. B., R.D. Moon, J. B. Campbell, D.R. Berkebile, P.J. Scholl, A.B. Broce, and J.A. Hogsette. 2010. Dispersal of stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae) from larval development sites in a Nebraska landscape. Environ. Entomol. 39: 1101-1110.
Terra, W.R. and C. Ferreira. 1994. Insect digestive enzymes: properties, compartmentalization and function. Comp Biochem. Physiol. B. 109: 1–62.
Thomas, G.D., and S.R. Skoda. [eds.]. 1993. Rural flies in the urban environment? Proceedings of a symposium presented at the Annual Meeting of the Entomological Society of America, December, 1989 San Antonio, Texas. Agricultural Research Division, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Neb.
Thomson, J.L., K.M. Yeater, L. Zurek, and D. Nayduch. 2017. Abundance and accumulation of Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhimurium procured by male and female house flies (Diptera: Muscidae) exposed to cattle manure. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 110: 37–44.
Todd, D.H. 1964. The biting fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) in dairy herds in New Zealand. New Zeal. J. Agr. Res. 7: 60-79.
Tomberlin, J.K. and T.K. Wood. 2012. Proteus mirabilis interkingdom swarming signals attract blow flies. ISME J. 6:1356-1366
Tomberlin, J.K., T.L. Crippen, A.M. Tarone, B. Singh, K. Adams, Y.H. Rezenom, M.E. Benbow, M. Flores, M. Longnecker, J.L. Pechal, D.H. Russell, R.C. Beier, T.K. Wood. 2012. Interkingdom responses of flies to bacteria mediated by fly physiology and bacterial quorum sensing. Anim. Behav. 84:1449-56.
Tozer, R.S. and R.W. Sutherst. 1996. Control of horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae) in Florida with an Australian trap. J. Econ. Entomol. 89: 415-420.
Turchin, P., and W.T. Thoeny. 1993. Quantifying dispersal of southern pine beetles and mark-recapture experiments and a diffusion model. Ecol. Appl. 3: 187-198.
Wang, L.-F., J.G. Stoffolano, Jr., and L. McLandsborough. 2017. Development of the fly ‘crop vessel’ bioassay for fly/microbial studies. Afr. J. Microbiol. 11: 1027-1034.
Wasala, L., J.L. Talley, U. DeSilva, J. Fletcher, and A. Wayadande. 2013. Transfer of Escherichia coli O157:H7 to spinach by house flies, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae). Phytopath. 103:373-80.
Watson, D.W., S.M. Stringham, S.S. Denning, S.P. Washburn, M.H. Poore, and A.Meier. 2002. Managing the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.), Diptera, Muscidae, using an electric walk-through fly trap. J. Econ. Entomol. 95: 1113-1118.
Weeks, E.N.I, E.T. Machtinger, S.A. Gezan, P.E. Kaufman, and C.J. Geden. 2017. Effects of four commercial fungal strains on mortality and sporulation in house flies (Musca domestica) and stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans). Med. Vet. Entomol. 31: 15-22.
Williams, D.F. 1973. Sticky traps for sampling populations of Stomoxys calcitrans. J. Econ. Entomol. 66: 1279-1280.
Wirth, W.W., and R.H. Jones. 1957. The North American subspecies of Culicoides variipennis (Diptera, Heleidae). U. S. Dep. Agric. Tech. Bull 1170: 1-35.
Wolfe, M.K., H.N. Dentz, B. Achando, M. Mureithi, T. Wolfe, C. Null, and A.J. Pickering. 2017. Adapting and evaluating a rapid, low-cost method to enumerate flies in the household setting. Am. J. Trop. Med. 96: 449-456.
Yin, C.-M. and J.G. Stoffolano Jr. 1990. The interactions among nutrition, endocrines and physiology on the reproductive development of the black blowfly, Phormia regina Meigen. Bull. Inst. Zool., Academia Sinica, Monograph 15: 87-108.
Yuan, Y., Y. Zhang, S. Fu, T.L. Crippen, D.K. Visi, M.E. Benbow, M.S. Allen, J.K. Tomberlin, S.H. Sze, A.M. Tarone. 2016. Genome sequence of a Proteus mirabilis strain isolated from the salivary glands of larval Lucilia sericata. Genome Announc. 4(4). pii: e00672-16.
Yuan, Y., Y. Zhang, S. Fu, T.L. Crippen, D.K. Visi, M.E. Benbow, M.S. Allen, J.K. Tomberlin, S.H. Sze, A.M. Tarone. 2017. Genome sequence of a Providencia stuartii strain isolated from the salivary glands of larval Lucilia sericata. Genome Announc. 5(17). pii: e00250-17.
Zheng, L., T.L. Crippen, B. Singh, A.M. Tarone, S. Dowd, Z. Yu, T.K. Wood, J.K. Tomberlin. 2013. A survey of bacterial diversity from successive life stages of black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) by using 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. J. Med. Entomol. 50:647-58.
Zhu, J. J. Essential Oil of Catnip, Nepeta cataria, as a repellent, an oviposition deterrent and a larvicide against mosquitoes and biting flies. 2013. In “Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants” (Ed. JN. Govil). Vol. 36: 423-435. Studium Press, UK.
Zhu, J.J., Q. Zhang, K. Friesen and D.B. Taylor. 2016. Visual and olfactory enhancement of stable fly trapping. Pest Manag. Sci. 72: 1765-1771.
Zhu, J.J., G.J. Brewer, D.J. Boxler, K. Friesen, and D.B. Taylor. 2015. Comparisons of antifeedancy and spatial repellency of three natural product repellents against horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae). Pest Manag. Sci. 71: 1553-1560.
Zhu, J.J., X-P. Zeng, D. Berkebile, H-J. Du, Y. Tong, and K. Qian. 2009. Efficacy and safety of a novel filth fly repellent. Med. Vet. Entomol. 23: 209-216.
Zhu, J.J., B.J. Wienhold, J. Wehrle, D. Davis, H. Chen, D.B. Taylor, K.M. Friesen, and L. Zurek. 2014. Efficacy and longevity of the newly developed microencapsulated-catnip as an oviposition deterrent and a larvicide against stable flies. Med. Vet. Entomol. 28: 222-227.
Zurek, L., C. Schal, and D.W. Watson. 2000. Diversity and contribution of the intestinal bacterial community to the development of Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae. J. Med. Entomol. 37: 924–928.