WERA20: Virus and Virus-Like Diseases of Berries, Fruit and Nut Trees, and Grapevines.

(Multistate Research Coordinating Committee and Information Exchange Group)

Status: Inactive/Terminating

WERA20: Virus and Virus-Like Diseases of Berries, Fruit and Nut Trees, and Grapevines.

Duration: 10/01/2016 to 09/30/2021

Administrative Advisor(s):

NIFA Reps:

Statement of Issues and Justification

The membership of WERA-0020 represents plant virologists and pathologists focused on diseases of major specialty crops that occupy a significant portion of U.S. agriculture. Specialty crops, defined as “fruits and vegetables, tree nuts, dried fruits, and horticulture and nursery crops (including floriculture),” comprise a major part of U.S. agriculture. In 2012, the value of farm-level specialty crop production totaled nearly $60 billion, representing about one fourth of the value of U.S. crops (CRS from USDA, 2012 Census of Agriculture, Table 2, Market Value of Agricultural Products Sold). The impact of this production on the U.S. economy is further amplified by the multiplier effect through agriculture-related industries such as spray, fertilizer, equipment, transportation, marketing and processing. The weight of growing medical evidence demonstrates that fruit consumption helps prevent nutrient deficiencies and reductions in the risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer has influenced the expansion of all aspects of the fruit industry.

One of the primary concerns of the specialty crop industry is a group of systemic pathogens for which there are no effective remedies once plants are infected. These pathogens include viruses, viroids, phytoplasmas and systemic bacterial pathogens that cost producers and consumers billions of dollars (is there a reference to billions as above?). Additionally, these pathogens and diseases require expensive management and control procedures at nurseries and by producers locally and nationally.

For some crops such as berries, fruit and nut trees and grapevine, historical records provide accounts of the disastrous results and great expense of introducing new pathogens into plant propagation material. Plants infected with systemic pathogens exhibit phenotypes ranging from asymptomatic to severe decline and death. Symptoms depend on a multitude of factors, including pathogen strain, host genotype, environment, and presence of mixed infections with other pathogens. Infected hosts may be asymptomatic as plants grown in optimal conditions in nurseries, but when exposed to field stresses, the plants may establish poorly, decline, or not produce lower quantity and quality fruit. Importantly, monitoring of visual symptoms may lead to misdiagnosis, as different virus species or virus complexes often cause identical symptoms.

Infected, asymptomatic plants may be selected for cultivation inadvertently or deliberately by breeders and nurseries. Whereas these tolerant selections provide a potential means of circumventing the effects of infection, their use is problematic as they may display symptoms during field growth and production, induce a synergistic response when infected with other pathogens or serve as a reservoir of infection that may be transmitted to other, less tolerant genotypes. It is important to note that mixed infections by two or more viruses that are latent in single infections may lead to severe symptoms or even plant mortality.

In addition to transmission via vegetative propagation and grafting, systemic pathogens may also be transmitted by vectors, including arthropods (aphids, mites, thrips, beetles, hoppers, psyllids, mealybugs and whiteflies), nematodes, and plasmodiophorids. A vector usually transmits a pathogen with a high degree of specificity, and thus vector control strategies can frequently be implemented as an effective means of disease management. Some epiphytotics have resulted from the introduction of a new vector into a region where the pathogen is already present. For example, citrus tristeza virus (CTV) became an economically important pathogen in South America after the introduction of an efficient aphid vector, Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy). Little cherry virus 2 eliminated sweet cherry production from important growing areas of British Columbia after the introduction of the apple mealybug (Phenacoccus aceris Signoret). Similarly, Pierce’s disease, caused by the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, became more prevalent in California vineyards after the introduction of the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar)) whereas grapevine leafroll spread more rapidly in California after the introduction of the vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus Signoret) due to its rapid, proliferative reproduction in comparison to native mealybug species. Vector exclusion or control on a regional or national level can be an important consideration when managing the spread of vector-transmitted pathogens in nurseries and production fields.

One dramatic historical example can be illustrated by the sweet cherry industry on the west coast. In the 1940s, severe disease problems plagued Washington and California growers. Serious virus diseases affected 7.1% of all sweet cherry trees in Washington State and 35% of these trees were removed each year in an attempt to stop disease spread and to restore production. This level of tree removal translates to a loss to growers of more than 50% of the total farm gate value of production arising from the cost of tree removal, replanting and lost fruit yield. The unsustainable level of income loss was addressed by the creation of clean plant programs, and by research projects that provide a better understanding of the pathogens and the vectors that transmit them. These programs significantly reduce damage by viruses. It is estimated that the loss of value of the sweet cherry crop due to viruses was down to approximately 1.9% in 2003.

Diseases caused by virus and virus-like organisms continue to be significant factors affecting berries, fruit and nut trees and grapevine industries in the United States and Canada and new disease threats continue to emerge. The principal means of long-distance spread of these pathogens is through movement of infected propagation material. Once these pathogens are introduced into a new area, they can spread within a field and region by naturally occurring or invasive vectors. Further efforts are needed to help the affected industries remain competitive in the international market place. This project contributes to that goal by providing a forum for information exchange at annual meetings and by establishing contacts that encourage communication and collaboration for containing the spread of debilitating diseases.

WERA-0020 is uniquely positioned to provide rapid access to expertise to address the changing landscape of diseases caused by viruses and virus-like agents. WERA-0020 brings together research, extension, and state and federal regulatory activities on economically important fruit crops so these activities are sustained despite a critical mass of researchers that is woefully insufficient for the needs of the industries. WERA-0020 is effective in providing information and solutions to disease problems and transferring technologies between states and across provincial borders. Many of the solutions for the detection, identification, and management of viral diseases are similar in all of the crops represented by WERA 0020. Open discussion between members and guests of all facets of virus disease control generate and stimulate appropriate approaches for solving disease management problems. The Farm Bill - H.R. 6124 Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 established the National Clean Plant Network (NCPN), a partnership among clean plant centers and state and federal regulatory agencies to provide propagation material of perennial specialty crops throughout the U.S. Thus, the goals of WERA-0020 and the NCPN are parallel and assist specialty crop management to reduce the economic impact of virus threats. WERA-0020 is assisting the NCPN by locating and maintaining voucher samples of many diseases in research collections and by identifying pathogens of regional concern for consideration by the NCPN. The research produced by the WERA-0020 membership contributes directly to improved diagnostic capabilities of clean plant centers functioning within the NCPN and developing strategies for mitigating the negative impacts of virus and virus-like diseases.

Related, Current and Previous Work

Crop loss due to virus-induced disease is dynamic: management strategies are developed for some diseases while other diseases emerge. The worldwide movement of plant products exposes specialty crop production areas to new disease pressures. Rapid changes in disease pressure are also being imposed by changes in populations of the insects that transmit disease. Transient or long term changes in weather patterns and changes in horticultural practices are resulting in vector population shifts, and the rapid movement of goods around the globe can quickly disseminate insect vectors into new production areas. This is exemplified by some examples of disastrous introductions over the past twenty years. Globally, the aphid-transmitted plum pox virus is the most economically important virus of stone fruits. The discovery of this virus in North America for the first time in the U.S. in 1999 and in Canada in 2000 had an immediate impact on the tree fruit and nursery industries. As of 2010, more than $120 million and $180 million have been spent in the U.S. and Canada, respectively, in attempts to detect, eradicate, and/or manage the virus. Yet the source of the introduction into North America remains unknown. The accidental introduction of the glassy winged sharp shooter into California in 1990 caused devastation of the grape industry in the southernmost counties of the state by transmitting the bacterial agent causing Pierces disease that existed in the area. Citrus greening is one of the more serious diseases of citrus. The vector of this disease, Asian citrus psyllid, was introduced into the southeast U.S. in 1998 and is now present in more than a dozen states. The bacterial pathogen that causes citrus greening was detected in 2005 and action is being aggressively pursued to prevent the psyllid vector from spreading the disease beyond its current limits. Other disease issues evolved over many years. CTV is a major limitation to citrus production worldwide and efforts to control this disease in California and Arizona have been critical to maintaining the viability of this fruit tree industry in the western United States. Raspberry bushy dwarf virus causes serious yield and quality losses in Rubus spp. and Blueberry scorch carlavirus is emerging as a major disease problem for blueberry production in the Pacific Northwestern and Northeastern U.S. Western X disease, pear decline, and peach yellow leafroll are diseases caused by phytoplasmas and seriously reduce the production of stone and pome fruits in the western region of the U.S. These and other phytoplasmas cause diseases that are also associated with the eastern peach industry (yellows, rosette, and red suture). They occur erratically but are devastating when present. In Europe, the geographic range of the leafhopper vector of the phytoplasma that causes Bois noir disease of grapevines has expanded northward dramatically and increased incidence of the disease quickly followed. Disease caused by phytoplasma may spread in the new world following a similar course as global climatic conditions shift.

Following are descriptions of three diseases of fruit crops (plum pox, citrus tristeza and huanglongbing) to illustrate the devastating socio-economic consequences that systemic pathogens can inflict on fruit industries. The costs include: i) direct crop loss realized by producers and ii) disease management strategies that may include surveillance, quarantine, eradication and replanting, vector control, production and maintenance of healthy planting stock, and research. Numerous additional examples of epiphytotics caused by systemic pathogens can be found in the literature.

Plum Pox. The consequences of the introduction and subsequent eradication of an economically important virus are well illustrated in the response to PPV, which causes one of the most devastating viral diseases of stone fruits in the world. Plum pox disease, also known as “sharka,” was limited to Europe for most of the 20th century, but has since spread to Africa, South America, Asia and North America, where it causes disease on several species of stone fruits. The virus was first reported in North America in Pennsylvania and later in Canada. PPV reduces fruit quality and increases fruit drop in certain plum cultivars. Infected trees serve as permanent reservoirs of the virus and the major source of inoculum for local and long-distance spread of the virus by several species of aphid vectors. Long-distance dispersal of PPV occurs primarily through host propagation material. Although the geographic route of PPV introduction into the U.S. has never been determined, it is assumed that the virus was introduced on such material. The virus is primarily transmitted through grafting during nursery production. The virus is also transmitted by several aphid species and by pollen, making eradication efforts particularly problematic. Cambra estimated that the costs associated with sharka management worldwide exceeded 10 billion Euros ($12.6 billion) prior to 2006, and the cost of PPV eradication in Pennsylvania in the decade following its first observation in 1999 has been estimated at $53 million which included the destruction of 648 hectares of stone fruit orchards. The steps taken to eradicate PPV in the U.S. are well documented. The five factors that contributed to the successful eradication in Pennsylvania were: (i) prompt detection after introduction, (ii) ready availability of reliable diagnostic tests, (iii) a rigorous disease eradication plan supported by local growers, (iv) extensive crop surveys conducted over several years to ensure the absence of PPV, and (v) optimal management of resources through coordinated efforts among regulatory agencies with strong support from producers, nurseries, the local land grant universities and Extension educators.

Citrus tristeza causes the most important virus disease of citrus. There are many strains, which cause different symptoms depending on the cultivar and the scion/rootstock combination. The virus has killed more than 100 million trees propagated on the widely used sour orange rootstock during the last 80 years in South America, the U.S., Spain, and Israel (67). In other citrus crops, some virus strains do not kill but cause significant economic losses because of tree decline and yield reductions (32). Long-distance spread occurs by the movement of infected propagation material or movement of viruliferous aphids. Several aphid species are responsible for local spread and transmit CTV with varying efficiency. The brown citrus aphid (BrCA), Toxoptera citricida (Kirkaldy), is the most efficient vector, and its introduction into areas where CTV is present has accelerated virus spread. Devastating epidemics of citrus tristeza have occurred in association with BrCA presence in Brazil and Venezuela, and the introduction of BrCA into regions where CTV is present, such as the central valley of California, is likely to accelerate virus dispersal in that region.  

The economic impact of the virus on the citrus industry worldwide results from the cost of: (i) loss of trees through death and decline; (ii) maintenance of quarantines in CTV-free areas; (iii) destruction of infected trees; and (iv) implementation of virus, vector and disease management strategies. The latter may include quarantine and certification programs to avoid importation and propagation of severe strains, the use of disease-tolerant rootstocks, nursery stock production in aphid-free screenhouses to minimize infection during propagation, use of certified virus-tested budwood, and pre-inoculation of trees with mild strains to protect them from infection by severe strains.

Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening, has severely affected citrus production in East Asia for more than a century and now threatens the citrus industry in the U.S. The disease is associated with a phloem-limited bacterium, Candidatus Liberobacter asiaticus, which is vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. Economic losses are due to tree decline, premature fruit drop, and the production of small misshapen fruit that produces bitter juice. HLB was first detected in the U.S. in Florida in 2005, and has since spread throughout the commercial production areas of the state. The disease has impacted Florida’s citrus industry and threatens citrus production in the other citrus-producing states where it has been reported. Since 2006, HLB has cost the citrus industry in Florida an estimated $3.63 billion in lost revenue and more than 6,600 jobs. The present and anticipated impact of HLB on the U.S. citrus industry is reflected in the $24 million appropriated to fight HLB in the 2014 Fiscal Year Federal Omnibus Spending Bill. Management strategies for HLB include the use of certified, pathogen-free nursery stock, rogueing of infected trees, and chemical or biological suppression of vectors. In California where the psyllid vector is not endemic, local occurrences of psyllid populations have triggered regional quarantines and aggressive pesticidal treatments to prevent the establishment of the vector.

A recent proof of concept of the objectives of WERA-020 involved a new grapevine pathogen. The National Clean Plant Network (NCPN) supported a new Foundation Vineyard, “Russell Ranch” at Foundation Plant Services, University of California-Davis, setting the highest standard for disease by testing for over 30 viruses and virus-like organisms. To qualify for planting in Russell Ranch, vines must be treated with microshoot tip culture to eliminate viruses. In 2012, grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV, ‘red blotch’) was discovered using technologies supported by NCPN (51, 88) and later found to be distributed throughout the U.S. (50). The grape growers and wine makers of the U.S. are very concerned about this virus because it is believed to have a significant negative effect on wine grape quality. Because of the foresight of NCPN and the willingness of nursery industry stakeholders to move forward with this new G1 planting stock, at least a large part of the solution to this crisis was already at hand. None of the 1,823 vines planted at Russell Ranch were positive when tested for GRBaV even though the virus had not yet been discovered when the vineyard was first propagated. Grape nurseries across the country are planting new G2 blocks from the G1 vines at Russell Ranch in sites isolated from any commercial vineyards. NCPN funding made the vineyard planting possible; scientists from WERA-020 did the research that discovered the virus.

Members of WERA-020 frequently collaborate on research and often write jointly authored manuscripts. The ‘Literature cited’ section of this project proposal shows the high publication productivity of our members during the previous project term 2011-2015. This multi-state activities success is evidenced by the frequency with which more than one WERA-020 member is included in authorship of a single manuscript. We draw the attention of the reader to the 2015 Plant Disease article ‘Safeguarding Fruit Crops in the Age of Agricultural Globalization’ by Gergerich et al. as illustrative of the close working relationships and shared objectives of members of our multi-state team. This comprehensive review is a strong overview of our shared work and contributed much to the writing of this project.


  1. Promote and improve communication and cooperation among entomologists, plant pathologists, horticulturists, and other professionals concerned about plant health to determine the vectors of virus and virus-like diseases and to investigate the role of vector biology in the epidemiology of diseases.
  2. Encourage, facilitate, and enhance collaborative research on the cause and control of newly detected diseases and disorders by increasing contacts and communication on newly discovered problems likely to be caused by viruses or virus-like agents.
  3. Facilitate rapid adoption and proper use of newly developed techniques and information that aid in the characterization and detection of virus and virus-like plant pathogens.
  4. Provide information and expertise (research and extension) for the acquisition, development and distribution of planting stock free of pathogens.
  5. Provide a source of research information and service to quarantine and certification agencies, germplasm repositories, experiment station and government administrative agencies and perennial specialty crop industries nationwide.

Procedures and Activities

<p>Annual meetings are conducted so that participants and others of diverse interests can be made aware of the most current research and issues in the field of virus and virus-like diseases of berries, fruit and nut trees and grapevines. Participants include researchers, state and federal regulatory agents, private sector scientists, and extension personnel to promote effective transmission of ideas and issues. Meetings are held in different regions of the country to provide greater opportunity for participants to interact with local and regional parties.</p>
<p>The meeting structure fosters the reporting of preliminary observations and work early in its development. This encourages development of collaborative projects to address specific issues associated with emerging disease situations. Reports of research from the participants are presented in a venue that promotes development of solutions for recalcitrant problems.</p>
<p>By bringing together individuals representing diverse agricultural sectors and from theoretical to applied research, opportunities are presented for cross-fertilization of ideas to advance research. Data and results addressing the challenges of existing technologies and new developments in disease diagnosis are communicated.</p>
<p>Programs engaged in the development of virus-tested material were recently embodied in the National Clean Plant Network. The WERA-0020 provides a forum to address specific topics related to appropriate disease diagnosis and elimination. Current activities involve the identification of diseases of regional importance that will be included in certification testing requirements across North America. Critical discussions focus on rationalizing disease lists. Researcher collections are being canvassed to identify and characterize pathogens and as research material to support translational research to aid in diagnosis. Disease names for which voucher samples are no longer relevant will be suspended. The entire membership is invited to engage in discussion through the annual meeting and through an established email exchange list. The diverse membership of this group assists in maximizing the distribution of information to all sectors of the specialty crop industry. Formal and informal participation of all groups (research, extension, and industry) in this project is encouraged.</p>
<p>This group represents the programs from across the U.S. and Canada involved in the development of propagation material of vegetatively propagated perennial crops. Meetings enhance the exchange of information between research and regulatory professionals insuring that all participants are aware of developing disease situations. Representation from all regions insures that diverse ecological regions of North America are engaged in discussion. Meetings involve a visit to view local disease symptoms in the field allowing those who are new to the subject to become familiar with newly reported diseases, to expose participants to problems that are of restricted distribution, and also to show localized industries with special problems and solutions. Some memorable examples include a visit in 2001 to peach orchards in Pennsylvania where symptoms of Plum pox virus were observed, and exclusion survey methodology explained; a visit in 2009 to a Michigan research facility to observe blueberry shock virus in a blueberry planting and the 2014 visit on Oahu, Hawaii, to a transgenic papaya orchard, planted with a cultivar developed by one of our former members, which has saved the Hawaii papaya industry because it is resistant to papaya ringspot virus. One recent and striking example of the impact of the WERA-20 multistate group is the July 2015 national meeting. The 2015 meeting was hosted by members who are USDA-APHIS scientists stationed in Beltsville. The venue allowed substantial participation by our regulatory community with the research leadership, which resulted in a special workshop on High Throughput Sequencing technology and its potential to improve pathogen detection protocols.&nbsp;&nbsp; That workshop has already resulted in substantial changes in phytosanitary permit requirement for the scientists, improving the ability of our NCPN centers to move valuable cultivars more quickly through State and Federal quarantines.</p>

Expected Outcomes and Impacts

  • Identify and develop control programs for berry, fruit and nut tree and grapevine viruses and phytoplasmas vectored by insects and nematodes. The membership includes entomologists, nematologists and plant pathologists. Coordination of objectives and the development of a systems approach to the solution and implementation of plant disease control programs is facilitated by the diversity of participants.
  • Coordinated research will be conducted on pathogens that impact common crops grown in geographically diverse areas. Disease management strategies developed for one type of pathogen or crop in one geographical area are often applicable to managing the disease in other areas. Collaborative efforts would thus save considerable time and resources by completing the research in a timely fashion and avoiding unnecessary duplication of research efforts. Productive and significant research on the biology of virus vectors requires interdisciplinary collaboration.
  • Identification and characterization of the phytopathogenic viruses, viroids, and phytoplasmas that impact berries, fruit and nut trees and grapevines production in North America and Hawaii. Pathogen isolates will be exchanged as necessary and with properly authorized permits. Newly developed diagnostic reagents and procedures that allow better characterization of diverse pathogens will also be distributed.
  • Develop and evaluate techniques to produce and maintain pathogen-free planting materials. Provide scientific expertise to stakeholders, as well as state and federal programs that disseminate planting materials. Rationalization of the list of fruit tree diseases will facilitate the development of appropriate regionally needed testing programs for certification. The national effort will result in a joint publication and will provide the basis for future development of testing standards.
  • Develop, optimize, and disseminate standard detection protocols to members, and participants in the National Clean Plant network as well as state and federal (APHIS and CFIA) regulatory agencies. Compare the accuracy and reliability of rapid pathogen detection/identification techniques with graft-indexing protocols currently used in clean stock and regulatory programs. The successful implementation and acceptance of rapid pathogen detection systems will save commercial nurseries and governmental agencies considerable money, space and time. In addition to providing protection against foreign, exotic pathogens, new diagnostic capabilities will expedite the introduction of new planting materials and keep American and Canadian growers competitive in the world marketplace.

Projected Participation

View Appendix E: Participation

Educational Plan

Annual meetings and written progress reports provide important forums for members to become acquainted with the most recent research accomplishments and emerging disease situations. Minutes of annual meetings and reports are displayed on the internet for public access. A stable email address has been established to facilitate our ability to solicit assistance outside of the regularly scheduled annual meetings. Several members are participants in the National Clean Plant Network or federal and state regulatory agencies. Information presented at meetings is therefore rapidly assimilated and, where feasible, quickly integrated into these programs. The results of collaborations are transferred to clientele through participation in annual meetings that are held at locations that rotate around North America and through the publication of collaborative research efforts in refereed discipline oriented and popular press publications.


Governance positions include a Chair and a Secretary who are elected from membership at the annual meeting or through an email poll if necessary. A secretary is elected each year. The secretary serves a term of one year. Previous year's secretary moves to Chair position. The duties of the secretary include recording minutes and disseminating them to members by e-mail and submitting minutes to NIMMS system. The Chair serves a term of one year. Duties include organizing the annual meeting, chairing the meeting, and renewing the project on the year before its expiration. Meetings include individual State reports, special round-table discussions, and are normally followed by tours of the technical interest in the meeting location. The annual general meeting will alternate between east and west coasts.

Literature Cited


Al Rwahnih, M., Daubert, S., Golino, D., and Rowhani, A. Characterization of a Novel Reovirus Species in Cabernet Grapevine in California. Proceedings of the 18th Congress of ICVG, Ankara, Turkey. September 7-11, 2015

Al Rwahnih, M., S. Daubert, D.A. Golino, C. Islas, and A. Rowhani. 2015. Comparison of Next Generation Sequencing vs. Biological Indexing for the optimal detection of viral pathogens in Grapevine. Phytopathology 105:758-763.

Al Rwahnih, M., Daubert, S., Golino, D., and Rowhani, A. Next-Generation Sequencing poised to replace Biological Indexing as the Gold Standard for Virus Detection in Grapevine. Proceedings of the 18th Congress of ICVG, Ankara, Turkey. September 7-11, 2015.

Al Rwahnih, M., Daubert, S., Golino, D., Durvasula, A., and Rowhani, A. 2015. Description and Detection of a novel Reovirus species in Cabernet grapevine in California. APS meeting, Pasadena CA, August 1-15, 2015.

Al Rwahnih, M., Rowhani, A., and Golino, D. First Report of Grapevine red blotch-associated virus in archival grapevine material from Sonoma County, California. Plant Disease,

Alvarez, R.A., Martin, R.R. and Quito-Avila, D.F. 2015. First report of Pineapple mealybug wilt associated virus-1 in Ecuador. Plant Pathology 31:15.

Bag, S., Al Rwahnih, Li, A., Gonzalez, A., Rowhani, A., Uyemoto, J.K., and Sudarshana, M.R. 2015. Detection of a new luteovirus in imported nectarine trees: A case study to propose adoption of metagenomics in post-entry quarantine. Phytopathology 105:840-846.

Bostock R., Thomas, C., Richard W. Hoenisch R.W., Golino, D., and Vidalakis, G. 2015. Diagnostics in Plant Health: How Diagnostic Networks and Inter-Agency Partnerships Protect Plant Systems from Pests and Pathogens. California Agriculture 68 (4): 117-124.

Cao, Mengji, Lingling Pu, Margarita Bateman, Gary Kinard, Changyong Zhou and Ruhui Li. Simultaneous identification and molecular characterization of viruses associated with an apple tree. 2015. Abstract presented at the ICVF meeting in Japan, June 8-12, 2015

Cheong, Eun Ju, Chan-Soo Kim, Gary Kinard and Ruhui Li, 2015, Evaluation of the virus and viroid infection status of flowering cherry (Prunus yedoensis) collections in Korea and the U.S. J. Plant Path. 97: 155-160.

Dey, KK, Borth, WB, Melzer, MJ, Hu, JS. 2015. Application of circular polymerase extension cloning to generate infectious clones of a plant virus. Journal of Applied Biotechnology 3:34-44

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Diaz-Lara, A., Mosier, N.J., Keller, K.E. and Martin, R.R. 2015. A variant of Rubus yellow net virus with altered genomic organization. Virus Genes 50:104-110.

Fuchs, M., Marsella-Herrick, P., Hessler, S., Martinson, T. and Loeb, G. 2015. Seasonal pattern of virus acquisition by the grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus, in a leafroll-diseased vineyard. Journal of Plant Pathology, 97: 503-510.

Fuchs, M. and Sudarshana, M. 2015. Grapevine red blotch. In: Compendium of Grapevine Diseases. Wilcox, W.F., Gubler, W.D. and Uyemoto, J.E. (eds.), APS Press, 122-123.

Kate Binzen Fuller, Julian M. Alston, and Deborah A. Economic effects. 2015. The Economic Benefits from Virus Screening: A Case Study of Grapevine Leafroll in the North Coast of California. American Society of Enology and Viticulture 66: 112-119.

Gergerich, R., Welliver, R., Gettys, S., Osterbauer, N., Kamenidou, S., Martin, R.R., Golino, D.A., Eastwell, K., Fuchs, M., Vidalakis, G. and Tzanetakis, I. E. 2015. Safeguarding fruit crops in the age of agriculture globalization. Plant Disease, 99:176-187.

Golino, D., Rowhani, A., Klaassen, V., Sim, S., and Al Rwahnih, M. Grapevine Leafroll Associated Virus 1 Effects on Different Grapevine Rootstocks. Proceedings of the 18th Congress of ICVG, Ankara, Turkey. September 7-11, 2015.

Golino, A.D. Savino, V., Martelli, G.P. and Fuchs, M. 2015. Certification and international regulation of planting materials. In: Compendium of Grapevine Diseases. Wilcox, W.F., Gubler, W.D. and Uyemoto, J.E. (eds.), APS Press, pp. 192-198.

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Osman, F., Hodzic, E., Kwon , S.J., Wang, J., Vidalakis, G. 2015. Development and validation of a multiplex reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) assay for the rapid detection of Citrus tristeza virus, Citrus psorosis virus, and Citrus leaf blotch virus. Journal of Virological Methods. Vol. 220: p.64-75.

Quito-Avila, D., Alvarez, R.A. and Martin, R.R. 2015. An umbra-like virus of papaya discovered in Ecuador: detection, occurrence and phylogenetic relatedness. EJPP (Dec. 9, 2014)

Ricketts, K.D., Gomez, M.I., Atallah, S.S., Fuchs. M.F., Martinson, T., Smith, R.J., Verdegaal, P.S., Cooper, M.L., Bettiga, L.J. and Battany, M.C. 2015. Reducing the economic impact of grapevine leafroll disease in California: identifying optimal management practices. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 66:138-147.

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Jinbo Song; Eric P. Benson; Patricia A. Zungoli; Patrick Gerard; Simon W. Scott. 2015. Using the DAS-ELISA test to establish an effective distance between bait stations for control of Linepithema humile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in natural areas. Journal of Economic Entomology doi: 10.1093/jee/tov152

Sudarshana, M.R., Perry, K.L., and Fuchs, M.F. 2015. Grapevine red blotch-associated virus, an emerging threat to the grapevine industry. Phytopathology 105: (In print).

Rowhani, A., Golino, D., Klaassen, V., Sim, S., Gouran, M., and Al Rwahnih, M. Grapevine Leafroll Associated Virus 3: Effects on Rootstocks, Vine Performance, Yield and Berries. Proceedings of the 18th Congress of ICVG, Ankara, Turkey. September 7-11, 2015.

Roy, A., Hartung, JS, Schneider, WL, Shao, J, Leon, MG, Melzer, MJ, Beard, JJ, Otero-Colina, G, Bauchan, GR, Ochoa, R, and Brlansky, RH. 201X. Role bending: complex relationships between viruses, hosts, and vectors related to citrus leprosis, and emerging disease. Phytopathology (in press).

Sudeep, B., Al Rwahnih, M., Li, A., Gonzalez, A., Rowhani, A., Uyemoto, J.K., and Sudarshana, M.R. 2015. Detection of a new luteovirus in imported nectarine trees: A case study to propose adoption of metagenomics in post-entry quarantine. Phytopathology, 105(6):840-846.

Thekke-Veetil, T., Polashock, J.J., Marn, M.V., Plesko, I.M., Schilder, A.C., Keller, K.E., Martin, R.R. and Tzanetakis, I.E. 2015. Population structure of blueberry mosaic associated virus: Evidence of reassortment in geographically distinct isolates. Virus Research 201: 79-84.

Villamor DEV, Susaimuthu J, Eastwell KC. 2015. Genomic analyses of cherry rusty mottle group and cherry twisted leaf associated viruses reveal a possible new genus within the family Betaflexiviridae. Phytopathology 105:399-408.

Walker, L., Bagewadi, B., Schultz, A., and Naidu, R.A. 2015. First report of Tobacco ringspot virus associated with fanleaf disease in a Washington State vineyard. Plant Disease (in press).

Walker M, Chisholm J, Wei T, Ghoshal B, Saeed H, Rott M, Sanfaçon H. 2015. Complete genome sequence of three tomato ringspot virus isolates: evidence for reassortment and recombination. Arch Virol. 160(2):543-7.

Wallingford, A.K., Fuchs, M.F., Hesler, S., Martinson, T.M. and Loeb, G.M. 2015. Slowing the spread of grapevine leafroll-associated viruses in commercial vineyards with insecticide control of the vector, Pseudococcus maritimus (Erhorn) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Journal of Insect Science, 15: 112
doi: 10.1093/jisesa/iev094.

Ward, N., Polashock, J., Thekke-Veetil, T., Martin, R.R. and Beale, J. 2015. First report of blueberry mosaic disease caused by Blueberry mosaic associated virus in Kentucky. Plant Dis. 99:421

Zhang S, Ravelonandrob M, Chambers M, Briard P, Masson M , Amato M, Vrient A (2015) Rapid diagnostic detection of plum pox virus by isothermal AmplifyRP® and by ImmunoStrip®. Acta Hort 1063:167-172.

Zhang S, Russell P, McOwen N, Bohannon S, Davenport B (2015) Development of a novel isothermal AmplifyRP method combining both real-time and endpoint assays in single tubes for rapid detection of plant pathogens. American Phytopathological Society Annual Meeting, August 1-5, 2015, California.


Alabi, O.J., Al Rwahnih, M., Mekuria, T., and Naidu, R.A. 2014. Genetic diversity of Grapevine virus A in Washington and California vineyards. Phytopathology 104: 548-560.

Al Rwahnih, M., S. Daubert, C. Islas, D.A. Golino, and A. Rowhani. 2014. Characterization of a fifth Vitivirus in grapevine. Journal of Plant Pathology. 96: 219-222.

Al Rwahnih, M., Rowhani, A., Golino, D., Islas, C., Preece, J., and Sudarshana, M.R. 2014. Detection and genetic diversity of Grapevine red blotch-associated virus isolates in table grape accessions in the National Clonal Germplasm Repository in California. Can. J. Plant Pathology 37:130–135.

Cheong, Eun Ju, Gary Kinard and Ruhui Li. 2014. Effect of carbohydrate sources on in vitro shoot growth of various Prunus species. USDA-ARS-NGRL-PDRU-TT/2014-3.

Cheong, Eun Ju, Ae Rin Jeon, Ray Mock, Gary Kinard and Ruhui Li. 2014. Elimination of Gooseberry vein banding associated virus by in vitro therapy. USDA-ARS-NGRL- PDRU-TT/2014-1.

Cheong, Eun Ju, Ae Rin Jeon, Jun Won Kang, Ray Mock, Gary Kinard and Ruhui Li. 2014. In vitro Elimination of Black raspberry necrosis virus from black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis). Hort. Sci. 41: 95–99.

Dhekney S.A., Kandel, R., Garcia y Garcia A. 2014. University of Wyoming-Grape Growers Partnership may Improve Sustainable Grape Production in Wyoming. University of Wyoming, Agricultural Experiment Station, Field Days Bulletin, In Press.

Di Serio , F., Flores, R., Verhoeven, J., Li, S., Pallás, V., Randles , J., Sano , T.,Vidalakis, G., Owens , R. 2014. Current status of viroid taxonomy. Archives of Virology. Vol. 159: p.3467–3478.

Doan, H.K., Zhang, S. and Davis, M.R. 2014. Development and Evaluation of AmplifyRP Acceler8 Diagnostic Assay for the Detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum Race 4 in Cotton. Plant Health Progress 15(1):48-52. 

Finn, C.E., Strik, B.C., Yorgey, B.M., Moore, P.P., Dossett, M., Kempler, C., Martin, R.R., Jamieson, A.R. and Galletta, G.J. 2014. ‘Sweet Sunrise’ strawberry. HortScience accepted 6.11.14

Gottula, J., Lewis, R. Saito, S. and Fuchs, M. 2014. Allopolyploidy and the evolution of plant virus resistance. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 14:149.

Gray, D.J., Li, Z.T. and Dhekney, 2014. S.A. Precision breeding of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) for improved traits. Plant Science, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.

Ho, T. and Tzanetakis, I.E. 2014. Developing a virus detection and discovery pipeline using next generation sequencing. Virology 471-473:54-60

James, D. 2014. Plum pox (Sharka); the disease and variability of the virus. University of California Plum Pox International Meeting, September 29 - October 1, 2014. UC-Davis, Davis, California, USA. http://ucanr.edu/sites/plumpox2014/Abstracts/James_Plum_pox_virus_variability/

James, D. 2014. Plum pox virus (PPV) detection: the standardized IPPC diagnostic protocol. University of California Plum Pox International Meeting, September 29 - October 1, 2014. UC-Davis, Davis, California, USA. http://ucanr.edu/sites/plumpox2014/Abstracts/James_Plum_pox_virus_detection/

James, D., Green, C., and Wierenga, E. 2014. Plum Pox Monitoring and Management Program (PPMMP) in Canada. University of California Plum Pox International Meeting, September 29 - October 1, 2014. UC-Davis, Davis, California, USA.http://ucanr.edu/sites/plumpox2014/Abstracts/James_et_al_Program_in_Canada/

James, D., Varga, A., Lye, D. 2014. Analysis of the complete genome of a virus associated with twisted leaf disease of cherry reveals evidence of a close relationship to unassigned viruses in the family Betaflexiviridae. Archives of Virology. 159: 2463-2468.

Krenz, B., Thompson, J.R., McLane, H.L., Fuchs, M. and Perry, K.L. 2014. Grapevine red blotch-associated virus is widespread in the United States. Phytopathology, 104:1232-1240.

Leal, I., Allen, E., Foord, B., Anema, J., Reisle, C., Uzunovic, A., Varga, A., James, D. 2014. Detection of living Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in wood, using reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). Forest Pathology. 45: 134-148.

Lin, Liming, Ruhui Li, Ray Mock and Gary Kinard. 2014. Simultaneous Detection and Differentiation of Four Pome Viroids by RT-PCR. USDA-ARS-NGRL-PDRU-TT/2014- 2.

Long, MH, Ayin, C, Li, R, Hu, JS, Melzer, MJ. 2014. First report of taro vein chlorosis virus infecting taro [Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott] in the United States of America. Plant Disease 98:1160

Maliogka, V., Martelli, G.P., Fuchs, M. and Katis, N. 2014. Control of viruses infecting grapevine. In: Control of Plant Viruses, Advances in Virus Research, G. Loebenstein and N. Katis (eds.), Elsevier, 91:175-227.

Martin, R.R. and Tzanetakis I.E. 2014. Control of virus diseases of berry crops. Advances in Virus Research 91:44-81.

Mekuria, T.A,, Zhang S. and Eastwell, K.C. (2014) Rapid and sensitive detection of Little cherry virus 2 using isothermal reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification. Journal of Virological Methods 205:24-30. 

Melzer MJ, Shimabukuro, JK., Long, M., Nelson, S., Alvarez, A., Borth, WB, Hu, JS. 2014. First report of Capsicum chlorosis virus infecting waxflower (Hoya calycina Schlecter) in the United States of America. Plant Disease 98:1160.

Moore, P.P., Barritt, B., Sjulin, T., Robbins, J.A., Finn, C.E., Martin, R.R. and Dossett, M. 2014. ‘Cascade Gold’ raspberry. HortScience 49:358-460.

Naidu, R.A., Scharlau, V. 2014. Why ‘clean’ plants – Fact sheet (4 pages).

Naidu, R.A., Rowhani, A., Fuchs, M., Golino, D., and Martelli, G.P. 2014. Grapevine leafroll: A complex viral disease affecting a high-value fruit crop. Plant Disease 98:1172-1185.

Naidu, R.A., 2014. Grapevine viruses and clean plants. In: Vine to Wine DVD. Edited by Gwen Hoheisel and Michelle Moyer (in press).

Naidu, R.A. 2014. Virus Diseases. In: 2015 Pest Management Guide for Grapes in Washington. WSU Extension Bulletin EB0762, pp.28-31.

Osman, F., Al Rwahnih, M., and Rowhani, A. 2014. Improved detection of ilarviruses and nepoviruses affecting fruit trees using quantitative RT-qPCR. Journal of Plant Pathology, 96(3): 577-583.

Poudel, B., Ho, T., Laney, A., Khadgi, A. and Tzanetakis, I.E. 2014. Epidemiology of Blackberry chlorotic ringspot virus. Plant Disease 98:547-550.

Quito-Avila, D.F, Lightle, D. and Martin, R.R. 2014. Effect of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus, Raspberry leaf mottle virus, and Raspberry latent virus on plant growth and fruit crumbliness in ‘Meeker’ red raspberry. Plant Dis. 98:176-183.

Quito-Avila, D.F., Peralta, E.L., Ibarra, M.A., Alvarez, R. and Martin, R.R. 2014. A Raspberry bushy dwarf virus isolate from Ecuadorean Rubus glaucus contains an additional RNA that is a rearrangement of RNA 2. Arch. Virol. 159:2519-2521.

Rayapati, N., Rowhani, A., Fuchs, M., Golino, D. and Martelli, G.P. 2014. Grapevine leafroll: a complex viral disease affecting a high-value fruit crop. Plant Dis. 98: 1172-1185.

Rott, Michael, Mark Belton, Ian Boyes, Heidi Rast. Development of Next Generation Sequencing methods for plant virus diagnostics in grapevine and tree fruits. 11th International Conference of the European Foundation for Plant Pathology, Krakow, Sept 8-13, 2014.

Rott, Michael, Yurit Xiang, Michael Bernardy, Mark Belton, Ian Boyes, Heidi Rast, Cindy Tu, Edward Clarke, Bari Befeh Aadum. Analysis of Grapevine and Tree Fruit virus collections using Next Generation Sequencing. 11th International Conference of the European Foundation for Plant Pathology, Krakow, Sept 8-13, 2014.

Scott, S.W., MacFarlane, S.A. McGavin, W.J. and Fargette, D. 2014. Cassava Ivorian Bacilliform virus is a member of the genus Anulavirus. Archives of Virology 159: 159:2791–2793

Seguin, J., Rajeswaran, R., Malpica-López, N., Martin, R.R., Kasschau, K., Dolja, V.V., Otten, P., Farinelli, L. and Pooggin, M.M. 2014. De novo reconstruction of plant RNA and DNA virus quasispecies from siRNAs. PLoS One at http://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0088513

Shi, J.S., Pagliaccia, D., Morgan , R.M., Qiao, Y., Vidalakis, G., Ma, W. 2014. Novel Diagnosis for Citrus Stubborn Disease by Detection of a Spiroplasma citri-Secreted Protein. Phytopathology. Vol. 104: 2 p.188-195.

Skinkis, P., Pscheidt, J., Peachy, E., Dreves, A., Walton, V., Sanchez, D., Zasada, I. and Martin, R.R. 2014. Pest Management Guide for Wine Grapes in Oregon. Oregon State Univ. Ext. Bull. http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1957/45975/em8413.pdf

Thekke-Veetil, T., Ho, T., Keller, K.E., Martin, R.R. and Tzanetakis, I.E. 2014. A new ophiovirus associated with blueberry mosaic disease. Virus Research 189: 92-96.

Thompson, J.R., Fuchs, M., McLane, H., Toprak-Celebi, F., Fischer, K., Potter, J. and Perry, K.L. 2014. Profiling viral infections in grapevine using a randomly primed reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction/macroarray multiplex platform. Phytopathology, 104:211-219.

Villamor, D.E.V, Ward, K.F., Collman, S.J. and Eastwell, K.C. 2014. First report of infection of cherry rusty mottle associated virus in Portuguese Laurel (Prunus lusitanica) in Washington State. Plant Disease 98: 699.

Zhang S, Ravelonandrob M, Russell P, McOwen N, Briard P, Bohannon S, Vrient A (2014) Rapid diagnostic detection of plum pox virus in Prunus plants by isothermal AmplifyRP® using reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification. Journal of Virological Methods 207:114–120.

Zhang S, Russell P, McOwen N, Bohannon S and Vrient A. 2014. AmplifyRP Acceler8 – a rapid isothermal test for plum pox virus using reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (Abstract). American Phytopathological Society Annual Meeting, August 2014, St. Paul, Minnesota.


Alabi, O.J., Poojari, S., Sarver, K., Martin, R.R., and Naidu, R.A. 2013. Complete Genome Sequence Analysis of an American isolate of Grapevine virus E. Virus Genes 46:563566.

Al Rwahnih, M., Dave, A., Anderson, M., Rowhani, A., Uyemoto, J.K., and Sudarshana, M. 2013. Association of a DNA virus with Grapevines affected by Red Blotch Disease in California. Phytopathology, 103(10):1069-76.

Al Rwahnih, M., Daubert, S., Sudarshana, M., and Rowhani, A. 2013. Gene from a novel plant virus satellite from grapevine identifies a viral satellite lineage. Virus Genes, 47(1): 114-118. 

Bahder, B. W., Alabi, O., Poojari, S., Walsh, D. B., and Naidu, R. A. 2013. A survey for grapevine viruses in Washington State Concord(Vitis × labruscana L.) vineyards. Online. Plant Health Progress doi:10.1094/PHP-2013-0805-01-RS.

Bahder, B.W., Naidu, R.A., Daane, K.M., Millar, J.G., and Walsh, D.B. 2013. Pheromone-based monitoring of Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) populations in Concord grape vineyards. Journal of Economic Entomology 106:482-490.

Bahder, B. W., Poojari, S., Alabi, O.J., Naidu, R.A., and Walsh, D. B. 2013. Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and Parthenolecanium corni (Hemiptera: Coccidae) are capable of transmitting Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 between Vitis labruscana and Vitis vinifera. Environmental Entomology 42: 1292-1298.

Celebi-Toprak, F., Thompson, J.R., Perry, K.L. and Fuchs, M. 2013. Arabis mosaic virus in grapevines in New York State. Plant Disease, 97:849.

Dhekney S.A., Vardiman J., Brock B., Fisher L., Kandel, R., Bergey D. 2013. Optimizing tissue culture protocols for cold-hardy grape cultivars and rootstocks. University of Wyoming, Agricultural Experiment Station, Field Days Bulletin, 113-115.

Dhekney S.A., Vardiman J., Brock B., Fisher L., Kandel, R., Bergey D. 2013. Production of disease-free grapevines using tissue culture technology. University of Wyoming, Agricultural Experiment Station, Field Days Bulletin, 117-118.

Dhekney S.A., Vardiman J., Kandel, R., Smith D. 2013. Screening grapevine cultivars for adaptability to soil and climatic factors in Wyoming. University of Wyoming, Agricultural Experiment Station, Field Days Bulletin, 119-120.

Finn, C.E., Moore, P.P., Yorgey, B.M., Strik, B.C., Kempler, C., Dossett, M. and Martin, R.R. 2013. Charm strawberry. HortScience (Accepted July 3, 2103).

Finn, C.E., Strik, B.C., Yorgey, B. and Martin, R.R. 2013. ‘Vintage’ red raspberry. HortScience 48:1181-1183.

Fuller, K. B., Alston, J.M., and Golino, D.A. 2013. The benefits from certified virus-free nursery stock: a case study of Grapevine Leafroll-3 in the North Coast region of California. RMI-CWE Working paper number 1306.

Golino, D.A., Rowhani, A., and Uyemoto, J.K. Grapevine virus diseases. 2013. Grapevine Pest Management, third edition, University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources, Oakland, Ca., Publication 3343, pages 157-173.

Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic, N., Tzanetakis, I.E., and Sabanadzovic, S. 2013. Rubus canadensis virus 1, a novel betaflexivirus identified in blackberry. Archives of Virology 158:445449.

Ghimire., P., Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic, N., Tzanetakis, I.E. and Sabanadzovic, S. 2013. Partial characterization of a novel flexivirus from blackberry. 90th Meeting of the Southern Division of the American Phytopathological Society, February 8-10, 2013, Baton Rouge, LA

Golino, D.A., Rowhani, A. and Uyemoto, J.K. 2013. “Grapevine Virus Diseases”. In : Grape Pest Management, third edition. Pp: 157-173. Ed: Larry J. Bettiga, University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources publication #3343. 

Golino, D.A., Vasquez, S. J., Leavitt, G.M., and Baumgartner, K. 2013. Laboratory testing for grapevine diseases. Grapevine Pest Management, third edition, University of California, Agriculture and Natural Resources, Oakland, Ca., Publication 3343, pages 61-67.

Gottula, J., Lapato, D., Cantilina, K., Saito, S., Bartlett, B. and Fuchs, M. 2013. Genetic variability, evolution and biological effects of Grapevine fanleaf virus satellite RNAs. Phytopathology, 103: 1180-1187.

Hintz, W.E., Carneiro, J.S., Kassatenko, I., Varga, A., and James, D. 2013. Two novel mitoviruses from a Canadian isolate of the Dutch elm pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi (93-1224). Virology Journal 10:252.

James, D. 2013. Challenges and benefits of standardized diagnostic protocols – International Plant Protection Convention’s perspective. Symposium on “Science and Technology Tools Supporting Phytosanitary Work”, 37th NAPPO Annual Meeting, Guelph, Ontario, Canada, October 31, 2013. Book of Abstracts. (Abstr.).

James, D., Sanderson, D., Varga, A., Greig, N., and Stobbs, L. 2013. Relationships and genetic diversity of selected Canadian isolates of Plum pox virus. 2nd International Symposium on Plum Pox Virus, Olomouc Czech Republic, September 3 ,6, 2013. Book of Abstracts. Pg 15 (Abstr.).

James, D., Sanderson, D., Varga, A., Sheveleva A., and Chirkov, S. 2013. Comparison of Plum pox virus strain W isolates to determine their relationships and further understand their genetic diversity. 2nd International Symposium on Plum Pox Virus, Olomouc Czech Republic, September 3 6, 2013. Book of Abstracts. Pg 14. (Abstr.).

James, D., Varga, A., Jesperson, G.D., Navratil, M., Safarova, D., Constable, F., Horner, M., Eastwell, K., and Jelkmann, W. 2013. Identification and complete genome analysis of a virus variant or putative new foveavirus associated with apple green crinkle disease. Archives of Virology 158:1877-1887.

James, D., Varga, A., and Sanderson, D. 2013. Genetic diversity of Plum pox virus: strains, disease and related challenges for control. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology DOI:10.1080/07060661.2013.828100.

Leal I., Allen, E., Anema, J., Reisle, C., Foord, B., Uzunovic, A., Varga, A., and James, D. 2013. Development of a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method to detect living pinewood nematode, Bursaphalenchus xylophilus, in wood. In:Schroder, T (ed), Pine Wilt Disease Conference 2013, Brunschweig, Germany, ISSN: 1866-590X, pp 39-40. 

Leal I., Allen, E., Reisle, C., Anema, J., Uzunovic, A., Varga, A., and James, D. 2013. Development of a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method to detect living pinewood nematode, Bursaphalenchus xylophilus, in wood. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology. (Abstr.) 35(1):92.

Liming Lin & Ruhui Li, Margarita Bateman, Raymond Mock and Gary Kinard. 2013. Development of a multiplex TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Asian prunus viruses, Plum bark necrosis stem pitting associated virus, and Peach latent mosaic viroid..   Eur J Plant Pathol 137:797–804.

Lu, Q., Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic, N., Ghimire, G., Tzanetakis, I.E., Lawrence, A. and Sabanadzovic, S. 2013. New marafivirus identified ib yellow vein disease-affected blackberries. Abstracts Annual Meeting of the American Phytopathological Society, Austin, TX, USA. Phytopathology 103: S2.87

Maree, H.J., Almeida, R.P.P. Bester, R., Chooi, K-M., Cohen, D., Dolja, V.V., Fuchs, M.F., Golino, D.A., Jooste, A.E.C., Martelli, G.P., Rayapati, N., Rohawni, A.K., Saldarelli, P. and Burger, J.T. 2013. Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3. Frontiers in Microbiology, 4:82 doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2013.00082.

Martin, R.C., Glover-Cutter, K., Martin, R.R. and Dombrowski, J.E. 2013. Virus induced gene silencing in Lolium temulentum. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 113:163-171. DOI 10.1007/s11240-012-0257-z.

Martin, R.R., MacFarlane, S., Sabanadzovic, S., Quito-Avila, D.F., Poudel, B., and Tzanetakis, I.E. 2013. Viruses and virus diseases of Rubus. Plant Disease 97:168-182.

Martin, R.R. and Tzanetakis, I.E. 2013. High risk strawberry viruses by region in the United States and Canada: Implications for certification, nurseries and fruit production. Plant Disease 97: 1358-1362.

Mekuria, T., Druffel, K.L., Susaimuthu, J., and Eastwell, K,C. 2013. Complete nucleotide sequence of a strain of Cherry mottle leaf virus associated with peach wart disease in peach. Archives of Virology. DOI 10.1007/s00705-013-1698-3.

Mekuria, T., Smith, T.J., Beers, E.H., and Eastwell, K.C. 2013. Little cherry virus 2 is transmitted to sweet cherry by Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn), a new vector of this virus. Plant Disease 97:851.

Melzer, M. J., Ayin, C., Sugano, J.S., Uchida, J.Y., Kawate, M.K., Borth, W.B., Sether, D,M., and Hu, J,S. 2013. Differentiation and distribution of Cordyline viruses 1-4 in Hawaiian plants (Cordyline fruticosa L.). Viruses 5:1655-1663.

Melzer, M.J., Nelson Simbajon, N., Carillo, J., Borth, W.B., Freitas-Astúa, J., Kitajima, EW, Neupane, K.R., and Hu, J.S. 2013. A cilevirus infects ornamental hibiscus in Hawaii. Arch. Virol. Doi:10.1007/s00705-013-1745-0

Melzer, M.J., Sugano, J.S., Uchida, J.Y., Kawate, M.K., Borth, W.B., Sether, D.M., Hu, J.S. 2013. Molecular characterization of closteroviruses infecting Cordyline fruticosa (L.) in Hawaii. Frontiers in Microbiology doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2013.00039.

Osman, F., Al Rwahnih, M. and Rowhani, A. 2013. Improved Detection of Ilarviruses and Nepoviruses Affecting Fruit Trees Using Quantitative PCR. Journal of Plant Pathology (in press).

Osman, F., Hodzic, E., Omanska-Klusek, A., Olinka, T. and Rowhani, A.  2013. Development and validation of a multiplex quantitative PCR assay for the rapid detection of Grapevine virus A, B and D.  J. Virol. Methods 194:138-145.

Pallas, V.,Aparicio, F., Herranz , M.C., Sanchez-Navarro, J.A., and Scott, S.W. 2013. The Molecular Biology of ilarviruses. Advances in Virus Research 87:139 -182.

Peres, N.A., Whidden, A., Smith, H. and Martin, R.R. 2013. Aphid-borne viruses detected in strawberry plants shipped to Florida. Berry and Vegetable Times, Jan 2013, Pp5-6, Univ of Florida IFAS Extension.

Poojari, S., Alabi, O.J., Fofanov, V.Y., and Naidu, R.A. 2013. A leafhopper-transmissible DNA virus with novel evolutionary lineage in the family Geminiviridae implicated in grapevine redleaf disease by next-generation sequencing. PLoS ONE 8(6): e64194.

Poojari, S., Alabi, O.J., and Naidu, R.A. 2013. Molecular characterization and impacts of a strain of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2 causing asymptomatic infection in a wine grape cultivar. Virology Journal 10:324.

Poudel, B., and Tzanetakis I.E. 2013. Population structure of blackberry chlorotic ringspot virus in the United States. Archives of Virology 158: 667-672.

Poudel, B., Wintermantel, W.M., Cortez, A.A., Ho, T., Khadgi, A. and Tzanetakis, I.E. 2013. Epidemiology of Blackberry yellow vein associated virus. Plant Disease 97: 1352-1357.

Quito-Avila, D.F., Brannen, P.M., Cline, W.O., Harmon, P.F. and Martin, R.R. 2013. Genetic characterization of Blueberry necrotic ring blotch virus, a novel RNA virus with unique genetic features. J. Gen. Virol. 94:1426-14343.

Quito-Avila, D.F., Ibarra, M.A., Alvarez, R.A., Espinoza, L., Ratti, M.F., Peralta, E.L. and Martin, R.R. 2013. First report of Raspberry bushy dwarf virus in the Andean blackberry (Rubus glaucus) in central Ecuador. Plant Dis. 97:1003.

Rojas, P., Almada, R.D., Sandoval, C., Keller, K.E., Martin, R.R. and Caligari, P.D.S. 2013. Occurrence of aphidborne viruses in southernmost South American populations of Fragaria chilensis ssp. chiloensis. Plant Pathology 62:428-435.

Sabanadzovic S. and Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic, N. 2013. Cryptic viruses in the flora of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park. Abstracts Annual Meeting of the American Phytopathological Society, Austin, TX, USA. Phytopathology 103: S2.125

Skinkis, P., Pscheidt, J., Peachy, E., Dreves, A., Walton, V., Sanchez, D., Zasada, I. and Martin, R.R. 2013. Pest Management Guide for Wine Grapes in Oregon. Oregon State Univ. Ext. Bull.

Thekke-Veetil, T., Aboughanem Sabanadzovic, N., Keller, K.E., Martin, R.R., Sabanadzovic S. and Tzanetakis, I.E. 2013. Molecular characterization and population structure of Blackberry vein banding associated virus, new ampelovirus associated with yellow vein disease. Virus Research 178: 234-240.

Tzanetakis, I.E. and Martin, R.R. 2013. Expanding field of strawberry viruses which are important in North America. Intern. J. Fruit Sci. 13:184195.

Tzanetakis I.E., Martin, R.R., and Wintermantel W.M. 2013. Epidemiology of criniviruses, an emerging problem in world agriculture. Frontiers in Microbiology 4:119.

Vigne, E., Gottula, J., Schmitt-Keichinger, C., Komar, V., Ackerer, L., Rakotomalala, L., Lemaire, O., Ritzenthaler, C. and Fuchs, M. 2013. A strain specific segment of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Grapevine fanleaf virus determines symptoms in Nicotiana species. Journal of General Virology, 94:2803-2813.

Villamor, D.E., Druffel, K.L., and Eastwell, K.C. 2013. Complete nucleotide sequence of a virus associated with rusty mottle disease of sweet cherry (Prunus avium). Archives of Virology 158:18051810.

Villamor, D.E. and Eastwell. K.C. 2013. Viruses associated with cherry twisted leaf and the rusty mottle group of diseases of sweet cherry represent distinct species within the family Betaflexiviridae. Phytopathology 103:1287-1295.

Wang, J., Boubourakas, I.N., Voloudakis, A.E., Agorastou, T., Magripis, G.,

Kyriakopoulou, P.E., Vidalakis, G. 2013. Identification and Characterization of Viroids in the Greek National Citrus Germplasm Collection Reveals Novel Viroid Variants and Threats tothe Industry. European Journal of Plant Pathology. Vol. 137: p.17-27.

Wang, J., Bozan , O., Kwon , S.J., Dang, T., Rucker , T.R., Yokomi, R.K., Lee, R.F., Folimonova, S., Krueger, R.R., Bash, J.A., Greer, G.D., Diaz, J., Serna, R., Vidalakis, G. 2013. Past and future of a century old Citrus tristeza virus collection: a California citrus

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Zhao, H., Sun, R., Albrecht, U., Padmanabhan, C., Wang, A., Coffey, M.D., Girke, T., Wang, Z., Close, T.J., Roose, M., Yokomi, R.K., Folimonova, S., Vidalakis, G., Rouse, R., Bowman, K.D., Jin, H. 2013. Small RNA profiling reveals phosphorus deficiency as a contributing factor in symptom expression for citrus Huanglongbing disease. Molecular Plant. Vol. 6: p.301-310.


Alabi, O.J., Zheng, Y., Jagadeeswaran, G., Sunkar, R., and Naidu, R.A. 2012. High-throughput sequence analysis of small RNAs in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) affected by grapevine leafroll disease. Molecular Plant Pathology 13: 1060-1076.

Almeida, R.P.P., Killiny, N., Newman, K.L., Chatterjee, S., Ionescu, M. and Lindow, S.E. 2012. Contribution of rpfB to cell-cell signal synthesis, virulence, and vector transmission of Xylella fastidiosa. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions 25: 453-462.

Al Rwahnih, M., Dolja, V. V., Daubert, S., Koonin, E. V., and Rowhani, A. 2012. Genomic and biological analysis of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 7 reveals a possible new genus within the family Closteroviridae. Virus Research, 163:302-309.

Al Rwahnih, M., Osman, F., Sudarshana, M., Uyemoto, J., Minafra, A., Saldarelli, P., Martelli, G., and Rowhani, A. 2012. Detection of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 7 using real time qRT-PCR and conventional RT-PCR. Journal of Virological Methods, 179: 383-389.

Al Rwahnih, M., Rowhani, A., Smith, R. J., Uyemoto, J. K., and Sudarshana, M. 2012. Grapevine necrotic union, a newly recognized disease of unknown etiology in grapevines grafted on 110 Richter rootstock in California. Journal of Plant Pathology, 94(1):149-156.

Al Rwahnih, M., Sudarshana, M. R., Uyemotom J. K., and Rowhani, A. 2012. Complete genome sequence of a novel Vitivirus isolated from grapevine. Journal of Virology, 86(17): 9545.

Alzubi, H., Yepes, L.M. and Fuchs, M. 2012. Enhanced micropropagation and establishment of grapevine rootstock genotypes. International Journal of Plant Developmental Biology, 6: 9-14.

Atallah, S., Gomez, M. Fuchs, M. and Martinson, T. 2012. Economic impact of grapevine leafroll disease on Vitis vinifera cv. Cabernet franc in Finger Lakes vineyards of New York. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 63:73-79.

Daane, K.M., Almeida, R.P.P., Bell, V.A., Botton, M., Fallahzadeh, M., Mani, M., Miano, J.L., Sforza, R., Walton, V.M. and Zaveizo, T. 2012. Biology and management of mealybugs in vineyards. p. 271-307. In: N.J. Bostanian et al. (eds.) Arthropod Management in Vineyards: Pests, Approaches, and Future Directions. Springer. 505p.

Daugherty, M.P., Gruber, B.R., Almeida, R.P.P., Anderson, M.M., Cooper, M.L., Rasmussen, Y. and Weber, E. 2012. Testing the efficacy of barrier plantings for limiting sharpshooter spread. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 63: 139-143.

Eastwell KC, Druffel KL. 2012. Complete genome organization of American hop latent virus and its relationship to carlaviruses. Arch Virol 157:14031406

Eastwell KC, Mekuria TA, Druffel KL. 2012. Complete nucleotide sequences and genome organization of a cherry isolate of cherry leaf roll virus. Arch Virol 157:761764

Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic, N., Sabanadzovic, S., Gugerli, P. and Rowhani, A.  2012.  Genome organization, serology and phylogeny of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 4 and 6: taxonomic implications.  Virus Research 163:120-128.

James, D., Varga, A. 2012. Sequence analysis of RNA 1 of lilac leaf chlorosis virus supports a close relationship to subgroup 3 ilarviruses. Archives of Virology. 157: 203-206.

Janse, J.D., Valentini, F., Purcell, A.H. and Almeida, R.P.P. 2012. Detection and identification methods and news tests as used and developed in the framework of COST873 for bacteria pathogenic to stone fruits and nuts: Xylella fastidiosa. Journal of Plant Pathology 94: S1.147-154.

Kanuya, E., Clayton, L.A., Naidu, R.A., and Karasev, A.V. 2012. First report of Grapevine fleck virus in Idaho grapevines. Plant Disease 96: 1705-1705.

Killiny, N., Rashed, A. and Almeida, R.P.P. 2012. Disrupting the transmission of a vector-borne plant pathogen. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 78: 638-643.

Krenz, B., Thompson, J., Fuchs, M. and Perry, P. 2012. Complete genome sequence of a new circular DNA virus from grapevine. Journal of Virology, 86:7715.

Laney, A. G., Hassan, M. and Tzanetakis, I. E. 2012. An integrated badnavirus is prevalent in fig germplasm. Phytopathology 102: 1182-1189.

Li, R., Kinard, G., Mock, R., Forsline, P., Pooler, M., and Stover, E. 2012. A survey for viruses and virus-like pathogens in U.S. cherry genetic resources. Petria 22: 208220.

Liming Lin, Ruhui Li, Ray Mock, and Gary Kinard, 2012. One-Step multiplex RT-PCR for simultaneous detection of four pome tree viroids. European Journal of Plant Pathology 133: 765-772.

Lin, L., Li, R., Mock, R., and Kinard, G. 2012. One-Step multiplex RT-PCR for simultaneous detection of four pome tree viroids. European Journal of Plant Pathology 133: 765-772.

Martelli, G.P., Abou Ghanem-Sabanadzovic, N., Agranowsky, A.A, Al Rawhanih, M., Dolja, V.V., Dovas, C.I., Fuchs, M., Gugerli, P., Hu, J.S., Jelkmann, W., Katis, N., Maliogka, V.I., Melzer, M.J., Menzel, W., Minafra, A., Rott, M.E., Rowhani, A., Sabanadzovic, S. and Saldarelli, P. 2012. Taxonomic revision of the family Closteroviridae with special reference to the grapevine leafroll-associated members of the genus Ampelovirus and the putative species unassigned to the family. Journal of Plant Pathology, 94:7-19.

Martin, R.R., Polashock, J.J., and Tzanetakis, I.E. 2012. New and emerging viruses of blueberry and cranberry. Viruses 4: 2831-2852.

Melzer, M. J., Sether, D.M., Borth, W.B., and Hu, J.S. 2012. Characterization of a virus infecting Citrus volkameriana (Ten. & Pasq.) with citrus leprosis-like symptoms. Phytopathology 102: 122-127.

Osman, F., Al Rwahnih, Golino, D.A., Pitman, T., Cordero, F., Preece, J.E. and Rowhani, A. 2012. Evaluation of the phytosanitary status of the Prunus species in the National Germplasm Repository in California: survey of viruses and viroids. Journal of Plant Pathology 94: 249-253.

Poudel, B., Sabanadzovic, S., Bujarski, J. and Tzanetakis I.E. 2012. Population structure of Blackberry yellow vein associated virus, an emerging crinivirus. Virus Research 169: 272275.

Schilder, A. 2012. Grape virus diagnostic support during the 2012 growing season. Michigan Grape and Wine Newsletter 2 (5): 5-6.

Schilder, A. 2012. Last chance to participate in grape virus diagnostic survey. Michigan Grape and Wine Newsletter 2 (13): 5.

Schilder, A. 2012. Overview of grape diseases during the 2012 growing season. Michigan Grape and Wine Newsletter 2 (14): 4-5.

Schilder, A. 2012. Recent observations of disease and other symptoms in grape vineyards. Michigan Grape and Wine Newsletter 2 (12): 3-4.

Sether, D.M., Melzer, M. J., Borth, W.B., and Hu, J.S. 2012. Characterization, Diversity, Distribution, and Transmission of a Pineapple Badnavirus in Commercial Pineapple Hybrids and Pineapple Germplasm Accessions in Hawaii. Plant Disease 96:1798-1804.

Sheveleva, A., Ivanov, P., Prihodko, Y., James, D.,and Chirkov, S. 2012. Occurrence and genetic diversity of Winona-like Plum pox virus isolates in Russia. Plant Disease 96:1135-1142.

Sheveleva, A., Ivanov, P., Prihodko, Y., James, D., and Chirkov, S. 2012. Plum pox virus W appears to be the most variable strain of the seven recognized strains of the virus. Petria 22: 226-232.

Tennant, P.F., Fermin, G., Fischer, L. and Fuchs, M. 2012. Virus diseases of fruit crops. In: Agricultural Sciences, Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS) developed under the auspices of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, UNESCO-EOLSS Joint Committee (Eds), Eolss Publishers, Oxford, UK.

Thompson, J.R., Fuchs, M., Fisher, K. and Perry, K. 2012. Macroarray detection of grapevine leafroll-associated viruses. Journal of Virological Methods, 183:161-169.

Thompson, J.R., Fuchs, M. and Perry, K. 2012. Genomic analysis of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus-5 and related viruses. Virus Research, 163:19-27.

Tsai, C.W., Daugherty, M.P. and Almeida, R.P.P. 2012. Seasonal dynamics and virus translocation of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 in grapevine cultivars. Plant Pathology 61: 977-985.

Wise, J. C., Gut, L. J., Isaacs, R., Schilder, A. M. C., Sundin, G. W., Zandstra, B., Hanson, E., and Shane, B. 2012. Michigan Fruit Management Guide 2013. Extension Bulletin E-154. Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.


Alabi, O. J., Al Rwahnih, M., Karthikeyan, G., Poojari, S., Fuchs, M., Rowhani, A., and Naidu, R. A. 2011.Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 occurs as Genetically Diverse Populations. Phytopathology, 101:1446-1456.

Alkowni, R., Zhang, Y.P., Rowhani, A., Uyemoto, J.K. and Minafra, A. 2011. Biological, molecular, and serological studies of a novel strain of grapevine leafroll-associated virus 2.  Virus Gene 43: 102-110.

Al Rwahnih, M., Daubert, S., Úrbez-Torres J. R., Cordero, F., and Rowhani, A. 2011. Deep sequencing evidence from single grapevine plants reveals a virome dominated by mycoviruses. Archives of Virology, 156:397-403.

Al Rwahnih, M., Y. Guo, S. Daubert, D. Golino and A. Rowhani. 2011. Characterization of latent viral infection of olive trees in the National Clonal Germplasm Repository in California. J. Plant Path. 93(1): 227-231.

Coletta-Filho, H.D., Bittleston, L.S. and Almeida, R.P.P. 2011. Spatial genetic structure of a vector-borne generalist pathogen. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77: 2596-2601.

Daane, K.M., Middleton, M.C., Sforza, R., Cooper, M.L., Walton, V.M., Walsh, D.B., Zaviezo, T. and Almeida, R.P.P. 2011. Development of a multiplex PCR for identification of vineyard mealybugs. Environmental Entomology 40: 1595-1603.

Daugherty, M.P., Rashed, A., Almeida, R.P.P. and Perring, T.M. 2011. Vector preference for hosts differing in infection status: sharpshooter movement and Xylella fastidiosa transmission. Ecological Entomology 36: 654-662. 

Degnan, P.H., Bittleston, L.S., Hansen, A.K., Sabree, Z.L., Moran, N.A. and Almeida, R.P.P. 2011. Origin and examination of a leafhopper facultative endosymbiont. Current Microbiology 62: 1565-1572. 

Gutierrez, A.P., Ponti, L., Hoddle, M., Almeida, R.P.P. and Irvin, N.A. 2011. Geographic distribution and relative abundance of the invasive glassy-winged sharpshooter: effects of temperature and egg parasitoids. Environmental Entomology 40: 755-769.

Hajeri, S., Ramadugu, C., Manjunath, J., Ng, J., Lee, R.F., Vidalakis, G. 2011. In vivo generated Citrus exocortis viroid progeny variants display a range of phenotypes with altered levels of replication, systemic accumulation and pathogenicity. Virology. Vol. 417 (2): p.400-409.

Isaacs, R., Schilder, A., Zabadal, T., and Weigle. T. 2011. A pocket guide for grape IPM scouting in the North Central and Eastern U.S. Michigan State University Extension Bulletin E-2889. 4th Edition.

Killiny, N. and Almeida, R.P.P. 2011. Gene regulation mediates host specificity of a bacterial pathogen. Environmental Microbiology Reports 3: 791-797.

Klaassen, V. A., Sim, S. T., Dangl, G. S., Osman, F., Al Rwahnih, M., Rowhani, A., and Golino, D. A. 2011. Vitis californica and Vitis californica × Vitis vinifera hybrids are hosts for Grapevine leafroll-associated virus-2 and -3 and Grapevine virus A and B. Plant Dis. 95:657-665.

Kung, S.H. and Almeida, R.P.P. 2011. Natural competence and recombination in the plant pathogen Xylella fastidiosa. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 77: 5278-5284. 

Li, R., Mock, R., Fuchs, M., Halbrendt, J., Howell, B. and Liu, Z. 2011. Characterization of the partial RNA1 and RNA2 3’ untranslated region of Tomato ringspot virus isolates from North America. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 33:94-99.

Naidu, R.A. 2011. Virus Diseases. In: 2011 Pest Management Guide for Grapes in Washington. WSU Extension Bulletin EB0762, pp.25-28.

Naidu, R.A. 2011. Virus update: The Status of Washington Vineyards. In: Viticulture and Enology Extension News Fall 2011.

Oliver, J.E. and Fuchs, M. 2011. Tolerance and resistance to viruses and their vectors in Vitis sp.: A virologist’s perspective of the literature. American Journal of Enology and Viticulture, 62:438-451.

Plucinski, M.M., Starfield, R. and Almeida, R.P.P. 2011. Inferring social network structure from bacterial sequence data. PLoS ONE 6: e22685.

Wei-Li Rao, Fan Li, Ruijuan Zuo and Ruhui Li, 2011. First Report of Little cherry virus 2 in Flowering and Sweet Cherry Trees in China. Plant Disease 95: 1484.

Rashed, A., Daugherty, M.P. and Almeida, R.P.P. 2011. Grapevine genotype susceptibility to Xylella fastidiosa does not predict vector transmission success. Environmental Entomology 40: 1192-1199.

Rashed, A., Killiny, N., Kwan, J. and Almeida, R.P.P. 2011. Background matching behaviour and pathogen acquisition: Plant site preference does not predict bacterial acquisition efficiency by vectors. Arthropod-Plant Interactions 5: 97-106.

Rayapati, N.A., ONeil, S. and Walsh, D. 2011.Grapevine leafroll disease (la enfermedad del enrollamientode la hoja de parra) in Spanish (EB2027ES).

Rosa, C., Jiminez, J.F., Margaria, P. and Rowhani, A. 2011.  Symptomatology and effects of viruses associated with rugose wood complex on the growth of four different rootstocks.  Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 62:207-213.

Sanfaçon, H. and Fuchs, M. 2011. Tomato ringspot virus. In: Virus and virus-like diseases of pome and stone fruits. Hadidi, A., Barba, M., Candresse, T. and Jelkmann, W (eds). APS Press, St. Paul, MN, pp. 41-48.

Schilder, A. 2011. Blueberry Scorch Virus. Regional Pest Alert, North Central IPM Center, 2 pp.

Sharma, A.M., Wang, J., Duffy, S., Zhang, S., Wong, M.K., Rashed, A., Cooper, M.L., Daane, K.M. and Almeida, R.P.P. 2011. Occurrence of grapevine leafroll-associated virus complex in Napa Valley. PLoS ONE 6: e26227.

Tsai, C.W., Bosco, D., Daane, K.M. and Almeida, R.P.P. 2011. Effect of host plant tissue on the vector transmission of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3. Journal of Economic Entomology 104: 1480-1485.

Vidalakis, G., Pagliaccia, D., Bash, J.A., Afunian, M., Semancik, J.S. 2011. Effects of

Citrus Dwarfing viroid, a transmissible small nuclear RNA on tree size and scion performance specific to poncirus trifoliata rootstock with applications for high density planting. Annals ofApplied Biology. Vol. 158: p.204-217.

Wang, J., Sharma, A.M., Duffy, S. and Almeida, R.P.P. 2011. Genetic diversity in the 3' terminal 4.7-kb region of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3. Phytopathology 101: 445-450.

Wise, J. C., Gut, L. J., Isaacs, R., Schilder, A. M. C., Sundin, G. W., Zandstra, B., Hanson, E., and Shane, B. 2011. Michigan Fruit Management Guide 2012. Extension Bulletin E-154. Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.


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