NE1748: Mastitis Resistance to Enhance Dairy Food Safety

(Multistate Research Project)

Status: Active

NE1748: Mastitis Resistance to Enhance Dairy Food Safety

Duration: 10/01/2017 to 09/30/2022

Administrative Advisor(s):


NIFA Reps:


Statement of Issues and Justification

The United States dairy industry continues to experience significant monetary drain through the losses associated with common diseases.  Bovine mastitis is the most costly infectious disease currently affecting dairy cattle. While significant advances have been made in controlling some types of mastitis, the complex etiology of the disease and ongoing changes in dairy practices dictate that new and more effective methods for control and treatment be developed over time. Single site studies are often limited in terms of expertise and cattle numbers. A multi-state project provides advantages in terms of increased numbers of herds and cattle as well as multiple levels of expertise. 


Mastitis is defined as an inflammation of the mammary gland that is almost always associated with bacterial infection. Mastitis affects every dairy farm and approximately 38% of dairy cows in the United States experience clinical signs. The National Mastitis Council estimates that this devastating disease complex costs the dairy industry more than 2 billion dollars per year or approximately $180.00 per cow. These losses are primarily due to lost milk production, increased veterinary costs, increased cow mortality, and discarded milk. 


Currently, intramammary antibiotic therapy is the most widely used and most effective management strategy to eliminate intramammary infections (IMI) and alleviate pain and suffering.  Bovine mastitis is a unique disease wherein multiple infectious agents can trigger an inflammatory response.  When considering treatment of an individual cow for mastitis, the causative infectious agent is usually unknown.  Therefore, producers commonly treat with different combinations of antibiotics and routes of treatments.  This common management strategy can lead to overuse of antibiotics, thus increasing the risk of residues in milk and the selection for antibiotic resistant pathogens.  Growing consumer concerns regarding antibiotic use, the risk of antibiotic residues in milk and meat and the potential for antimicrobial resistance have led to the examination of alternative strategies for controlling mastitis while reducing the use of antibiotics on-farm, which is one of the primary goals of this multi-state group. 


The identification of alternative therapeutics are advocated in an April, 2015 White House mandate titled “National Action Plan for Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria”, which only underscores our approaches.  According to priorities within the 2014 farm bill, examining new management strategies to treat bovine mastitis will expand our knowledge regarding the use of non-antibiotic alternative therapies to treat disease thereby reduce production costs and enhance nutritional quality of products for human consumption while improving animal health.  In addition, international agencies, including the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE), have also emphasized the need to find alternative approaches to treatment of animal disease and to identify the role of antibiotics used in animal agriculture in the emergence of antimicrobial resistance of human pathogens. 


The purpose of NE-1048 is to coordinate multidisciplinary research efforts on mastitis that are being conducted at various laboratories throughout the United States and internationally, e.g. Canada and Europe. The magnitude and scope of attempting to solve these problems extend far beyond the ability of any one institution. The ability to cooperate on a regional, national, and international basis allows the integration of resources and knowledge to address this problem. Recognition of the need for a coordinated effort to study resistance of the pathogen and the need for non-antibiotic alternative therapeutics for the dairy cow for the control of mastitis resulted in the design and initiation of multi-State Project NE-1048. The NE-1048 project has provided a forum for new and established researchers to develop collaborative relationships, and to share resources and expertise.  NE-1048 meetings are well attended and 30-40 presentations are typically made by participants each year. International visitors and collaborators are often included in these presentations. 


In the United States (US), cash receipts from marketing of milk during 2016 totaled $33.7 billion (NASS, 2017). In the US, the dairy industry contributes >$140 billion per year to the national economy and provides > 900,000 jobs making it a vital part of our nation’s economy and food system (Adcock et al., 2015; ERS, 2015).   However, the dairy industry continues to experience significant monetary drain through the losses associated with common diseases. Bovine mastitis is the most costly infectious disease currently affecting dairy cattle. Recent estimates suggest that economic losses due to clinical and subclinical mastitis are in the range of $200 per cow per year (Liang et al., 2013). These losses are primarily due to lost milk production, increased veterinary costs, increased cow mortality, and discarded milk. While significant advances have been made in controlling some types of mastitis, the complex etiology of the disease, ongoing changes in dairy practices, and the pressure to reduce antibiotic usage dictate that new and more effective methods for control and treatment be developed over time. Single site studies are often limited in terms of expertise and cattle numbers. A multistate project provides advantages in terms of increased numbers of herds and cattle as well as multiple levels of expertise. 


The purpose of NE-1048 is to coordinate multidisciplinary research efforts on mastitis that are being conducted at various laboratories throughout the United States. The magnitude and scope of attempting to solve these problems extend far beyond the ability of any one institution. The ability to cooperate on a regional and national basis allows the integration of resources and knowledge to address this problem. Recognition of the need for a coordinated effort to study resistance of the dairy cow to mastitis resulted in the design and initiation of original multi-State Project NE-1048. The NE-1048 project has provided a forum for new and established researchers to develop collaborative relationships, and to share resources and expertise. The NE-1048 project is comprised of three objectives 1) characterization of host mechanisms associated with mastitis susceptibility and resistance, 2) characterization and manipulation of virulence factors of mastitis pathogens for enhancing host defenses, and 3) assessment and application of new technologies that advance mastitis control, milk quality, and dairy food safety. Accomplishments in the last 5 years are listed below by objective. 


Objective 1: Characterization of host mechanisms associated with mastitis susceptibility and resistance.


Achievements include the dietary supplementation of OmniGen ® (GA), 2,4-thiazolidinedione (OR), retinol-binding protein (RBP; ID) and vitamin E (MD) to improve the host immune response during mastitis. Other major achievements include the negative relationship between severity of negative energy balance and fat mobilization on important inflammatory mediators (MI), the ability of white blood cells to kill invading microorganisms (WA), the negative impact of antimicrobial resistance on the host immune response (NY), the response of peripheral tissues during mastitis (MD, OR), characterizing the nutrient utilization by leukocytes during mastitis (MD), identification of dermal fibroblasts as a model cell to investigate genetic and epigenetic differences between cows in their innate responses to mastitis causing pathogens (VT), and that CXCR1 may be a promising new candidate gene for mastitis susceptibility (TN). Whole genome SNP association studies also have led to a series of new candidate genes that will be evaluated (TN).


Objective 2: Characterization and manipulation of virulence factors of mastitis pathogens for enhancing host defenses.


Major achievements for this objective are 1) the identification of iron-sulfur cluster metabolism as a virulence factor associated with S. aureus (NJ); 2) S. uberis adhesion molecule (SUAM) is a relevant virulence factor (TN) and 3) certain genes are involved with enhancing antimicrobial resistance of mastitis causing pathogens such as Klebsiella spp. (Quebec), Escherichia coli (E. coli; NY) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus; NY).


Objective 3: Assessment and application of new technologies that advance mastitis control, milk quality, and dairy food safety.


Achievements include controlling mastitis via the use of ultrasound scanning to monitor mastitis (CT), the use of an Automated Milk Leukocyte Differential (MLD) Test for detecting IMI (MN), teat dip efficiency trials to reduce the incidence of mastitis (WA),  the development of multiple decision support tools aimed at improving milk quality, reducing mastitis and economics (KY), examining alternative therapeutics for the prevention or treatment of mastitis to reduce antibiotic usage (MO, MD, Quebec), continuing outreach efforts to promote better stewardship of antibiotic use on dairy farms (MI, MO, MN, WI) and improving animal welfare via the development of behavioral monitors (KY, VA, MA).


The mastitis research workers group has met in conjunction with the NE-1048 annual meeting for many years, and in recent years, the mastitis research workers topics have been included in NE-1048 minutes, showing current active areas of research by NE-1048 members. International visitors and collaborators are often included in these presentations. In addition to the mastitis research workers conference, the NE-1048 members provide new management strategies to reduce antibiotic usage and technology transfer to the scientific community and industry stakeholders. In the last 4 years, members of the project have collectively published multiple book chapters, in excess of 192 peer-reviewed journal articles, over 300 abstracts and proceedings, and presented numerous oral and poster presentations related to mastitis, milk quality, and food safety. Venues for oral and poster presentations have included the National Mastitis Council regional and annual meetings (attendees include researchers, veterinarians, dairy producers, and representatives from industry), Conference for Research Workers in Animal Diseases, American Association of Bovine Practitioners annual meetings, International Dairy Federation meetings, American Dairy Science Association meetings, World Buiatrics Congress meetings, American Society of Microbiology meetings, Conference on Production Diseases in Farm Animals, Plant and Animal Genome Conference, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada - Food Safety meetings, American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine annual forum meetings, and several regional extension and veterinary continuing education meetings.


The continuation of the NE-1048 multistate project is of utmost importance to foster research in mastitis leading to the provision of science based information to dairy producers and the dairy industry. The impact of the European Union's strict enforcement of import regulations on milk quality highlights the need to continue efforts to reduce the incidence of mastitis and antibiotic use. These new regulations require milk export companies to certify that any farm contributing milk must show a bulk milk cell count below 400,000 cells/mL. This regulation has been supported by the National Mastitis Council as a goal for all US dairies. Mechanisms leading to improvement in milk quality, dairy animal welfare, and appropriate use of antimicrobial therapeutics form the basis of research conducted in the NE-1048 multistate project. It is clear that continued mastitis research and education are required to maintain the global competitiveness of the US dairy industry (USDA APHIS, 2016). Furthermore, the animal agriculture industry in general is under closer scrutiny than ever before by various interest groups. The work of NE-1048 is clearly focused on reducing mastitis, reducing antibiotic use and improving economic outcome and animal welfare. Mastitis is the most significant animal health issue in the dairy industry. In summary, continuation of the NE-1048 project is a productive group of collaborators that has provided new and meaningful information to all levels of the dairy industry from the bench scientist to the dairy producer with regard to bovine mastitis control, treatment and prevention. In the next 5 years we will continue to pursue collaborative projects under our 3 stated objectives which will lead to new information of value to the management of dairy cattle mastitis. Mastitis is an evolving disease syndrome, as is the science that studies mastitis; therefore, continued research efforts are needed.

Related, Current and Previous Work

The Multi-State Mastitis Research Project (MMRP) has a strong history of productivity in applied mastitis research. The project was begun in 1977 as NE-112, then renewed in 1982, 1987, 1992, 1997, in 2002 as NE-1009, in 2007 as NE-1028 and NE-1048 in 2012. A substantial percentage of international mastitis research is conducted by MMRP members and affiliates. Members of MMRP collaborate extensively within the project and with other national and international research groups that have interests in bovine mastitis. The 2012-2017 iteration of the MMRP had 3 main objectives pertaining to the host, the pathogen, and the use of new technology. In the current proposal we intend to continue work and begin new studies using these objectives but also incorporate the importance of reducing the use of antibiotics and improving animal welfare in the dairy industry. The following are brief reviews, listed by objective, of current and previous work conducted during the last 5 years by the MMRP. In this summary, we focus on the most recent accomplishments. Multiple stations have contributed to the various objectives and are listed following each sub-objective.


 


Objective 1:Characterization of host mechanisms associated with mastitis susceptibility and resistance.


(i) Environment, Nutrition, and Management Related Host Factors Associated with intramammary infections (IMI; DE, GA, NJ, OH, MD, WI, MI, WA, NY, OR, ID).


The risk of mastitis increases during the transition period from late-pregnancy to early lactation. During this period, cows are under the hormonal influence of pregnancy, and are most likely in negative energy balance during the early part of lactation. Research has, therefore, focused on developing dietary strategies aimed at improving the immune response during this time, as well as better understanding the relationship between negative energy balance, other nutritional factors, versus immunity.In Georgia (GA), OmniGen ® promoted L-selectin expression on blood leukocytes, increased in vitro phagocytic ability of blood neutrophils and monocytes and stabilized reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by blood neutrophils (Ryman et al. 2013). Scientists at Rutgers University (NJ) defined a function for a proteis (Nfu) involved in Fe-S cluster trafficking (Mashruwala et al., 2016). Data generated at Oregon State University (OR) indicated that 2,4-thiazolidinedione improved the liver response to mastitis, prevented the decrease of milk fat synthesis after mastitis induction, and improved the innate immune system (Bionaz et al., 2015). Scientists at the University of Wisconsin (WI) observed an association between teat apex diameter with occurrence of mastitis (Guarin et al., 2016). Michigan (MI) continues to study the impact of negative energy balance and fat mobilization on important inflammatory mediators (Sordillo, 2016).The primary objectives for MMRP members at Washington State University (WA) are to determine ability of isolated neutrophils to phagocytize and kill different strains of opsonized Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis; Nicholas et al., 2016). Scientists at Cornell University (NY) continue to examine the antibiotic susceptibility of streptococci-like bacteria and the immune response after E. coli challenge in late gestation and compared this to the response in mid lactation (Locatelli et al., 2015). Researchers at the University of Idaho (ID) are investigating the effect of retinol-binding protein (RBP) status on IMI in periparturient Holstein cows (Rezamand et al., 2016).  ).  In collaboration with scientists at Oregon State University (OR), RNAseq technology showed a high level of communication from the mammary gland to the liver during host responses to E.coli mastitis challenge (Bionaz et al., 2016). Metabolic parameters after in vitro stimulation are altered and nutrient utilization improves neutrophil response (Garcia et al., 2016). Maryland continues to collaborate with scientists at the USDA, Beltsville, to identify the distribution of vitamin E isoforms in various tissues as well as blood and milk and their use as antioxidants (Qu et al., 2016).


 


(ii) Host-Pathogen Interactions at the Cellular Level (VT and VA).


Members of the MMRP have investigated the molecular epidemiology of, and interactions between, mastitis-causing organisms and host response at gene and protein levels. For example, MMRP members at the University of Vermont (VT) identified dermal fibroblasts as a model cell to investigate genetic and epigenetic differences between cows in their innate responses to mastitis causing pathogens (Benjamin et al., 2016; Green et al., 2014; Kandasamy et al., 2012).  MMRP members and the University of Vermont are now examining epigenetic contributions to the differential responses. Furthermore, results gave minimal encouragement for the ranking technique on the basis of high (6 cows) or low (6 cows) expression of the TLR4 gene in ear notch samples. Further use of additional ranking parameters will be required to develop a more accurate test to predict a cow’s response to E. coli mastitis. Candidate genes responsible for the between-animal differences are being investigated. Scientists at Virginia Tech (VA) are characterizing the T cell responses to dendritic cells presenting S. aureus antigens and their findings show differential IFNg production in response to stimulation of immune cells with irradiated as compared with live S. aureus (Garst et al., 2014; Lehtimaki  et al., 2014). The scientists believe these changes support the ability to manipulate the mammary gland and that the immune environment may favor Th17 cell polarization. In addition to cytokine profiles, MMRP scientists are evaluating memory cell proliferation and identifying S. aureus specific antigen responses and data suggests an ability to manipulate SCC profiles of the mammary gland. 


 


(iii) Candidate Genes of Mastitis Susceptibility (TN and UT).


Projects within the MMRP have focused on studying genes related to the immune response during mastitis. Their work may allow consideration of selective breeding for mastitis resistance, which may prove valuable to the dairy industry as a whole. For instance, MMRP members at the University of Tennessee (TN) observed that 1) CXCR1, an immune related gene, is expressed on mammary epithelial cells, fibroblasts, and leukocytes in the mammary tissue; 2) specific CXCR1 genetic haplotypes can distinguish S. uberis growth and subsequent strength of inflammatory responses following intramammary challenge with S. uberis suggesting that CXCR1 can be helpful in genetic selection decisions and provide a model system to better understand host responses that contribute to disease resistance; and 3) S. uberis with a mutated/non-functional SUAM gene induced a lower level of inflammation in the mammary gland following intramammary challenge indicating this gene is significantly tied to growth of S. uberis in the gland (Almeida et al., 2013; Kerro Dego et al., 2013; Pighetti et al., 2013). Also at TN, preliminary research using whole genome SNP association studies also have led to a series of new candidate genes that will be evaluated. At Utah State University (UT), scientists identified a number of genetic variations (SNPs) that were associated with resistance or susceptibility to bovine mastitis. Utah’s analysis is ongoing for comparison of bovine whole genome analysis for SNP detection between cows repeatedly mastitic vs. cows continually free of mastitis. Preliminary bioinformatics is detecting many genetic SNP combinations more common among mastitis-resistant cows and others more common among mastitis-susceptible cows.


 


Objective 2: Characterization and manipulation of virulence factors of mastitis pathogens for enhancing host defenses.


(i) Characterization of Pathogen Virulence Factors (GA, NJ, WI, PA, TN, MO, VA).


Characterization of virulence factors is an essential step to developing strategies to prevent or treat mastitis. MMRP members at the University of Georgia (GA) characterized and manipulated virulence factors of mastitis pathogens for enhancing host defense. Results have led to the publication with other MMRP members from NY (Berry et al., 2016) and the University of Tennessee (Nickerson et al., 2013).  MMRP members at Rutgers University (NJ) characterized the mechanisms by which S. aureus builds and maintains iron-sulfur clusters (Choby et al., 2016). Scientists have found that S. aureus stains defective in iron-sulfur cluster metabolism have increased multicellular behavior resulting in biofilm formation (Mashruwala et al., 2016). This is a deterministic process governed by the iron-sulfur cluster containing ArlSR two-component regulatory system. These researchers have also aided in defining a function for the giant staphylococcal adhesion (Ebh), which has a role in multicellular behavior and found that Ebh expression is governed by the ArlSR- two-component regulatory system (Walker et al., 2013).  Scientists will continue to examine the mechanisms of S. aureus biofilm formation. The researchers are interested in the effects of an anoxic growth on biofilm formation and determining if the scientists can disperse fermentative biofilms by introducing a terminal electron acceptor.


MMRP members at the University of Wisconsin (WI) are determining how fungal cells thrive under conditions of zinc deficiency such as those encountered in a mammalian host. Investigators at Pennsylvania State University (PA) have identified a small cell variant that may play a role in the persistence of S. aureus infections. At the University of Tennessee (TN), 2 studies were conducted to prove S. uberis adhesion molecule (SUAM) is a relevant virulence factor in vivo where cows  did not develop as severe an infection or inflammation when compared to the wild-type strain or S. uberis receiving antibodies not specific for SUAM (Almeda et al.,2012). Additionally, several new genes that potentially contribute to S. uberis were identified using a transcriptomic-based approach that identified S. uberis genes activated following intramammary challenge (Almeida et al., 2012) that identifies potential alternatives for factors associated with S.uberis mastitis.


The association between mammary inflammation, duration of infection, and coagulase negative staphylococcal (CNS) IMI in cattle and dairy goats continues to be a major focus of MMRP members at the University of Missouri (MO). In-depth genotypic characterization of predominant CNS species using whole genome sequencing is underway to elucidate putative virulence factors involved in mastitis pathogenesis. Using irradiated and live S. aureus cultures MMRP members at Virginia Tech (VA) are identifying a role for virulence factors in immune suppression, activation, and manipulation. Interestingly, primary challenge with irradiated S. aureus did not induce migration of immune cells to the gland as compared with live S. aureus (Garst et al., 2014).


(ii) Antimicrobial Resistance (Quebec, NY, WI)


A review evaluated whether testing mastitis pathogens for antimicrobial susceptibility was of use in predicting outcomes of antibiotic treatment (Barlow, 2011; MMRP member). The author’s conclusion, based on data from 17 peer-reviewed publications, was that no clear evidence exists to indicate that such testing had predictive value for cure or non-cure outcomes in the treatment of mastitis. However, the importance of antibiotic treatment in dairy animal welfare and production, and its potential relation to the development of antibiotic resistance in bovine and human strains, indicates that further monitoring and research are warranted. At the University of Montréal (Quebec), MMRP members are currently investigating the impact of pathogen characteristics such as virulence genes, relative biofilm production, antimicrobial resistance phenotypic profiles on clinical mastitis recurrence in characterizing Klebsiella spp. isolates from bovine mammary gland infections (Franoz et al., 2016). At Cornell University (NY), full genome sequencing of a number of mastitis E. coli isolates was completed. Characterization and manipulation of virulence factors of mastitis pathogens for enhancing host defense is currently being investigated. Additional research at Cornell University is focused around antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors of environmental streptococci. Data generated at Cornell University suggests that certain strains of S. aureus are better adapted to live in hostile environments (Bardiau et al., 2016’ Locatelli et al., 2016). The University of Wisconsin Milk Quality (WI) lab members indicated a strong shift to mastitis caused by a variety of opportunistic environmental pathogens. The association between exposure to antimicrobials and occurrence of resistance will be reported. The lab also completed a study that characterized the differences in-vitro susceptibility testing of Ceftiofur and Cephapirin antibiotics as compared to results using the active metabolites of the same compounds.  Results may partly explain the variability between in vitro susceptibility test results and in vivo outcomes of intramammary treatments.


(iii) Use of Molecular Epidemiology & Diagnostic Tools (Saskatchewan, VT, VA, LA, GA)


Members of the MMRP have had a great impact on advancing vaccine development, implementing mastitis control programs, and the field of DNA-based characterization of mastitis pathogens, also known as molecular epidemiology. Researchers at the University of Vermont (VT) developed a multilocus sequence typing scheme for S. chromogenes and researchers have identified S. aureus strain types with increased antimicrobial resistance phenotypes (Mugabi et al., 2016).  Scientists at the University of Saskatchewan (Saskatchewan) compared cpn60and rpoB for identifying the species of CNS isolates. Scientists at Virginia Tech (VA) are currently evaluating potential vaccine targets through an intramammary challenge model (Garst et al., 2014; Kanevsky-Mullarky et al., 2013). Louisiana (LA) continues to collect mastitis pathogens and determine their antimicrobial susceptibility to various antibiotics (Owens and Ray, 2016). Studies are underway to compare susceptibility patterns of veterinary isolated to human isolates of the same pathogens. In lactating mammals, LSU has increased goat milk submissions that has led to the isolation and characterization of mastitis pathogens from goats, the majority of which are CNS (Owens and Ray, 2016). Mastitis pathogens from cattle and goats are identified and their antimicrobial susceptibilities determined to screen mastitis pathogens for resistance to antimicrobials. At the University of Georgia (GA), the use of a bovine staphylococcal vaccine in dairy goats (Nickerson, 2016) and dairy heifers (Hall et al., 2015) is promising.


 


Objective 3. Assessment and application of new technologies that advance mastitis control, milk quality and dairy food safety (CT, VA, OH, KT, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Prince Edward Island, WI, MI, WA, MN, NY, PA, ME, MO, MD, VA , LA, UT).


 


Technology applications within the last 5 years have included extensive evaluation of relatively simple tools, such as teat treatments (dips and dry cow treatments; WA, Enger et al., 2016, Nicholas et al., 2016; MO, Hoerning et al., 2016), mastitis detection (LA, CT, Notestine et al., 2015; VA, Swartz et al., 2016); application of strategies such as on-farm culture systems (UT, MN, Godden et al., 2016; PA, Hovingh, 2016); non-antibiotic therapeutics for the treatment of mastitis (MO, MD, Scholte et al., 2017), of bedding systems (OH, Hogan et al., 2012; ME, Adhikari et al., 2013), technologies for training producers and professionals (MI, MO, MN, ME; Erskine and Middleton, 2014), milking systems and the risk of mastitis (MD, Moyes et al., 2014), diagnostic/milk quality test development (MO, MI; Erskine, 2016; NY, Gioia et al., 2016) and implementation strategies, as well as new technologies related to vaccine development.


Animal welfare has become more important and behavioral monitors have been developed that can have diagnostic utility as well as enhancing marketability of dairy products due to welfare certification needs for selected markets. MMRP members at Virginia Tech (VA) continue to work in the area of disease detection with the use of daily milk component and animal activity monitoring and feeding behavior in calves (Swartz et al., 2016). Work at the University of Kentucky (KY) has led to the development of multiple decision support tools aimed at improving milk quality and animal welfare and reducing mastitis and economics (Eckelkamp et al., 2016;Klefot et al., 2016).  


International membership for MMRP continues to be a high priority. Members at the University of Montréal (Quebec) recently described the cost of mastitis in Canada (Belage et al., 2016). Scientists are currently investigating 1) selective quarter dry treatment for prevention and treatment of IMI during the dry period; 2) identifying sampling strategies for controlling misclassification bias in longitudinal udder health cohort studies; 3) investigating impediments to adoption of mastitis control practices on dairies; 4) examining the impact of recycled manure bedding on udder health;  and 5) characterizing milk microbiota and identifying alternative treatments for prevention and treatment of IMI at dry-off. Scientists at the University of Saskatchewan (Saskatchewan) and the University of Prince Edward Island are currently examining a novel treatment for S. aureus mastitis (Roy and Keefe, 2012).


Following are examples of collaborative efforts resulting from participation in this group:


USDA grant (Milk Quality Alliance) with collaboration among MI, PN, and FL


USDA grant (Southeast Quality Milk Initiative) with collaboration among TN, VA, KY, FL, MS, GA


Continous coordination and cross pollination among members of both these groups


Collabaration on employee management between Calgary and MI


Godden (MN) has led a multi-state bedding analysis study including members of this group.


MU Collaborations with CBMQRN:


MU - Calgary CNS - initial isolate ID on some of isolates was done with USDA formula funds - two papers published


MU - Montreal  CNS - this was funded with USDA formula funds - paper published


MU - PEI  CNS MALDI-TOF - initial isolate speciation was funded with USDA formula funds - paper under review


MU-WSU - S. agnetis and S. aureus characterization funded by Phi Zeta - two published papers


In summary, the work conducted within the framework of this MMRP has resulted in over 150 refereed publications and over 300 presentations at various scientific and stake-holder forums. We are continuing to build on our past findings to reduce the incidence of mastitis through additional research and extension activities. Mastitis is clearly a multi-faceted disease that will require continued efforts to not only ensure the production of safe, high quality food, but to do so in a sustainable fashion and with continued improvements in dairy animal welfare and reductions the use of antimicrobial drugs.

Objectives

  1. Characterize host mechanisms and pathogenic virulence factors associated with mastitis susceptibility and resistance to improve economic outcomes and animal welfare (ID, LA, MI, OR, PA, NJ, TN, UT, VT, WA, Canada).
  2. Assess and apply new technologies that advance mastitis control, milk quality and/or dairy food safety (CT, KT, LA, MI, MN, MO, NY, PA, UT, VA, WA).
  3. Identify and apply new strategies associated with the control of mastitis that can reduce the use of antibiotics in dairy herds (CT, ID, ME, MN, MO, NJ, TN, UT, VA, VT, WA, Canada).

Methods

Five-year plans, including collaborations among experimental stations, are listed below.

Objective 1: Characterize host mechanisms and pathogenic virulence factors associated with mastitis susceptibility and resistance to improve economic outcomes and animal welfare (ID, LA, MI, OR, PA, NJ, TN, UT, VT, WA, Canada).

At the University of Idaho (ID), researchers plan to continue their work on nutrition related host factors associated with intra-mammary infections. They will focus on the interaction of lipids and lipid-soluble vitamins, metabolism and mammary innate immunity and health. Today have also started working on the effect of dietary lipids and elevated internal lipomobilization on mediators of inflammation during the periparturient period. The overall goal is to improve the understanding of the mechanisms involved in lipid metabolism and mammary gland health in high producing dairy cows during the periparturient period that will lead to enhanced nutritional practices and enable the development of practical feeding intervention strategies to reduce inflammatory-based diseases and metabolic issues to reduce IMI and antibiotic use on dairy farms, improve animal health and productivity, and dairy farm profitability. 

Scientists at Louisiana State University (LA) will identify mastitis pathogens from cows and goats for antimicrobial susceptibility testing.  Resistance patterns for mastitis pathogens will be compared to resistance patterns for the same bacterial species isolated from humans to determine possible impacts of agricultural practices on resistance patterns.

The NE-1048 members at Michigan State University (MI) will continue to determine specific mechanisms by which high non-esterified fatty acid concentrations induce vascular proinflammatory changes, or the mechanisms by which resolvins, protectins, and lipoxins may modify endothelial inflammatory pathways. Additionally, they will elucidate the means to reduce the severity and duration of diseases, including mastitis, that are typically observed during periods of intense lipid mobilization, such as in the transition period of dairy cows. They also intend to further determine the mechanisms of reactive oxygen species generation, typical of lipid peroxidation and related to the transition period of dairy cattle, when metabolic demand and ensuing oxygen-derived respiration rapidly increases. From this work, the research group and Michigan State University hopes to gain better understanding of transition cow management and nutrition to reduce immune dysfunction caused by reactive-oxygen species.  

The research group at Oregon State University (OR) plans to improve the resistance to mastitis and milk quality via diet and nutrient gene interaction. In particular, they will study the possibility of using Selenium-enriched hay to improve the immune system of cows and calves around parturition. They will also continue the work on the nutrigenomic interventions to improve mastitis and milk quality via activation of the transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR). They will develop a high-throughput system to study drug-discovery fashion dietary compounds that can activate PPAR. They will also study the role of non-esterified fatty acids on activating of PPAR using in vivo-in vitro hybrid system. They will also study the possibility of improving milk lactose and fat synthesis via activation of PPAR. 

Scientists at Pennsylvania State University (PA) will use MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for the identification of host-pathogen related biomarkers for the enhanced detection and diagnosis of mastitis. Researchers at Rutgers University (NJ) are actively pursuing the mechanism(s) of respiration dependent biofilm formation in S. aureus.  S. aureus surviving in milk has decreased iron availability, and therefore decreased cellular respiration resulting in biofilm formation. They are actively pursuing if they can disperse bacterial biofilms in oxygen or iron starved environments.  Such a discovery could lead to novel treatments for mastitis or prevention measures. 

The University of Tennessee plans to evaluate the potential of host candidate genes identified through whole genome association studies as novel preventive or therapeutic agents against mastitis, as well as develop a more fundamental understanding of virulence factors associated with both S. uberis and S. aureus pathogens. 

Genome-wide association study (GWAS) is ongoing in Utah to compare bovine nucleotide differences (SNPs) between cows repeatedly mastitic vs. cows continually free of mastitis. Analysis is in collaboration with researchers at the University of Utah; 777,000 different SNPs can be detected. A number of genetic variations were protective against mastitis, with 78% to 100% of cows with some genetic variations being mastitis resistant. In contrast, 94% to 100% of cows with alternative variations in the same gene were mastitis susceptible. Future work includes identification of additional SNPs as well as mapping identified SNPs to the bovine genome.

Scientists at the University of Vermont (VT) will determine the importance of cellular expression of TLR4 (receptor for LPS) in contributing to the dairy cow’s response to intramammary challenge with E. coli and evaluate genetic and epigenetic factors that may regulate the expression of TLR4. 

The successful establishment and persistence of intramammary M. bovis infection is governed by its virulence factors and the host’s ability to successfully eliminate the infectious agent.  The virulence factors of M. bovis with respect to mastitis are largely unknown and pathogenesis of the disease is poorly understood. To identify virulence determinants and genes affecting M. bovis virulence, researchers (WA) propose to use a transposon mutagenesis screen. In collaboration with fellow researchers in Israel, scientists at Washington State University (WA) propose to construct a library of thousands of random mutants of M. bovis type strain PG45. Next, the mutant library will be screened using in-vitro cell systems developed by the Israeli partners. Attenuated mutants will be validated using the murine mastitis model and the most promising mutants will be further validated by challenge studies in dairy cows. Scientists also plan to perform a molecular epidemiological screening of a collection of M. bovis strains isolated from mastitis for the presence of the identified virulence genes. To determine the host immune response to M. bovis infection, NE-1048 members will study bovine neutrophil function. They will determine this phagocyte’s function in vitro when incubated with various strains of M. bovis from cattle with different disease histories. They will examine the effects of different strains on the ability of the neutrophil to phagocytize and kill M. bovis. They will also contrast these differences with and without glucocorticoid in the incubation mixture.  The latter effort will be used to determine how a “stress event” might affect phagocyte function in the face of M. bovis strains. 

Canada: International members will 1) describe antimicrobial resistance on dairies and associations with antimicrobial usage (Dufour); 2) investigate the impact of Staphylococci IMI on quarter milk yield and composition (Dufour, Keefe, Middleton);3) investigate economics of mastitis on Canadian dairies (Dufour, Barkema, Keefe); 4) investigates how modulation of the negative energy balance during the early lactation impacts mastitis risk (Dufour); 5) investigate how bedding modulates udder health and bulk tank milk’s microbiota (Dufour); and 6) understand the impediment to adoption of best udder health practices by dairy producers (Dufour). 

Objective 2: Assess and apply new technologies that advance mastitis control, milk quality and/or dairy food safety (CT, KY, LA, MI, MN, MO, NY, PA, UT, VA, WA). 

Researchers at the University of Connecticut (CT) will continue work regarding the validation of ultrasound-guided detection of bovine mastitis that will provide a tool for the detection of mastitis in non-lactating bovines, i.e., heifers and cows during the dry period. This will provide information on existing IMI and evidence of mammary tissue damage that can be used for advancing mastitis control.

The University of Kentucky (KY) research group will focus on evaluation of economic factors associated with mastitis decisions.  This work will include development of decision support tools for mastitis treatment decisions, determination of economically optimal SCC, and mastitis prevention strategies. These tools will be designed to help dairy producers make more economically sound mastitis management decisions.  Additionally, mastitis detection technologies using precision dairy monitoring technologies will be examined. 

Researchers at Louisiana State University (LA) will develop novel food grade products from plants that are being evaluated in vitro for antibacterial activity and potential use as teat dips and disinfectants. 

A major thrust of the research conducted at Michigan State University (MI) research station has been to develop an on-farm evaluation system for use by producers and veterinarians to assess challenges in milk quality (Quality Milk Alliance [QMA]; qualitymilkalliance.com). Although the QMA system will evaluate traditional areas of farm management related to mastitis control (milking techniques, milking equipment function, cow environment, treatment and monitoring of infected cows), this evaluation system will be unique in that it will also include the management culture of the farm; which will help identify communication barriers with employees regarding mastitis control. Information collected from focus group discussions among producers, veterinarians and employees, have identified key concerns of dairy stakeholders with respect to herd mastitis control programs: 1) the desire for producers to improve employee training and education, 2) the potential role that veterinarians can play in providing this need, and 3) the desire of employees to be further educated and receive more consistent training. The scientists are in a position to help address these stakeholder concerns by applying the QMA evaluation as part of intervention study in 130 dairy herds in Florida, Michigan, and Pennsylvania. Additionally, they will further develop novel uses of 1) remote clicker technology to assess employee training and education, and 2) digital vacuum recorders to assess milking protocol performance. These technologies, along with the QMA evaluation, will serve as a basis for employee training and education. They will amplify the findings by training veterinarians, Extension educators, and other allied dairy professionals by offering an education program that will lead to certification on how to evaluate on-farm milk quality by use of the QMA system. 

At the University of Minnesota (MN), scientists will continue a research program aiming to better understand the relationship between bacteria counts in bedding and udder health, as well as to identify bedding characteristics and/or bedding management practices that result in reduced bacteria counts in bedding and improved udder health. 

Scientists at the University of Missouri (MO) will continue to assess and utilize molecular tools and emerging diagnostic technologies to assess mastitis pathogen epidemiology in dairy cattle and dairy small ruminants. They will explore potential pathogen related factors associated with persistent infections and elevated SCC and determine if a simple method can be identified to differentiate more different species and strains coagulase negative staphyloccci.  With this, different strain typing methods will be explored, including the use of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry for strain typing. Collaborations with members of the Canadian Bovine Mastitis and Milk Quality Research Network will continue. In addition, members of NE-1048 have an ongoing collaboration to evaluate the diagnostic utility of MALDI-TOF for identifying mastitis pathogens.  

At Cornell University (NY) for the next 2 years, researchers plan to develop a tool which can predict the genetic and economic performance of US dairy farms which are planning to adopt genomic selection for higher milk quality for the next 10-15 years. They will devise effective experimental designs (that will be run using the model) which can compare various possible replacement selection strategies, which can simultaneously optimize milk quality and bulk tank revenues. Their long-term goal for the last 3 years of this multi-state project is to be actively involved in development of an approximate dynamic programming model which can aid in early warnings about diseases (including mastitis) in dairy production systems. 

At Pennsylvania State University (PA), researchers will investigate, using MALDI-TOF, species’ profiles of proteolytic and lipolytic bacteria in bulk tank milk.  The association of these profiles with farm management practices and milk quality will also be explored. Scientists will also explore the relationship between milking-time claw and mouthpiece vacuum characteristics, pre-milking udder preparation routines, milk flow patterns, management practices, and the risk of mastitis. 

In Utah, a blind comparison study will be conducted between a private veterinary laboratory (conventional milk culture results to species level except for S. aureus and E. coli) and Utah State University (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight [MALDI-TOF]), and Missouri (16S rRNA genomic identification). An earlier study found 85% to 97% agreement between MALDI-TOF and culture for most milk bacterial species. Agreement so far between all 3 methods is 93.9%. Future expansion of the comparisons, including additional mastitis pathogens and collaborating institutions is anticipated. 

Scientists at Virginia Tech University (VA) will study a variety of technologies that are available for use on commercial dairy farms.  However, researchers are still working to determine how best to use these data.  Over the next 5 years, they will continue in our efforts to develop novel disease detection models using data from these technologies.

The research group at Washington State University (WA) will improve the diagnosis of M. bovis and they will study culture parameters for M. bovis mastitis pathogens in an effort to determine what conditions will more likely improve growth and apparent viability.  Diagnosis of mycoplasma mastitis has been hampered by the pathogens slow growth and fastidious growth requirements.  Moreover, culture conditions for M. bovis associated with mastitis have not been empirically derived.  Moreover, they will develop milk testing procedures for PCR that can diagnose mycoplasma mastitis.  The later efforts will lead to a marked reduction in turn-around time from sample submission to mycoplasma mastitis determination.  

 

Objective 3: Identify and apply new strategies associated with the control of mastitis that can reduce the use of antibiotics in dairy herds (CT, ID, ME, MN, MO, NJ, TN, UT, VA, VT, WA, Canada). 

Scientists at the University of Connecticut (CT) will use ultrasound-guided intramammary scanning ated as a tool to provide additional information about IMI and tissue damage that can potentially  be used to target dry-off treatment  as part of a total program to reduce the amount of antibiotic use in dairy cattle. 

The NE-1048 research group at the University of Maine (ME) plans to assess the impact of paper mill lignin byproducts (PMLBs) as conditioners for dairy bedding, in an effort to help develop products to reduce the incidence of mastitis without additional use of antibiotics. Maine will evaluate selected PMLBs against major mastitis pathogens (bacterial and fungal) in vitro, assess their efficacy in the context of commonly used organic bedding materials in vitro, and extend these observations into practical advice for regional dairy farmers.  

Researchers at the University of Minnesota (MN) will continue to develop and evaluate different strategies for applying successful and cost-effective selective dry cow therapy programs, as an alternative to blanket dry cow therapy.  Applied properly in appropriate herds, selective dry cow therapy offers an opportunity to significantly reduce antibiotic use at dry off while maintaining and promoting udder health. One arm of this research program is to evaluate the accuracy and practical considerations of using different on-farm rapid diagnostic systems (e.g. direct tests: milk culture;  indirect tests: milk leukocyte differential counts, somatic cell counts, enzymes, other) for identifying infected cows or quarters that should be treated with an antibiotic in a selective dry cow therapy program.  

The University of Missouri (MO) is aiming to explore the effects of intramammary antimicrobial usage on the fecal microbiome and resistome.  This will include exploring if an increase in pathogenic bacteria are found in the feces after the administration of intramammary antibiotics, which could be a concern for dairy food safety.  Future work will also identify if antimicrobial resistance patterns of fecal pathogens are affected by intramammary antibiotic administration.  The University of Missouri is also evaluating antimicrobial peptides as potential therapeutics for diseases of cattle. 

Mastitis caused by S. aureus require these bacterium to form complex communities called biofilms. Biofilm formation is necessary for S. aureus pathogenesis. Scientists at Rutgers University (NJ) have recently found that the addition of a small molecule that stimulates cellular respiration can disperse S. aureus biofilms that had formed in low oxygen environments such as the udder of mastitic cows. They are now trying to determine if such a small molecule can disperse S. aureus biofilms in models of infection. Such a finding could lead to new strategies to control or present mastitic infections. 

At the University of Tennessee (TN), scientists plan to evaluate the role of internal teat sealants with or without antibiotics in dairy heifers during times of projected wet, muddy conditions in the Southeast to minimize the risk of IMI. 

Casein hydrolysate (CH) intramammary infusion for cessation of lactation in one chronically mastitic mammary quarter in dairy cows is being studied in Utah and Idaho.  Total milk lost per cow (14%) after the mastitic quarter was involuted, recovery of treated quarters’ milk production after the cows calved again (24% of total-cow milk), and reduction in total cows’ milk SCC after infusion (decreased by approximately 1,000,000/mL) all suggested that this can be an alternative method of drying off one mastitic quarter with a good prospect for return of that quarter’s production following the next calving. Future work includes study of CH as an adjunct, or possible replacement for dry cow antibiotic treatment with or without teat sealant at time of dryoff.  Mechanistic studies of mammary involution and immunity following CH will involve collaboration with other laboratories. 

Based on the developed disease detection models, researchers at Virginia Tech University (VA) will examine early intervention strategies for clinical mastitis in an effort to reduce antimicrobial usage.

Scientists at the University of Vermont (VT) will quantify the antibacterial activity of potential alternative therapies including plant-derived essential oil products.  In addition, scientists will characterize the microbial community structure of bovine teat skin with a focus on the potential antagonistic interactions between Staphylococcus species that are either opportunistic mastitis pathogens or normal commensal organisms with the goal of identifying potential beneficial commensal organisms. 

Intervention strategies that prevent a disease will lead to a reduction in antibiotic use to treat clinical manifestations.  Mycoplasma mastitis is a disease syndrome that is difficult to diagnose and therefore when clinical is often treated with antibiotics before diagnostic results are returned to the dairy manager.   Thus efforts to better understand the epidemiology of the disease are warranted so that the critical control points can be identified and developed into intervention strategies to control mycoplasma mastitis. Research efforts at Washington State University will be made to continue to study the epidemiology and test newly developed intervention strategies to control mycoplasma mastitis. 

Canada: International members will 1) investigate quarter-level selective dry cow therapy to reduce use of antimicrobials on dairies while maintaining udder health (Dufour and Keefe); and 2) describe the current use of antimicrobials on dairies, investigate producers and veterinarians’ motivations for using them, and develop and evaluate a continuous antimicrobial usage surveillance system for Canadian dairies (Dufour);

 

Measurement of Progress and Results

Outputs

  • Peer reviewed publications Comments: Membership in NE-1048 has allowed researchers to 1) build a network of collaborators, 2) receive meaningful feedback on project design and execution, 3) provide formal means of idea exchange and collaboration; 4) expand ideas beyond the State, 5) opened opportunities for collaborative funding, 6) allowed access to resources such as mastitis bacterial isolates from across a broad geographic distribution, 7) provided a forum for trainees to meet seasoned investigators and fellow trainees to discuss and present their work and receive constructive feedback.
  • Presentations at national and local meetings
  • Non-peer reviewed publications
  • Extension publications and meetings
  • Bacterial isolate collections with epidemiological data
  • Joint projects/collaborations

Outcomes or Projected Impacts

  • Models developed for mastitis transmission on dairies.
  • Risks and benefits of antibiotic use in lactating dairy animals evaluated.
  • Experimental intramammary treatments, both conventional and organic, studied.
  • Examined alternative therapeutics for the prevention or treatment of mastitis to reduce antibiotic usage.
  • On-farm culture and other methods of reducing antibiotic use on dairies evaluated.
  • Effectiveness of teat dips, teat sealants, bedding types and treatments and dry cow treatments in deterring mastitis evaluated.
  • Identified virulence factors of mastitis pathogens.
  • New diagnostic tests for select organisms, including high-risk human pathogens and non-bacterial causes of mastitis, developed.
  • Developed multiple decision support tools aimed at improving milk quality, reducing mastitis and economics.
  • Nutritional effects, including enhancing the host immune system, on mastitis evaluated.
  • Identified candidate genes relating to mastitis susceptibility.
  • Strategies developed to improve immune responses during the dry and transition period, using molecular analyses of host responses.
  • Use positional/behavioral patterns to predict IMI in dairy cattle.
  • Describe the molecular epidemiology of mastitis pathogens.
  • Describe host cytokine and other genetic predictors for mastitis susceptibility, milk production, reproductive performance, and survival.
  • Describe selected mastitis pathogen’s gene distribution and genetic diversity in milk.
  • Develop potential mastitis vaccine candidates.

Milestones

(2018):Submission for publication of findings in studies of the immune and metabolic dynamics and their relationship to host and/or pathogenic response.

(2019):Submission for publication of findings in studies regarding improving animal welfare.

(2020):Submission for publication of findings in studies regarding new technologies to advance mastitis control, milk quality and/or dairy food safety.

(2021):Submission for publication of findings in studies regarding antibiotic use and alternative therapeutics for mastitis control.

(2022):Completion and submission for publication of the remaining studies on focused research objectives, as well as summaries of surveillance studies.

Projected Participation

View Appendix E: Participation

Outreach Plan

Multiple centers have described outreach projects in their plans for the upcoming period. A number of stations are involved in Extension-based proposals to improve milk quality. This includes at least two currently funded programs – the Milk Quality Alliance (MI, PA) and the Southeast Quality Milk Initiative (TN, KY, VA, MS, GA) – that include members of NE-1048. These programs are developing and continue to develop meeting materials and online resources in both English and Spanish (http://qualitymilkalliance.com; http://sequalitymilk.com/).  These projects, and thus the MMRP, will be characterized by their emphasis on producer communications, and on including experts in communication, sociology, economics, dairy management, mastitis, and milk quality programs. The MMRP has, and continues to, involve numerous Cooperative Extension members. This factor, and the willingness of the dairy industry to seek new tools for improvement, will enhance the current and future effectiveness of the MMRP. In the words of William Owens of Louisiana, "A major impact of the multistate projects is the credence or impact that a prestigious organization gives to data it generates. The reputation and long history of this project and the many years of scientific expertise that it represents greatly increased the weight of its recommendations. Many of the scientists participating in this project have been continuously involved with this project since the 1980s. This long history allows a continuity of purpose that provides valuable leadership and helps maintain the focus of the group. This in turn makes the outputs of the projects more focused and more valuable."


Dufour (Montreal) received a grant to develop an online course in mastitis management and control with content to be complied by many members of this group including: 


Kasey Moyes


Isis Kanevsky


Gina Pighetti


Chris Luby


Sarne DeVliegher


John Middleton


Christina Petersson-Wolfe


Larry Fox


Satu Pyörälä


Heidi Hiitiö


JP Roy


John Middleton


Herman Barkema


Trevor Devries


Mario Lopez


John Penry


Erin Royster


Paivi Rajala-Shultz


John Wenz


Dave Kelton


Jeffrey Bewley


Sheila Andrew


Marina von Keyserlingk

Organization/Governance

Administrative Advisor: 


Dr. Cameron Faustman, cameron.faustman@uconn.edu


Professor, Department of Animal Science


Associate Dean of Academic Programs, CANR


Director, Radcliffe Hicks School of Agriculture


Chairman, NERA



  1. B. Young Building, Room 202


University of Connecticut


Storrs, CT 06269-4040


Phone: (860) 486-2919


 


Dr. Richard Rhodes III, rcrhodes@uri.eduExecutive director, NERA


University of Rhode Island
Aquaculture Center
14 East Farm Road
Kingston, RI 02881
Ph  401-874-2468


 


USDA/CSREES Representative: Gary Sherman, gsherman@nifa.usda.gov


National Program Leader, Veterinary Science-USDA, NIFA


Ph: 202-401-4952


Fax: 202-401-6156


URL (USDA - Sherman):


http://www.nifa.usda.gov/about/AllUnits/staff_view.cfm?record_id=1680&CFID=1300542&CFTOKEN=35668490


URL (USDA - NIFA):  http://www.nifa.usda.gov


 

Literature Cited

Literature cited


2016/2015


Peer-Reviewed Literature


University of Georgia:


Berry, E. A., J. E. Hillerton, H. Hogeveen, J. S. Hogan, S. C. Nickerson*, S. P. Oliver, G. M. Pighetti, P. Rapnicki, Y. H. Schukken, and K. L. Smith. 2016. Book: Current Concepts of Bovine Mastitis, 5th Edition. National Mastitis Council, New Prague, MN.


Enger, B., R.R. White, S.C. Nickerson, and L.K. Fox^. 2016. Meta-analysis of factors influencing teat dip efficacy trial results in reducing the development of new intramammary infections. J. Dairy Sci. 05 Oct. 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-11359.


Nickerson, S.C. 2015.  Managing Mastitis through Proper Dry-Off Procedures EXTENSION BULLETIN (B 1447) http://extension.uga.edu/publications/detail.cfm?number=B1447.


Nickerson, S.C. 2015.  Control of Mastitis and Milk Quality in Dairy Goats through Immunization BULLETIN (B 1446) http://extension.uga.edu/publications/detail.cfm?number=B1446.


Nickerson, S.C. and L.M. Sordillo^. 2016. Book Chapter: Modulation of the bovine mammary gland. In Large Dairy Herd Management. 3rd ed. D. K. Beede, ed. American Dairy Science Association, Champaign, IL. http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/ldhm.


University of Kentucky:


Liang, D., L.M. Arnold, C.J. Stowe, R.J. Harmon, and J.M. Bewley. 2016. Estimating U.S. clinical dairy disease costs with a stochastic simulation model. J. Dairy Sci. (Accepted)


 


Klefot, J. M., J. L. Murphy, K. D. Donohue, B. F. O’Hara, M. E. Lhamon, and J. M. Bewley. 2016. Development of a noninvasive system for monitoring dairy cattle sleep. Journal of


 


Eckelkamp, E. A., J. L. Taraba, K. A. Akers, R. J. Harmon, and J.M. Bewley. 2016. Sand bedded freestall and compost bedded pack effects on cow hygiene, locomotion, and mastitis indicators. Livest. Sci. 190:48-57.


 


Eckelkamp, E. A., J. L. Taraba, K. A. Akers, R. J. Harmon, and J.M. Bewley. 2016. Understanding compost bedded pack barns: Interactions among environmental factors, bedding characteristics, and udder health. Livest. Sci. 190:35-42.


 


Lowe, J.L., A.E. Stone, K.A. Akers, J.D. Clark, and J.M. Bewley. 2015. Effect of alley-floor scraping frequency on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, environmental Streptococcus species, and coliform counts. The Professional Animal Scientist 31(3):284-289.


 


Wadsworth, B.A., A.E. Stone, J.D. Clark, D.L. Ray, and J.M. Bewley. 2015. Stall cleanliness and stall temperature of two different freestall bases. J. Dairy Sci. 98 (6): 4206-4210.


 


University of Idaho:


Rezamand, P., B. P. Hatch, K. G. Carnahan, and M. A. McGuire. 2016. Effects of α-linolenic acid-enriched diets on gene expression of key inflammatory mediators in immune and milk cells obtained from Holstein dairy cows. J. Dairy Res. 83: 20–27.


Louisiana State University:












Owens WE, Ray CH (2016) An Overview of Mastitis Management and Therapy in Dairy Goats. J Vet Sci Med Diagn 5:3.



 


Owens WE, Ray CH (2016) Comparison of Antibiotic Susceptibility Patterns of Selected Bacterial Species from Bovine, Agricultural and Human Sources. J Vet Sci Med Diagn 5:2. doi:10.4172/2325-9590.1000192



University of Maryland:



  1. Garcia, T.H. Elasser, L. Juengst, Y. Qu, B.J. Bequette and K.M. Moyes. 2016. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Amino acid supplementation and stage of lactation alter   


apparent utilization of nutrients by blood neutrophils from lactating dairy cows in


vitro.  J. Dairy Sci. 99:3777-3783.


 


K.M. Moyes, P. Sørensen and M. Bionaz^.  2016.  The impact of intramammary Escherichia coli challenge on liver and mammary transcriptome and cross-talk in dairy cows during early lactation using RNAseq. PLOSOne. 23. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0157480. eCollection 2016.


 


M.A. Crookenden, A. Heiser, A. Murray, V.S.R. Dukkipati, J.K. Kay, J.J. Loor^, S.


Meirer, M.D. Mitchell, K.M. Moyes, C.G. Walker and J.R. Roche.  2016.    


Parturition in dairy cows temporarily alters the expression of genes in circulating neutrophils. 



  1. Dairy Sci. 99:6470-6483.


 


M.A. Crookenden, C.G. Walker, A. Heiser, A. Murray, V.S.R. Dukkipati, J.K. Kay, S. Meier, K.M. Moyes, M.D. Mitchell, J.J. Loor^ and J. R. Roche.  2016. Effects of precalving body condition and prepartum feeding level on gene expression in circulating neutrophils.  J. Dairy Sci.  Accepted.


Michigan State University:


Sordillo, L. M. 2016. Nutritional strategies to optimize dairy cattle immunity. J. Dairy Sci. 99:4967-4982.


Mavangira, V., M. J. Mangual, J. C. Gandy, L. M. Sordillo. 2015. 15-F2t-Isoprostane Concentrations and Oxidant Status in Lactating Dairy Cattle with Acute Coliform Mastitis. J Vet Intern Med. 30:339-347.


Boutinaud, M., N. Isaka, V. Lollivier, F. Dessauge, E. Gandemer, P. Lamberton, A. I. De Prado Taranilla, A. Deflandre, L.M. Sordillo. 2016. Cabergoline inhibits prolactin secretion and accelerates involution in dairy cows after dry-off. J. Dairy Sci. 99:5707-5718.


University of Minnesota:


 


Godden, S.M., E. Royster, W. Knauer, Y. Schukken, M. Lopez-Benavides, J. Sorg, S. Leibowitz, and E.A. French. 2016. Randomized non-inferiority study evaluating the efficacy of a post-milking teat disinfectant for the prevention of naturally occurring intramammary infections. J. Dairy Sci. 99:3675-3687.


University of Missouri:


Hoernig KJ, Donovan DM, Pithua P, Williams III F, Middleton JR.  2016.  Evaluation of a lysostaphin-fusion protein as a dry-cow therapy for Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy cattle.  J Dairy Sci.  99(6):4638-4646.  [Epub 2016 Mar 31]


 


Adkins PRF, Middleton JR, Fox LK^.  2016.  Comparison of virulence gene identification, ribosomal spacer PCR genotype, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for strain-typing Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cases of subclinical bovine mastitis in the USA.  J Clin Microbiol.  54(7):1871-1876.  [Epub 2016 May 18]


 


Rutgers University (New Jersey):


Rosario-Cruz Z., Chahal H.K., Anzaldi-Mike L.L., Skaar E.P., and Boyd J.M.  Bacillithiol has a role in Fe-S cluster biogenesis in Staphylococcus aureus.  Mol. Micro. 2015 Oct. PMID: 26135358


Mashruwala A.M., and Boyd J.M., De novo assembly of plasmids using yeast recombinational cloning.  Methods Mol. Biol. 2016 Feb PMID: 26194707


Rosario-Cruz Z. and Boyd J.M.  Pysiological roles of bacillithiol in intracellular metal processing.  Curr Genet.  2016 Feb.  PMID: 26259870


Mashruwala A.A., Bhatt S., Poudel S., Boyd E.S., and Boyd J.M. The DUF59 containing protein SufT is involved in the maturation of iron-sulfur (FeS) proteins during conditions of high FeS cofactor demand in Staphylococcus aureus. PLoS Genetics. 2016 Aug. PMID: 27517714


 


Choby J.E., Mike L.A., Mashruwala A.A., Dutter B.F.  Dunman, P.M., Sulikowski G.A., Boyd J.M., and Skaar E.P.* A small molecule inhibitor of iron-sulfur cluster assembly is toxic to Staphylococcus aureus in an Sae-dependent manner. Cell Chemical Biology 2016 Nov. PMID:27773628


Mashruwala A.A., Roberts C., Bhatt S. May K.L., Carroll R.K., Shaw L.N., Boyd J.M. Staphylococcus aureus SufT: an essential iron-sulfur cluster assembly factor in cells experiencing a high-demand for lipoic acid.  Mol. Micro. 2016 Sep. PMID: 27671355


Cornell University (New York):


Addis MF, Tedde V, Puggioni GM, Pisanu S, Casula A, Locatelli C, Rota N, Bronzo V, Moroni P, Uzzau S. Evaluation of milk cathelicidin for detection of bovine mastitis. J Dairy Sci. 2016 Oct;99(10):8250-8. doi:10.3168/jds.2016-11407. PubMed PMID: 27522416.


Ospina PA, Rota N, Locatelli C, Colombo L, Pollera C, Giacinti G, Bronzo V, Casula A, Arpinelli A, Brossette V, Facchi M, Patelli A, Ruggeri A, Barberio A, Potenza G, Nydam DV, Moroni P. Randomized noninferiority field trial comparing 2 first-generation cephalosporin products at dry off in quarters receiving an internal teat sealant in dairy cows. J Dairy Sci. 2016 Aug;99(8):6519-31. doi: 10.3168/jds.2015-10807. PubMed PMID: 27265178.


Addis MF, Tanca A, Uzzau S, Oikonomou G, Bicalho RC, Moroni P. The bovine milk microbiota: insights and perspectives from -omics studies. Mol Biosyst. 2016 Jul 19;12(8):2359-72. doi: 10.1039/c6mb00217j. Review. PubMed PMID: 27216801.


Barberio A, Flaminio B, De Vliegher S, Supré K, Kromker V, Garbarino C, Arrigoni N, Zanardi G, Bertocchi L, Gobbo F, Catania S, Moroni P. Short communication: In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of Mycoplasma bovis isolates identified in milk from dairy cattle in Belgium, Germany, and Italy. J Dairy Sci. 2016 Aug;99(8):6578-84. doi: 10.3168/jds.2015-10572. PubMed PMID: 27209138.


Gioia G, Werner B, Nydam DV, Moroni P. Validation of a mycoplasma molecular diagnostic test and distribution of mycoplasma species in bovine milk among New York State dairy farms. J Dairy Sci. 2016 Jun;99(6):4668-77. doi:10.3168/jds.2015-10724. PubMed PMID: 27016831.


Bardiau M, Caplin J, Detilleux J, Graber H, Moroni P, Taminiau B, Mainil JG. Existence of two groups of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis based on biofilm formation, intracellular survival, capsular profile and agr-typing. Vet Microbiol. 2016 Mar 15;185:1-6. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.01.003. PubMed PMID: 26931384.


Locatelli C, Cremonesi P, Bertocchi L, Zanoni MG, Barberio A, Drigo I, Varisco G, Castiglioni B, Bronzo V, Moroni P. Short communication: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in bulk tank milk of dairy cows and effect of swine population density. J Dairy Sci. 2016 Mar;99(3):2151-6. doi: 10.3168/jds.2015-9940. PubMed PMID: 26805972.


Scaccabarozzi L, Leoni L, Ballarini A, Barberio A, Locatelli C, Casula A, Bronzo V, Pisoni G, Jousson O, Morandi S, Rapetti L, García-Fernández A, Moroni P. Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Dairy Goats: Genotypic and Phenotypic Comparison of  Intramammary and Environmental Isolates. PLoS One. 2015 Nov 25;10(11):e0142973. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142973. PubMed PMID: 26606430; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4659641.


Plumed-Ferrer C, Barberio A, Franklin-Guild R, Werner B, McDonough P, Bennett J, Gioia G, Rota N, Welcome F, Nydam DV, Moroni P. Antimicrobial susceptibilities and random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR fingerprint characterization of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis and Lactococcus garvieae isolated from bovine intramammary infections. J Dairy Sci. 2015 Sep;98(9):6216-25. doi: 10.3168/jds.2015-9579. PubMed PMID: 26142865.


Kessels JA, Cha E, Johnson SK, Welcome FL, Kristensen AR, Gröhn YT. Economic comparison of common treatment protocols and J5 vaccination for clinical mastitis in dairy herds using optimized culling decisions. J Dairy Sci. 2016 May;99(5):3838-47. doi: 10.3168/jds.2015-10385. PubMed PMID: 26947301.


Cha E, Hertl J, Schukken Y, Tauer L, Welcome F, Gröhn Y. Evidence of no protection for a recurrent case of pathogen specific clinical mastitis from a previous case. J Dairy Res. 2016 Feb;83(1):72-80. doi: 10.1017/S002202991500062X. PubMed PMID: 26568557.


Troendle, J.A., Tauer, L.W.,  Gröhn, Y.T.: Optimally achieving milk bulk tank somatic cell count thresholds. Journal of Dairy Science. Accepted.


Oregon State University:


Bionaz, M., et al. (2015). "TRIENNIAL LACTATION SYMPOSIUM: Nutrigenomics in dairy cows: Nutrients, transcription factors, and techniques." J Anim Sci 93(12): 5531-5553.


Pennsylvania State University:


Schewe, R.L., J. Kayitsinga, G.A. Contreras, C. Odom, W.A. Coats, P. Durst, E.P. Hovingh, R.O. Martinez, R. Mobley, S. Moore, R.J. Erskine^.  Herd management and social variables associated with bulk tank somatic cell count in dairy herds in the eastern United States. 2015. J. Dairy Sci. 98(11).7650-7665.


Utah State University:


Wilson DJ, Rood KA, Whitehouse C, Bunnell J, Goodell GM, Byrem TM: Dairy herd -  level prevalence of Johne’s disease and BVD in the Intermountain West of the U.S.A. and farm management practices and characteristics for test-positive herds. J Veterinary Sci Technol 6:4:1-7, 2015.


University of Vermont:


Carroll, J.A., N.C. Burdick-Sanchez, J.D. Arthingon, C.D. Nelson, A.L. Benjamin, F.T. Korkmaz, D.E. Kerr, and P.A. Lancaster. 2017. In utero exposure to lipopolysaccharide alters the postnatal acute phase response in beef heifers. Innate Immunity 23: In Press


Benjamin A.L., F.T. Korkmaz, T.H. Elsasser, and D.E. Kerr. 2016. Neonatal LPS exposure does not diminish the innate immune response to a subsequent LPS challenge in Holstein bull calves. Journal of Dairy Science. 99:5750-5763.


Benjamin A.L., B.B. Green, S.D. McKay, B.A. Crooker, and D.E. Kerr. 2016. Differential responsiveness of Holstein and Angus dermal fibroblasts to LPS challenge occurs without major differences in the methylome. BMC Genomics. 17:[Epub March 24 ahead of print].


Virginia Tech:


Langel SN, Wark WA, Garst SN, James RE, McGilliard ML, Petersson-Wolfe CS, Kanevsky-Mullarky I. 2016.  Effect of feeding whole compared with cell-free colostrum on calf immune status: Vaccination response.  J. Dairy Sci.  99(5):3979-94.


Ludwig EK, Brandon Wiese R, Graham MR, Tyler AJ, Settlage JM, Werre SR, Petersson-Wolfe CS, Kanevsky-Mullarky I, Dahlgren LA. 2016.  Serum and synovial fluid serum amyloid A response in equine models of synovitis and arthritis.  Vet Surg. 45(7): 859-867. 


Swartz TH, McGilliard ML, Petersson-Wolfe CS. 2016.  The use of an accelerometer for measuring step acitivty and lying behaviors in dairy calves.  J. Dairy Sci. 99(11):9109-9113. 


Christina Petersson-Wolfe and Michelle Arnold.  Reference guide for mastitis-causing bacteria.  http://sequalitymilk.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/SQMI-Bacterial-Reference-Guide.pdf


Christina Petersson-Wolfe and Turner Swartz.  Yeast and Molds: A practical summary for controlling mastitis.  https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/DASC/DASC-72/DASC-72.html


Christina Petersson-Wolfe and Turner Swartz.  Trueperella pyogenes: A practical summary for controlling mastitis.  https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/DASC/DASC-71/DASC-71.html


Christina Petersson-Wolfe and Turner Swartz.  Proteus spp.: A practical summary for controlling mastitis.  https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/DASC/DASC-68/DASC-68.html


Christina Petersson-Wolfe and Turner Swartz.  Pasteurella spp.: A practical summary for controlling mastitis.  https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/DASC/DASC-67/DASC-67.html


Christina Petersson-Wolfe and Turner Swartz.  Mycoplasma spp.: A practical summary for controlling mastitis.  https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/DASC/DASC-66/DASC-66.html


Christina Petersson-Wolfe and Turner Swartz.  Enterobacter spp.: A practical summary for controlling mastitis.  https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/DASC/DASC-65/DASC-65.html


Christina Petersson-Wolfe and Turner Swartz.  Corynebacterium bovis: A practical summary for controlling mastitis.  https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/DASC/DASC-64/DASC-64.html


Christina Petersson-Wolfe and Turner Swartz.  Coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus hyicus: A practical summary for controlling mastitis.  https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/DASC/DASC-63/DASC-63.html


Christina Petersson-Wolfe and Turner Swartz.  Bacillus spp.: A practical summary for controlling mastitis.  https://pubs.ext.vt.edu/DASC/DASC-62/DASC-62.html


Washington State University:


Adkins P.R.F, John R Middleton^; Lawrence K Fox. 2016. Staphylococcus aureus Strains Isolated from Cases of Subclinical Bovine Mastitis in the United States.  Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 54: 1871-1876


 


Nicholas, R.A.J., L.K. Fox, I. Lysnyansky. 2016.  Mycoplasma mastitis in cattle: to cull or not to cull.  The vet. J. 216:142-147.


 


Fox, L.K. 2016.  Removal of hair from the mammary gland: Recovery of bacteria from teat skin and milk.  Journal of Dairy Science. 99:1461-1464.


University of Wisconsin:


Guarin, J.F. and P.L. Ruegg.  2016.  Short Communication:  Pre- and post-milking anatomical characteristics of teats and their associations with increased risk of clinical mastitis in dairy cows.  J Dairy Sci. 99:8323-8329  


 


Guarin, J.F., M.G. Paixao, and P.L. Ruegg.  2016.  Association of anatomical characteristics of teats with quarter milk somatic cell count.  Published online  27 July, 2016:  http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2016-11459.   


 


Guarin, J.F., C. Baumberger, and P.L. Ruegg.  Anatomical characteristics of teats and pre-milking bacterial counts of teat skin swabs of primiparous cows exposed to different types of bedding. Accepted J Dairy Sci.  Oct  14. 2016


 


International:


University of Montreal


Belage, E., Dufour, S., Jones-Bitton, A., Schock, D., Kelton, D.F., Submitted for publication. Adoption and consistency of application of pre-milking preparation in Ontario dairy herds. Journal of  Dairy Science.


Francoz, D., Welllemans, V., Roy, J.P., Lacasse, P., Ordonez-Iturriaga, A., Labelle, F., Dufour, S., Accepted for publication. Non-antibiotic approaches at drying off for treating and preventing intramammary infections: A protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis. Animal Health Research Reviews.


Goetz, C., Dufour, S., Archambault, M., Malouin, F., Jacques, M., 2016. Importance et contrôle de biofilms formés par les staphylocoques lors d’infections intra-mammaires chez la vache laitière. Revue de Médecine Vétérinaire 167, 215-229.


Abstracts


University of Georgia:


Alward, K. J., J. F. Bohlen, L. O. Ely, and S. C. Nickerson. 2016. Assessing the correlation between teat end scores and the presence of mastitis in lactating Holstein cows. Abstract. Joint Meeting of the American Dairy Science Association and the American Society of Animal Science; 2016 July 19-23, 2016, Salt Lake City, UT. Page 22 in: J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 94, E-Suppl.5/J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 99, E-Suppl. 1.


Enger, B. D., R. R. White, S. C. Nickerson, and L. K. Fox^. 2016. Meta- analysis of factors influencing new intramammary infection rate in experimental challenge teat dip efficacy trials. ADSA.  Page 57 in: J.       Anim. Sci. Vol. 94, E-Suppl. 5/J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 99, E-Suppl. 1.


Enger, B. D., R. R. White, S. C. Nickerson, and L. K. Fox^. 2016.  Meta-analysis of factors influencing new intramammary infection rate in natural exposure teat dip efficacy trials. ADSA. Page 355 in: J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 94, E-Suppl. 5/J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 99, E-Suppl. 1.


Hall, C.L., S.C. Nickerson, D.J. Hurley, L.O. Ely, and F.M. Kautz. 2015. Use of a novel adjuvant to enhance the protective effect of a commercial Vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus mastitis in dairy heifers.  J. Dairy Sci. Abstract no. 514. Orlando, FL. Page 569 in: J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 93, Suppl. s3/J.


Dairy Sci. Vol. 98, Suppl. 2. http://www.jtmtg.org/JAM/2015/abstracts/566.pdf.


 


Hurley, D.J., M. Adkins, C. Barber, N.A. Norton, S.C. Nickerson, L.O. Ely, F.M. Kautz, D.J. McClean, J.D. Chapman, and A.D. Rowson. 2016. Cell-mediated immune response to MLV BRD vaccination in Holstein heifers fed an immunomodulatory supplement. 2016 CRWAD. Abstract.


 


Kautz, F.M., S.C. Nickerson, and L.O. Ely. 2105. Use of a staphylococcal vaccine to reduce prevalence of mastitis and lower somatic cell counts in a registered Saanen dairy goat herd. J. Dairy Sci. Abstract no. 627. Orlando, FL. Page 613 in: J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 93, Suppl. s3/J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 98, Suppl. 2. http://www.jtmtg.org/JAM/2015/abstracts/613.pdf.


 


Pighetti, G.M., C.S. Petersson-Wolfe^, J.M. Bewley^, S.C. Nickerson, S. Hill-Ward, A. De Vries, and S.P. Oliver. 2015. Southeast Quality Milk Initiative: Milk quality in the Southeast USA. National Mastitis Council Annual Meeting Proceedings, pp 213-214. Memphis, TN. February 1-3, 2015.


 


Pighetti, G.M., S.P. Oliver, R.A. Almeida, P.D. Krawczel, J.M. Fly, S.M. Schexnayder, C.S. Petersson-Wolfe^, J.M. Bewley^, L.E. Garkovich, D.M. Amaral-Phillips, L.M. Arnold, S.C. Nickerson, S. Hill-Ward, and A. De Vries.  2015.  Southeast Quality Milk Initiative: Milk Quality in the Southeast USA.  NMC Annual Meeting Proceedings, pp 209-210. Memphis, TN. February 1-3, 2015.


 


University of Idaho:



  1. Chen, K. C. Ramsey, C. Y. Tsai, M. A. McGuire, and P. Rezamand. 2016. Interaction among energy status, dietary protein, and vitamin A in periparturient dairy cows: Effects on milk fatty acid profile and gross milk yield efficiency. Dairy Sci. Vol. 99, (E-Suppl. 1):404.


University of Kentucky:


Bochantin, K. and J.M. Bewley. 2016. The importance of mastitis management practices in maintaining milk quality in the United States. Abstract 42. American Dairy Science Association Annual Meeting. Salt Lake City, Utah.


 


Nolan, D.T., C. Blakely, P. D. Krawczel, C. S. Petersson-Wolfe^, G. M. Pighetti, A. Stone, S. Ward, and J. M. Bewley. 2016. Perceived mastitis costs and milk quality management practices among Southeastern United States dairy producers. Abstract 585. American Dairy Science Association Annual Meeting. Salt Lake City, Utah.


 


Stone, A.E., C. Blakely, K. Bochantin, P. D. Krawczel, M. Myers, D. T. Nolan, C. S. Petersson-Wolfe^, G. M. Pighetti, S. Ward, and J. M. Bewley. Housing and demographic effects on somatic cell score in southeast United States dairies. Abstract 761. American Dairy Science Association Annual Meeting. Salt Lake City, Utah.


 


Lee, A.R., S.M. Smith, D.L. Ray, J.D. Clark, and J.M. Bewley. 2016. Effects of exit-lane water drenching using showers on lactating dairy cow vaginal temperature.     Abstract 1174. American Dairy Science Association Annual Meeting. Salt Lake City, Utah.


 


Nolan, D.T., J.M. Bewley. 2015. The effect of somatic cell score on milk yield of dairy cattle in the southeastern United States.  Abstract 93. Dairy Science Association Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL. (Oral)


 


Kawonga, B.S. and J.M. Bewley, 2015.  A cow cooling investment decision support tool for dairy farms in low and high humidity regions.  Abstract No. 813. American Dairy Science Association and American Society of Animal Science Joint Annual Meeting, July 12-16. Orlando Florida.


 


Eckelkamp, E.A., J.L. Taraba, R.J. Harmon, K.A. Akers, and J.M. Bewley. 2015. Comparison of mastitis, its indicators, and lameness in compost bedded pack and sand freestall farms.  European Federation of Animal Science Annual Meeting. Warsaw, Poland.


 


Bewley, J.M., R.A. Black, F.A. Damasceno, E.A. Eckelkamp, G.B. Day, and J.L. Taraba. 2015. Compost bedded pack barns as a lactating cow housing system. European Federation of Animal Science Annual Meeting. Warsaw, Poland.


 


Eckelkamp, E.A., J.L. Taraba, R.J. Harmon, K.A. Akers, and J.M. Bewley. 2015. Moisture, temperature, cow health, and bedding bacteria relationships in compost bedded pack barns. Abstract 275. American Dairy Science Association Annual Meeting. Orlando, FL.


 


Eckelkamp, E.A., J.L. Taraba, R.J. Harmon, K.A. Akers, and J.M. Bewley. 2015. Effect of compost bedded pack and sand bedded freestall housing on reported clinical mastitis incidence, mastitis infection prevalence, herd somatic cell count, and bulk tank somatic cell count. Abstract 4. National Mastitis Council 54th Annual Meeting Technology Transfer Session.  Memphis, TN.


 


University of Maryland:



  1. Garcia, Y. Qu, C.M. Scholte, D. O’Connor, W. Rounds and K.M. Moyes. 2016.


Regulatory effect of dietary intake of chromium propionate on function of monocyte-derived macrophages from Holstein cows in mid-lactation.  J. Dairy Sci. 99(Suppl 1): 737.


 



  1. Qu, T.H. Elsasser, M. Garcia, C.M. Scholte, E.E. Connor, J. Newbold and K.M. Moyes. 2016. The effects of short-term feeding of tocopherol mix (α-, β-, γ-, and δ) on blood neutrophil function and immunometabolic-related gene expression in lactating dairy cows.  J. Dairy Sci. 99(Suppl 1):57.


 


Scholte, C.M., Y. Qu, M. Garcia, T.H. Elsasser, D. Biswas and K.M. Moyes. 2016.


Effects of citral and linalool on blood neutrophil toxicity and oxidative response in dairy cows.   J. Dairy Sci. 99(Suppl 1):327.


 


M.A. Crookenden, C.G. Walker, A. Heiser, J.J. Loor^, K.M. Moyes, J.K. Kay, S. Meier,



  1. Murray, V.S.R. Dukkipati, M. Mitchell and J.R. Roche. 2016. miRNAseq from whole blood over the transition period. J. Dairy Sci. 99(Suppl 1):85.


 


University of Minnesota:


Godden, S.M., E. Royster, J. Timmerman, P. Rapnicki, and H. Green. 2016. Evaluation of an Automated Milk Leukocyte Differential Test for Detecting Intramammary Infection in Early and Late Lactation Quarters and Cows. Annu Mtg. of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners. Sept. 15-17, 2016. Charlotte, NC


Patel, K., S. Godden, E. Royster, J. Timmerman, B. Crooker, and N. McDonald. 2016. Pilot study: Evaluation of the effect of selective dry cow therapy on udder health.  In: Proc. Annu. Meeting of the Minnesota Dairy Health Conference. May 18-20, 2016. Bloomington, MN.


University of Missouri:


Adkins PRF, Middleton JR, Fox LK^.  2016.  Potential body site reservoirs for coagulase negative staphylococcal intramammary infection in heifers.  J Animal Sci.  94(supplement 2):33.


 


Quas ED, Bernier Gosselin V, Adkins PRF, Middleton JR.  2016.  Identifying coagulase negative staphylococcal species Isolated from dairy goat milk using MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry.  Proceedings of the 39th Annual CVM Research Day (Phi Zeta).  6 May 2016.  Abstract #6 – Veterinary Professional Student Oral Presentations.


 


Limberg E, Adkins PRF, Middleton JR.  2016.  Effect of freezing and storage time on culture yields of body site swabbing samples from dairy heifers.  Proceedings of the 39th Annual CVM Research Day (Phi Zeta).  6 May 2016.  Abstract #21 – Veterinary Professional Student Poster Presentations.


 


Bernier Gosselin V, Middleton JR, Quas E, Adkins PRF.  2016.  Persistence of intramammary infection by coagulase negative staphylococcal species in dairy goats.  Proceedings of the 39th Annual CVM Research Day (Phi Zeta).  6 May 2016.  Abstract #19 – 2nd and 3rd Year Resident & Graduate Student Oral Presentations.


 


Arroyo G, Adkins PRF, Fox LK^, Middleton JR.  2016.  Comparison of MALDI-TOF and PFGE for strain-typing Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cow’s milk.  Veterinary Research Scholars Symposium, Ohio State University, 28-31 July 2016.


 


Cornell University (New York):


Troendle, J., Tauer, L.W.,  Gröhn, Y.T.: Optimally achieving milk bulk tank somatic cell count thresholds, 2016 AAEA Annual Meeting in Boston, MA, July 31-August 2. 


Oregon State University:


Richards, S. G., et al. (2014). "Effect of 2,4-thiazolidinedione treatment in milk production and leukocytes phagocytosis after sub-clinical mastitis induction in lactating dairy goats." J Dairy Sci 97(E-Suppl. 1): 419-420.


Rosa, F., et al. (2015). 2,4-thiazolidinedione improves liver function but does not affect insulin sensitivity and expression of genes in adipose and mammary tissue of lactating dairy goats. 2015 Joint Annual Meeting, Orlando, FL.


Rosa, F., et al. (2016). Effect of 2,4-thiazolidinedione treatment in the inflammatory response to induced sub-clinical mastitis in dairy goats receiving adequate vitamin supplementation. 2016 Joint Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT.


University of Vermont:


Korkmaz, F.T. and D.E. Kerr. 2016.  Identifying DNA methylation Differences That Contribute to an Age-Dependent Increase in Bovine Innate Immunity Using Reduced Representation Bisulfite Sequencing and the Dermal Fibroblast Model. 35th International Society for Animal Genetics Conference. Salt Lake, UT.


Mugabi, R. and Barlow, J.W. 2015. Biofilm formation is clonally specific among Staphylococcus aureus isolated from selected Vermont dairy farms. 116th General Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology, Boston, Massachusetts.


Washington State University:


Arroyo, G.T., P.R. Adkins, L.K. Fox, J.R. Middleton^. 2016.  Comparison of MALDI-Tof and PFGE for strain-typing Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cow’s milk Merial 27th Annual Veterinary Scholars Symposium, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.


Enger, B.D., R.R. White, S.C. Nickerson^, and L.K. Fox. 2016.  Factors influencing new intramammary infection rate in teat dip efficacy trials by meta-analysis. Proceedings of the NMC 55th Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ. pages 100-102


Enger,B.D., R. R. White, S. C. Nickerson^, and L. K. Fox. 2016.  Meta-analysis of factors influencing new intramammary infection rate in experimental challenge teat dip efficacy trials. J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 99, E-Suppl. 1, number 126.


 


Enger,B.D., R. R. White, S. C. Nickerson^, and L. K. Fox. 2016.  Meta-analysis of factors influencing new intramammary infection rate in natural exposure  teat dip efficacy trials. J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 99, E-Suppl. 1, number 754.


 


Conference Proceedings


University of Georgia:


Nickerson, S. C. 2016. Benefits of fly control in dairy heifers. Invited Symposium Paper presented in: Strategies for Managing Heifers in the Southeast. ADSA Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT. July 20, 2016. Page 26 in: J. Anim. Sci. Vol. 94, E-Suppl. 5/J. Dairy Sci. Vol. 99, E-Suppl. 1.


University of Maine:


Lichtenwalner, A. Bedding Choices for Mastitis Prevention.  Feb. 2-4, 2016. Mastitis Research Workers Conference, Glendale AZ.


University of Maryland:


 


C.M. Scholte, D.C. Nelson, T.H. Elsasser, S. Kahl, E.E. Connor, Y. Qu and K.M. Moyes.  2016.  Recombinant bacteriophage endolysin, PlyC, is non-toxic and does not alter blood neutrophil oxidative response in lactating dairy cows.  in Natl. Mastitis Counc. Ann.  Mtg. Proc., Glendale, AZ.  Natl. Mastitis Counc., Inc., Madison, WI.


 


Michigan State University:


Erskine, R.J.  How Can We Engage Dairy Employees? Southeast Quality Milk Initiative Annual Meeting, Russellville, KY, November, 2015.


 


Erskine R. J. The Quality Milk Alliance: Building the science classroom. Seminar presented to the General Session, 55th Annual Mtng National Mastitis Council, Glendale, AZ, February, 2016.


Erskine, R. J., M. Borek-Stine, and R. Moore. Engaged employees: The connection between protocols and performance. Short course presented at the 55th Annual Mtng National Mastitis Council, Glendale, AZ, February, 2016.


Erskine, R.J. Let the Cows Vote on Milking Protocols. Presented to The Progressive Dairy Operators of Canada, Toronto, ON, March, 2016.   


Erskine, R.J. 1) Applying pharmacology on a dairy farm, 2) Dumpster diving, somatic cell counts, and employee incentives: A Quality Milk Alliance potpourri, and 3) Bovine Leukemia Virus, is it a problem? Or not?  Seminars presented to the Pennsylvania Veterinary Medical Association, Spring Clinic, State College, PA, May, 2016.  


University of Minnesota:


Godden, S., E. Royster, K. Patel, and J. Timmerman. 2016. Selective dry cow therapy – We can do this! Proc. National Mastitis Council 2016 Regional Meeting. June 29-30, 2016. Appleton, WI.  Pp. 8-15.


University of Missouri:


Adkins PRF, Middleton JR.  2016.  Molecular characterization of coagulase negative staphylococci from heifer intramammary infections and potential body site reservoirs.  Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the National Mastitis Council, Glendale, AZ.  Jan 31 – Feb 2.


 


Bernier Gosselin V, Adkins PRF, Middleton JR.  2016.  Prevalence of coagulase negative staphylococcal species intramammary infection in dairy goats.  Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the National Mastitis Council, Glendale, AZ.  Jan 31 – Feb 2.


 


Lopez-Benavides M, Romero-Saurez S, Henderson M, Adkins EC, Denbigh J, Middleton JR.  2016.  Iodide residues in bulk tank milk when using iodine and non-iodine pre-milking teat disinfectants.  Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the National Mastitis Council, Glendale, AZ.  Jan 31 – Feb 2.


 


Lopez-Benavides M, Vandaveer W, Leibowitz S, Adkins EC, Denbigh J, Middleton JR.  2016.  Glycolic acid is present in bulk tank milk when using non-glycolic acid and glycolic acid based teat disinfectants.  Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the National Mastitis Council, Glendale, AZ.  Jan 31 – Feb 2.


 


Cornell University (New York):


 


Moroni P., Gioia G., Kolar Q., Mock L., Ospina P., Plumed-Ferrer C., Rauch B., Santisteban C., Scillieri Smith J., Virkler P., Watters R., Welcome F., Zurakoswski M., and Nydam D. Emerging pathogens: the last information on Klebsiella, Prototheca and Lactococci. Proceeding of the 54nd  National Mastitis Council Annual Meeting pp.37- 49. February 1-3, 2015, Menphis, Tennesse.


Short course “Emerging mastitis pathogens: Klebsiella, Prototheca, Mycoplasma and Other Streptococci. National Mastitis Council Regional Meeting pp.10-16. July 28-29, 2015, Syracuse, New York.


Pennsylvania State University:


 


Hovingh, E.P.  Use of a four-channel vacuum recording device for monitoring and diagnosing milk equipment and milking procedures abnormalities. 2016. Florida Dairy Summit, Gainesville, FL.  February 11, 2016. (Conference presentation)


Utah State University:


Britten JE, Wilson DJ, Rood KA: The intramammary use of casein hydrolysate for cessation of lactation in a single quarter. Proc 55th Ann Mtg Natl Mast Council:120-121, 2016.


Wilson DJ, Rood KA, Whitehouse C, Bunnell J, Goodell GM, Byrem TM: Johne’s disease and Bovine Viral Diarrhea bulk milk surveillance in the Western U.S. - regional prevalence and positive farm characteristics. Proc XXIX World Assoc Buiatrics: 369, 2016.


Kelly EJ, Wilson DJ: Pseudomonas aeruginosa mastitis in two goats associated with contaminated essential-oil based teat dip. Proc 59th Ann Conf Am Assoc Vet Lab Diag: 181, 2016.


Wilson DJ, Rood KA, LaRose JP, Wang Z: Holstein single nucleotide polymorphisms analyzed by genome wide association study for associations with mastitis resistance and susceptibility. Proc 59th Ann Conf Am Assoc Vet Lab Diag: 70, 2016.


University of Wisconsin:


 


Fuenzalida, M. J., C. Baumberger, and P. L. Ruegg. 2016. Preliminary results of a clinical trial evaluating effects of treatment of culture negative cases of clinical mastitis on somatic cell count and bacteriological outcomes. Pages112—113 in National Mastitis Council Annual Meeting Proceedings, Glendale, AZ.


 


International:


 


University of Montreal


Francoz, D., Wellemans, V., Dupré, J.P., Roy, J.P., Labelle, F., Karreman, H., Lacasse, P., Dufour, S., 2016. A systematic review of non-antimicrobial treatments of clinical mastitis in dairy cows. In, 2nd Canadian organic science conference, Montréal-Longueuil, QC, Canada.


Francoz, D., Wellemans, V., Dupré, J.P., Roy, J.P., Labelle, F., Karreman, H., Lacasse, P., Dufour, S., 2016. A systematic review of non-antimicrobial treatments of clinical mastitis in dairy cows. In, World buiatric congress, Dublin, Ireland.


Jamali, H., Barkema, H.W.^, Jacques, M., Lavallée-Bourget, E.M., Malouin, F., Saini, V., Stryhn, H., Dufour, S., 2016. A systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical mastitis recurrence in dairy cows. In, World buiatric congress, Dublin, Ireland.


Jamali, H., Barkema, H.W.^ Jacques, M., Malouin, F., Saini, V., Stryhn, H., Dufour, S., 2016. Clinical mastitis recurrence in dairy cows. In, NMC 55th annual meeting, Glendale, Arizona, USA.


Belage, E., Kelton, D.F., Bauman, C., Dufour, S., 2016. National dairy study - A focus on Udder Health and Milking management on Canadian dairy farms. In, The 2016 meeting of the Canadian Association of Veterinary Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Guelph, ON, Canada.


 


Poster Presentations


University of Georgia:


Enger, B.D., R.R. White, S.C. Nickerson, and L.K. Fox^. 2016. Factors influencing new intramammary infection rate in teat dip efficacy trials by meta-analysis. Poster and oral presentation. National Mastitis Council Technology Transfer Session and Research Development Session. NMC 55th Annual Meeting, January 31-February 2, 2016, Glendale, Arizona.


University of Idaho:



  1. Chen, K. C. Ramsey, C. Y. Tsai, M. A. McGuire, and P. Rezamand. 2016. Interaction among energy status, dietary protein, and vitamin A in periparturient dairy cows: Effects on milk fatty acid profile and gross milk yield efficiency. The 2016 Joint Annual Meetings, Salt Lake, Utah.


Michigan State University:


Moore, R. and R. J. Erskine. Let the cows score the milking protocols. Poster presented at the 55th Annual Mtng National Mastitis Council, Glendale, AZ, February,2016.


University of Minnesota:


Patel, K., S. Godden, E. Royster, J. Timmerman, B. Crooker, and N. McDonald. Pilot study: Evaluation of the effect of selective dry cow therapy on udder health. University of Minnesota College of Veterinary Medicine Points of Pride Research Day. Oct. 5, 2016.


University of Missouri:


Limberg E, Adkins PRF, Middleton JR.  2016.  Effect of freezing and storage time on culture yields of body site swabbing samples from dairy heifers.  Proceedings of the 39th Annual CVM Research Day (Phi Zeta).  6 May 2016.  Abstract #21 – Veterinary Professional Student Poster Presentations.


 


Arroyo G, Adkins PRF, Fox LK^, Middleton JR.  2016.  Comparison of MALDI-TOF and PFGE for strain-typing Staphylococcus aureus isolated from cow’s milk.  Veterinary Research Scholars Symposium, Ohio State University, 28-31 July 2016.


 


Adkins PRF, Middleton JR.  2016.  Molecular characterization of coagulase negative staphylococci from heifer intramammary infections and potential body site reservoirs.  Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the National Mastitis Council, Glendale, AZ.  Jan 31 – Feb 2.


 


Bernier Gosselin V, Adkins PRF, Middleton JR.  2016.  Prevalence of coagulase negative staphylococcal species intramammary infection in dairy goats.  Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the National Mastitis Council, Glendale, AZ.  Jan 31 – Feb 2.


 


Lopez-Benavides M, Romero-Saurez S, Henderson M, Adkins EC, Denbigh J, Middleton JR.  2016.  Iodide residues in bulk tank milk when using iodine and non-iodine pre-milking teat disinfectants.  Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the National Mastitis Council, Glendale, AZ.  Jan 31 – Feb 2.


 


Lopez-Benavides M, Vandaveer W, Leibowitz S, Adkins EC, Denbigh J, Middleton JR.  2016.  Glycolic acid is present in bulk tank milk when using non-glycolic acid and glycolic acid based teat disinfectants.  Proceedings of the 55th Annual Meeting of the National Mastitis Council, Glendale, AZ.  Jan 31 – Feb 2.


 


Rutgers University (New Jersey):


Poster. Rosario-Cruz Z*., Gandhi S., Boyd JM.  Copper homeostasis in Staphylococcus aureus. American Society of Microbiology National Meeting. New Orleans, LA  2015.


Poster. Rosario-Cruz Z*., Gandhi S., Boyd JM.  Copper homeostasis in Staphylococcus aureus. Meeting of the New Jersey Antimicrobial Resistance Working Group. Piscataway, NJ  2015.


Poster. Mashruwala A.A., van de Guchte, A., Boyd JM.  Cellular respiration as a trigger for multicellular behavior in Staphylococcus aureus.  Meeting of the New Jersey Antimicrobial Resistance Working Group. Piscataway, NJ  2015.


Poster. Mashruwala A.A., van de Guchte*, A., Roberts C., Eveleigh D.E., Boyd JM, Microbes, Miracles, Medicine—A history of antibiotics at Rutgers.  Meeting of the New Jersey Antimicrobial Resistance Working Group. Piscataway, NJ  2015.


Poster. Bernhardt, C., and Boyd JM. investigating of how Zinc and Tin inhibit Streptococcus mutans.  Aresty Undergraduate Research Symposium.  New Brunswick, NJ 2016.


Poster. Mashruwala A., Earle,C., van de Guchte A., and Boyd JM.  Regulation of Clp proteases by SrrAB in Staphylococcus aureus. New Jersey American Society of Microbiology Meeting in Miniature (Theobald Smith Society). New Brunswick, NJ  2016.


Poster. Roberts C., Jasim H., Mashruwala A.A., Rosario-Cruz Z*. Sause W., Torres V., Boyd JM.  The Suf iron-sulfur cluster biosynthetic system is essential for Staphylococcus aureus viability and decreased Suf function results in global metabolic defects and decreased survival in human neutrophils. New Jersey American Society of Microbiology Meeting in Miniature (Theobald Smith Society). New Brunswick, NJ  2016.


Poster.  Al-Tameemi, H.M.*, Mashruwala A.A., Tanner A.W., Carabetta, V.J., Dubnau, D., Boyd J.M.  The YaaT, YlbF, and YmcA proteins are necessary for sporulation in Bacillus subtilis, but what are their functions in the non-sporulating bacterium Staphylococcus aureus? New Jersey American Society of Microbiology Meeting in Miniature (Theobald Smith Society). New Brunswick, NJ  2016.


Poster. Mashruwala A., Earle,C., van de Guchte A., and Boyd JM.  Regulation of Clp proteases by SrrAB in Staphylococcus aureus.  Joint molecular biosciences graduate student association meeting.  Rutgers University. 2016


Poster. Roberts C., Jasim H., Mashruwala A.A., Rosario-Cruz Z*. Sause W., Torres V., Boyd JM.  The Suf iron-sulfur cluster biosynthetic system is essential for Staphylococcus aureus viability and decreased Suf function results in global metabolic defects and decreased survival in human neutrophils. Joint molecular biosciences graduate student association meeting.  Rutgers University. 2016


Poster.  Al-Tameemi, H.M., Mashruwala A.A., Tanner A.W., Carabetta, V.J.,  Dubnau, D., Boyd JM.  The YaaT, YlbF, and YmcA proteins are necessary for sporulation in Bacillus subtilis, but what are their functions in the non-sporulating bacterium Staphylococcus aureus? Joint molecular biosciences graduate student association meeting.  Rutgers University. 2016


Poster.  Rosario-Cruz Z* Liu G., Montelione G., Boyd JM. The ACME Encoded copBcbl operon protects Staphylococcus aureus from copper intoxication: Cbl is an extracellular membrane-associated copper-binding protein. Joint molecular biosciences graduate student association meeting.  Rutgers University. 2016.


Poster. Mashruwala A., Earle,C.*, van de Guchte A., and Boyd JM.  Regulation of Clp proteases by SrrAB in Staphylococcus aureus. Rutgers Microbiology symposium. Rutgers University 2016


Poster.  Rosario-Cruz Z., Liu G., Montelione G., Boyd JM. The ACME Encoded copBcbl operon protects Staphylococcus aureus from copper intoxication: Cbl is an extracellular membrane-associated copper-binding protein. Rutgers Microbiology symposium. Rutgers University 2016


Poster.  Al-Tameemi, H.M., Mashruwala A.A., Tanner A.W., Carabetta, V.J., Dubnau, D., Boyd JM.  The YaaT, YlbF, and YmcA proteins are necessary for sporulation in Bacillus subtilis, but what are their functions in the non-sporulating bacterium Staphylococcus aureus? Rutgers Microbiology symposium. Rutgers University 2016


Poster. Roberts C., Jasim H., Mashruwala A.A., Rosario-Cruz Z*. Sause W., Torres V., Boyd JM.  The Suf iron-sulfur cluster biosynthetic system is essential for Staphylococcus aureus viability and decreased Suf function results in global metabolic defects and decreased survival in human neutrophils. Rutgers Microbiology symposium. Rutgers University 2016


Poster.  Mashruwala A.A., Bhatt S., Boyd JM. The Duf59 containing protein SufT is required for the maturation of iron-sulfur (FeS) proteins during condictions of high FeS cofactor demand in Staphylococcus aureus.  Rutgers Microbiology symposium. Rutgers University 2016.


Cornell University (New York):


Scillieri Smith J., Moroni P., Santisteban C., Rauch B., Warner B., and Nydam D. Lactococcus and other organisms we are calling “Other Streptococci”: an investigation in Northern New York. National Mastitis Council Regional Meeting pp.10-16. July 28-29, 2015, Syracuse, New York.


Barberio A., Natale A., Ceglie L., Guerrini E., Zuliani F., Lucchese L., Capello K.,  and Moroni P. Patterns of Coxiella burnetii shedding in cow and goat milk. Proceeding of the 54nd  National Mastitis Council Annual Meeting pp.187-188. February 1-3, 2015, Menphis, Tennesse.


Utah State University:


 


Kelly EJ, Wilson DJ: Pseudomonas aeruginosa mastitis in two goats associated with contaminated essential-oil based teat dip.  Am Assoc Vet Lab Diag, Greensboro, NC, 2016.


University of Wisconsin:


 


Fuenzalida, M. J., C. Baumberger, and P. L. Ruegg. 2016. Preliminary results of clinical outcomes of treated and non-treated culture negative cases of clinical mastitis. Poster presentation at Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation, Discovery Challenge, Univ. Wisconsin, Madison


 


International:


University of Montreal


Aghamohammadi, M., Kelton, D.F., Barkema, H.W.^, Hogeveen, H., Keefe, G.P., Singh, K., Dufour, S., 2016. Mastitis associated economic loss in Canadian dairy farms. In, World buiatric congress, Dublin, Ireland.


Skoulikas, S., Dufour, S., Haine, D., Perreault, J.Y., Roy, J.P., 2016. Early lactation extended therapy against Staphylococcus aureus intramammary infections in heifers: a randomized controlled trial. In, World buiatric congress, Dublin, Ireland.


Krug, C., DeVries, T.J., Morin, P.A., Roy, J.P., Dubuc, J., Dufour, S., 2016. Validation of the algometer for measuring udder discomfort in postpartum lactating dairy cows. In, World buiatric congress, Dublin, Ireland.


Belage, E., Kelton, D.F., Bauman, C., Dufour, S., 2016. National Dairy Study – A Focus On Udder Health And Milking Management on Canadian Farms In, NMC 55th Annual Meeting, Glendale, AZ, USA.


*bold = technical member for the station


^Scientist from an NE-1048 Experimental Research Station


2014:


Peer-Reviewed Literature


Connecticut:


Wichmann F, Udikovic-Kolic N, Andrew S, Handelsman J. 2014. Diverse antibiotic resistance genes in dairy cow manure. mBio 5(2):e01017-13. doi:10.1128/mBio.01017-13


Michigan:


Kabara, E. L.M. Sordillo, S. Holcombe, and G.A. Contreras. 2014. Adiponectin links adipose tissue function and monocyte inflammatory responses during bovine metabolic stress. Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 37:49-58.


Mattmiller, S.A., B.A. Carlson, J.C. Gandy, and L.M. Sordillo. 2014. Reduced macrophage selenoportein expression alters oxidized lipid metabolite biosynthesis from arachidonic and linoleic acid.  J. Nutr. Biochem. 25: 647-654.


Raphael, W., L. Halbert, G.A. Contreras, and L.M. Sordillo. 2014. Association between polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived oxylipid biosynthesis and leukocyte inflammatory marker expression in periparturient dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 97: 3615-3625.


Missouri:


Calcutt MJ, Foecking MF, Hsieh HY, Perry J, Stewart GC, Middleton JR.  2013.  Genome sequence analysis of Staphylococcus equorum bovine mastitis isolate UMC-CNS-924.  Genome Announc.  Oct 17;1(5). pii: e00840-13. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00840-13.


Calcutt MJ, Foecking MF, Hsieh HY, Perry J, Stewart GC, Middleton JR.  2013.  Draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus simulans UMC-CNS-990, isolated from a case of chronic bovine mastitis.  Genome Announc.  Dec 12;1(6).  pii: e01037-13. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.01037-13.


Fry PR, Middleton JR, Dufour S, Perry J, Scholl D, Dohoo I.  2014.  Association of coagulase negative staphylococcal species, mammary quarter milk somatic cell count, and persistence of intramammary infection in dairy cattle.  J Dairy Sci.  97(8):4876-4885.  [Epub ahead of print 12 Jun 2014].


Fry PR, Calcutt MJ, Foecking MF, Hsieh HY, Suntrup D, Perry J, Stewart GC, Middleton JR.  2014.  Draft genome sequence of Staphylococcus chromogenes MU-970 isolated from a case of chronic bovine mastitis.  Genome Announc.   August 14;2(4).  pii: e00835-14. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00835-14.


Calcutt MJ, Foecking MF, Fry PR, Hsieh HY, Perry J, Stewart GC, Scholl DT, Messier S, Middleton JR.  2014.  Draft genome sequence of bovine mastitis isolate Staphylococcus agnetis CBMRN 20813338.  Genome Announc.  Sept 4:2(5).  pii: e00883-14. doi: 10.1128/genomeA.00883-14.


Utah:


Wilson DJ, Rood KA, Bunnell J, Whitehouse C, Byrem TM, Goodell GM:  Johne’s disease, mycoplasma and BVD in Utah - bulk tank milk testing and comparison to previous regional prevalence and individual herd results over time. J Veterinar Sci Technol 5:3:1-7, 2014.


Vermont:


Green, B.B., and D.E. Kerr. 2014. Epigenetic contribution to individual variation in response to lipopolysaccharide in bovine dermal fibroblasts. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 157:49-58.


Virginia:


Kanevsky-Mullarky, I., A. Nedrow, S. Garst, W. Wark, M. Dickenson, C. Petersson-Wolfe and R. Zadoks. 2014. Comparison of virulence factors in Klebsiella pneumonia strains associated with multiple or singles cases of mastitis. J. Dairy Sci. Apr;97(4):2213-8.


Neal S., W. Wark, S. Garst, R. James, M. McGilliard, C. Petersson-Wolfe, and I. Kanevsky-Mullarky. Impact of feeding whole as compared to cell-free colostrum on calf immune status. I. The neonatal period. J. Dairy Science. Accepted.


Books


Michigan:


Ruegg PL, RJ Erskine and DE Morin. 2014. Mammary Gland Health. In Large Animal Internal Medicine, 5th edition, BP Smith, editor, pp. 1015-1043.


Abstracts


Kentucky:


Lowe, J.L., K.A. Akers, A.E. Sterrett, J.D. Clark, and J.M. Bewley. 2014. Case study: Effect of alley floor scraping frequency on environmental mastitis-causing pathogen counts. Abstract 29.  American Dairy Science Association Annual Meeting. Kansas City, MO.


Nolan, D.T. and J.M. Bewley. 2014. A decision support tool to estimate the economic potential of SCC hot sheet data. Abstract 289. American Dairy Science Association Annual Meeting. Kansas City, MO.


Eckelkamp, E.A., J. L. Taraba, R. J. Harmon, K. A. Akers, and J.M. Bewley. 2014. Somatic cell counts, mastitis infection prevalence, and mastitis pathogen distribution in compost bedded pack and sand freestall farms. Abstract 557. American Dairy Science Association Annual Meeting. Kansas City, MO.


Nolan, D.T., M.J. Bakke, and J.M. Bewley. 2014.  Comparison of milk components before and after passing through a novel inline milk filter. Abstract 1504. American Dairy Science Association Annual Meeting. Kansas City, MO.


Sterrett, A.E., B.A. Wadsworth, K. Akers,  J.D. Clark, C.L. Wood, K.J. McQuerry, R.J. Harmon, L.M. Arnold, W.J. Silvia, and J.M. Bewley.  2014. Milk yield, reticulorumen temperature, rumination time, and neck activity changes around mastitis. Abstract 62. NMC Regional Meeting


Missouri:


Webster RN, Finger AM, Fry PR, Middleton JR.  2014.  Identification of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species in dairy heifer calves and their environments.  MU Life Sciences Week.  April 14-19, 2014.


 


Finger AM, Webster RN, Fry PR, Middleton JR.  2014.  Identification of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus species in dairy heifer calves and their environments.  Phi Zeta Research Day.  May 9, 2014.  Columbia, MO.  Abstract #2.


 


Fry PR, Middleton JR, Fox LK.  2014. Identification of Staphyococcus aureus genotype B among staphylococci isolated from cases of subclinical bovine mastitis in the USA.  Phi Zeta Research Day.  May 9, 2014.  Columbia, MO.  Abstract #12.


 


Fry PR, Middleton JR, Fox LK.  2014.  Genotyping staphylococci from cases of subclinical mastitis previously identified as Staphylococcus hyicusJ Vet Int Med 28(3):1127.


 


Walljasper N, Fry PR, Middleton JR.  2014.  Understanding Coagulase-negative Staphylococcal Mastitis in Dairy Heifers.  Veterinary Research Scholars Symposium, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.  July 31 – August 3.


 


Cline T, Fry PR, Ericsson A, Middleton JR.  2014.  Comparison of Milk and Udder Skin Microbiota of Dairy Heifers.  Veterinary Research Scholars Symposium, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.  July 31 – August 3.


 


Vermont:


Kerr, D.E. 2014. Understanding animal-to-animal variation in disease management. ADSA-ASAS Joint Annual Meeting (JAM). Kansas City, MO.


 


Green, B.B., S.D. McKay, and D. E. Kerr. 2014. Age dependent changes in heifer fibroblast DNA methylation and LPS-induced gene expression. ADSA-ASAS Joint Annual Meeting (JAM). Kansas City, MO.


 


Benjamin, A.L., W.J. Weber, S.D. McKay, B.A. Crooker, and D.E. Kerr. 2014. Investigating innate immune response differences between Angus and Holstein cattle with the dermal fibroblast model. ADSA-ASAS Joint Annual Meeting (JAM). Kansas City, MO.


 


Elsasser, T.H., S. Kahl, D.E. Kerr, E. Zudaire, and F. Cuttitta. 2014. Proinflammatory Responses of a hTERT-Transformed, Immortalized Line of Cultured Bovine Mammary Epithelial cells (BME). ADSA-ASAS Joint Annual Meeting (JAM). Kansas City, MO.


 


Conference Proceedings


Michigan:


Erskine, R.J. and J.R. Middleton. 2014. Failure of Mastitis Therapy: Is it the Bugs, Drugs, or Us?  Shortcourse presented at the 53rd Annual Mtng National Mastitis Council, Ft Worth, TX, January. 


Erskine, R.J. 2014.   Don’t Forget Antibiotic Residues….and Other Related Topics. Great Lakes Regional Dairy Conference, Mt Pleasant, MI, February.


Erskine, R.J.  2014. Who is Making the Treatment Decisions on the Dairy Farm?            Michigan Dairy Industry Conference, Frankenmuth, MI,  May.


Erskine, R.J. and J.R. Middleton. 2014. Failure of Mastitis Therapy: Is it the Bugs, Drugs

Attachments

Land Grant Participating States/Institutions

CT, IA, IL, KS, KY, LA, MD, ME, MI, MN, MO, MS, NC, NJ, NY, OR, PA, TN, UT, VA, VT, WA, WI

Non Land Grant Participating States/Institutions

University of Montreal, University of Saskatchewan
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