NCERA_old137: Soybean Diseases

(Multistate Research Coordinating Committee and Information Exchange Group)

Status: Active

NCERA_old137: Soybean Diseases

Duration: 10/01/2014 to 09/30/2019

Administrative Advisor(s):

NIFA Reps:

Statement of Issues and Justification

Mission of NCERA-137:

The NCERA 137 Soybean Disease Committee monitors the development of soybean diseases and directs science-based information to breeders and agricultural companies across the US. The committee has a system of rapid exchange of information about current and emerging pathogen issues that helps mitigate yield losses and assists growers and companies in cost savings. The coordinated, multistate research and information exchange assists soybean breeders, seed companies and fungicide manufacturers in developing improved germplasm lines, varieties and integrated pest management programs that ultimately enhances the profitability of soybean production while protecting the environment and sustainability of soybean production.

Statement of Issues and Justification:

Processed soybeans are the largest source of protein feed and the second largest source of vegetable oil in the world and the U.S. is the world's leading soybean producer and exporter, with a total of over 3 billion bushels harvested from 76 million acres in 2012. Over the last 6 years the cash market value of soybeans produced in the U.S. has more than doubled from 20.5 billion dollars in 2006 to 43.2 billion dollars in 2012. With rising production value, new markets for green energy, and soybean oil replacing crude oil in industrial processes, there is a greater demand to improve yield and quality. Soybean yields have remained relatively steady since 2002, with average yields of 41.9 and 39.6 bu/A reported for 2011 and 2012, respectively (NASS, USDA). The frequency and spread of soybean diseases has played a role in these stagnant yields in several production areas.

Soybean production in the north central region has increased due to changes in management systems, improved genetics, and expanded soybean acreage. From 1996 through 2007, yield losses to soybean diseases were estimated at 13.5% (Wrather and Koenning, 2009). There are numerous opportunities for plant pathologists to work together to reduce yield losses caused by diseases through both improved cultivar resistance and best management practices. Best management practices include the reemphasis of integrated pest management principles whereby fungicide applications are made only when economic thresholds are reached.

One of the major strengths of NCERA-137 is the ability for its members to discuss and respond to new and reemerging diseases in the north central region. For example, soybean rust was discovered for the first time in the fall of 2004 near Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Numerous members of this committee were at the forefront of the national response prior to the creation of the NCERA-208 Soybean Rust Committee. While soybean rust has not caused the feared catastrophic losses predicted by some, the disease has spread in a decidedly different pattern each year, leaving pathologists unable to predict what the long term impact of the disease may be. As a result, its introduction has resulted in major increases in the use of fungicides, even in areas where rust does not occur. For example, according to data from the National Agriculture Statistics Service (NASS), very little fungicide usage occurred on soybeans prior to 2006. In 2006, over 362,000 pounds of fungicides were applied to soybeans, with that number continuing to increase with over 2 million pounds applied in 2012 ( There are numerous questions regarding the efficacious use of foliar fungicides that still need to be addressed, including plant health claims. Additionally, breeders continue to expend a large amount of their time in efforts at finding sources of resistance to the rust fungus.

The recent increase in soybean market price has encouraged growers to use fungicides even in situations where there may not be a clear benefit. Increased fungicides use is of concern for several reasons, including the increased risk for development of fungicide resistance. In 2010, the loss of disease control and resistance to strobilurin fungicides was documented in Cercospora sojina the causal agent of Frogeye leaf spot (Zhang and Bradley, 2012). Monitoring for fungicide resistance and education will be necessary to minimize or prevent the loss of disease control in Frogeye leaf spot and other soybean diseases.

The soilborne disease Phytophthora root and stem rot, has remained an important limitation on soybean yields and the importance of Sclerotinia stem rot and sudden death syndrome have increased due to climatic trends (warmer and wetter) and altered management practices (no-till and reduced till). NCERA-137 collectively serves as a forum to address these concerns, and plan research.

Soybean sudden death syndrome continues to be confirmed in new states and counties, and although variable from year to year it appears to be increasing in severity and incidence within fields across the region. Pathologists, breeders and industry continue to actively look for methods to manage and reduce the severity of SDS.

Soybean vein necrosis virus is a new disease that was initially found in 2008 in only a few states, by 2012 it was widespread across many states with high incidence of fields affected. As a result NCERA-137committee invited virologists to the NCERA-137 meeting to exchange information and discuss the situation. This enabled committee members to provide the most up to date and accurate information regarding this emerging disease to our stakeholders.

In spite of the fact that a great deal of emphasis has been put forth both in research and Extension efforts to manage soybean cyst nematode, there is increasing evidence that some populations of the nematode are now able to overcome the major source of resistance to the disease. This poses many questions on long term management of SCN, as well as the continued need for extension and outreach efforts to better educate stakeholders on the importance of SCN resistance and field sampling.

Research continues to be needed on the development of molecular techniques to diagnose pathogens that have spread from south to north. For example, the successful development of PCR techniques to confirm the existence of symptomatic and asymptomatic forms of the brown stem rot pathogen, Phialophora gregata, has provided new evidence that this pathogen is much more widespread than previously thought. Many new tools are being developed and screened by members of the NCERA-137 group, regular contact and exchange of information allows us to work cooperatively to advance these methods.

Charcoal rot, frogeye leaf spot, and bean pod mottle virus, diseases that were historically southern problems have continued to spread and have had negative production impacts in the north central region. Additionally, over the past several years, there are many new researchers and Extension specialists who have joined the ranks of the soybean disease research community. NCERA-137 has had a 29-year history of success and the benefits of new faculty participating in NCERA-137 are critical for effectively fostering new collaborations and communication of results for these new researchers.

Since its inception in 1984, the annual meetings of NCERA-137 have had near perfect attendance from member states. We are an international committee with participation including Ontario, Canada. Participants place a high value on the interpersonal exchanges and it shows in the attendance rate and lively discussions. The annual meeting is routinely aligned with meetings of other groups interested in the health and productivity of soybean. For example, it is held every third year in conjunction with the Soybean Breeders Workshop and occasionally with the Southern Soybean Disease Workers Meeting. In 2014 we plan to meet with the Southern Soybean Disease Workers meeting and the NCERA-200 soybean virus group.

Collaborations within NCERA-137 are the basis for numerous regional research projects and multistate grant proposals funded by groups such as the North Central IPM Center, the North Central Soybean Research Program (NCSRP) and AFRI. In recent years, these coordinated regional projects have included regional research on Sclerotinia stem rot, Phytophthora root rot, brown stem rot, and sudden death syndrome, soybean cyst nematode project and soybean seedling diseases.

A regional disease loss survey of NCERA-137 researchers and Extension specialists provides annual yield loss estimates for the North central region. A joint effort of the United Soybean Board and NCERA-137 membership, this survey is a comprehensive assessment of soybean yield losses to plant diseases. Information from this survey is used to determine the relative importance of soybean diseases in order to prioritize research and guide breeding efforts.

NCERA-137 members maintain a close association with the NCERA-208 Soybean Rust and the NCERA-200 Soybean Viruses Committees in order to coordinate research on soybean rust and soybean viruses, emerging pathogens that are at the forefront of NCERA-137 members research and extension programs. NCERA-137 members also work closely with state and regional soybean commodity organizations.

NCERA-137 members are extensively involved in technology transfer via traditional and electronic media. In addition to traditional state Extension publications, multi-state regional efforts are also ongoing. The Soybean Plant Health Initiative (PHI) ( is a collaborative effort between the NCSRP and north central region soybean researchers and is accessible to producers, consultants, and researchers. Its website is a centralized source of soybean disease research and disease management information. Links to similar systems in each state extend the reach and content of the PHI.

NCERA-137 members, working collaboratively with the NCERA-208 Soybean Rust Committee, have played an important role in the development of the IpmPIPE (Integrated Pest Management Pest Information Platform for Extension and Education) that allows soybean producers, Extension educators and soybean industry personnel to follow the spread of soybean rust on a real-time basis. This reporting and communication system has allowed for timely application of fungicides and the judicious use of fungicides where soybean rust is not a threat.

NCERA-137 membership, as stakeholders in the activity of the committee, has influenced research directions on soybean diseases important in the north central region to the benefit of soybean producers, the ultimate customer for their efforts. We have close ties with Industry and the North Central Soybean Research Board and the United Soybean Board.

The continued success of NCERA-137 is contingent on our ability to actively train the next generation of researchers, teachers and Extension workers. Even though funding for graduate students and postdoctoral associates has become more difficult to obtain, we need to continue to seek new opportunities for graduate students and postdoctoral associates to study soybean diseases and to actively participate in activities associated with NCERA-137.


  1. Foster collaborative research and information exchange on new and emerging soybean diseases among scientists in the North Central Region including soybean breeders and entomologists that will lead to improved disease screening protocols, additional sources of disease resistance genes and ultimately, improved host plant resistance
  2. Compare findings on the impacts of changing production practices such as earlier planting dates, new sources of host plant resistance, increased use of fungicide seed treatments and foliar fungicides, and other new or improved crop production technologies on soybean diseases that could be adopted for other production areas in the region.
  3. Compare data from studies of the ecology and epidemiology of soybean diseases important in the North Central Region.
  4. Improve knowledge transfer about soybean diseases and their management in the North Central Region to researchers, Extension faculty, producers and the agribusiness community through the use of web sites, podcasts, social media (Twitter and Facebook) and other new technologies as they are developed.
  5. Continue to monitor and share information for any new or reemerging pathogens of soybean in the North Central Region and develop appropriate responses to their emergence as they occur.

Procedures and Activities

The strength of NCERA-137 has been:
1. Its ability to successfully bring together colleagues from different institutions to plan and coordinate research on important soybean diseases that affect all or portions of the north central region.

i) Recently completed work on soybean check-off funded projects including Phytophthora root and stem rot and Sclerotinia stem rot.

ii) On-going collaborative funded projects include research on charcoal rot, frogeye leaf spot, sudden death syndrome and seedling diseases.

2. White paper. In 2007, NCERA-137 members completed a white paper identifying research gaps on important soybean diseases ( This paper is serving as a road map in developing new grant proposals for region wide research projects.

3. Joint meetings. In order to continue coordination and development of collaborative projects, the NCERA-137 members will need to meet annually to plan, discuss, evaluate and report on new and ongoing research projects and educational initiatives.

The annual meetings also serve as a venue to discuss critical emerging issues occurring in the region. One such issue is the increased use of foliar fungicides on soybean within the region following the introduction of soybean rust to the U.S. in 2004. New marketing tactics by the chemical companies now encourage producers to use fungicides for reasons other than disease control (i.e. plant health). NCERA-137 members have pooled their soybean fungicide trial data, and a combined meta-analysis is being conducted to determine the benefits, if any, of the use of foliar fungicides on soybeans in the absence of disease. As an outcome of these discussions, a fungicide efficacy table has been developed for soybean diseases (similar to that produced by the NCERA-184 Wheat Disease Committee).

Expected Outcomes and Impacts

  • Development and coordination of new efforts to combat emerging diseases such as Soybean Vein Necrosis Virus and continuing collaborative research projects (seedling diseases, charcoal rot, frogeye leafspot and QoI resistance, and sudden death syndrome) among NCERA-137 members and associated scientists that address stakeholder needs.
  • Develop mechanisms to measure the effect (increased productivity) and impact (economic benefit) of new management practices on soybean diseases.
  • Release of soybean germplasm lines (e.g. Rps8 gene for Phytophthora resistance and a recently released charcoal rot tolerant line) and cultivars with improved resistance to diseases of importance in the north central region
  • Publication of collaborative research results and management recommendations in various formats including electronic media for use by producers, Extension agents, consultants and interested industry personnel (see Literature Published section for examples from the previous five years).
  • Regular interaction among NCERA-137 members to exchange ideas and/or information/data on current pathogens/diseases.
  • Outcome/Impact 6; Evaluation and standardization of methods or techniques leading to the development of common protocols (e.g. work is currently in progress to develop improved screening protocols for Macrophomina phaseolina, the cause of charcoal rot). Outcome/Impact 7; Identification of critical/key research and education issues. Outcome/Impact 8; Develop new soybean disease webcasts to be delivered through the Plant Management Networks Focus on Soybean section ( Current NCERA-137 members have already contributed seven soybean disease related presentations. Outcome/Impact 9; Develop a fungicide efficacy chart that can be used by soybean producers and the soybean industry in the North Central region. Outcome/Impact 10; Report soybean disease monitoring activities on a state-by-state basis through the IPM PIPE ( and provide state specific management guidelines. Outcome/Impact 11; Conduct a meta-analysis on data collected from multi-state foliar fungicide trials conducted on soybean in the North Central region and deliver the results of the analysis through a peer-reviewed journal article with lay information being delivered through the Plant Health Initiative. Outcome/Impact 12; As a result of the committees soybean disease research and outreach efforts, north central soybean producers will better manage their crops to reduce disease losses and increase profits

Projected Participation

View Appendix E: Participation

Educational Plan

Todays producers are becoming more sophisticated in the ways in which they obtain research and crop management information. Many of them are increasingly using the internet as a source of information, podcasts and videocasts (e.g. YouTube) and social media (e.g. Facebook and Twitter). Because of this, information from NCERA-137 projects needs to be prepared for delivery in multiple formats. There are several examples of how the committee is adapting educational information for the modern soybean grower.

Working with the Plant Management Network (, members of NCERA-137 have developed a series of webcasts in the Focus on Soybean section. Over ten soybean disease-related webcasts are available currently, and more are in development. NCERA-137 members will continue to update webcasts as needed and develop new webcasts as new issues arise.

The Plant Health Initiative website ( continues to be an outlet for NCERA-137 members to report information on soybean diseases and disease detection and management. Current modules include Asian Rust, Bean Pod Mottle Virus, Brown Stem Rot, Charcoal Rot, Phytophthora Root and Stem Rot, Seedling Diseases, Soybean Cyst Nematode, Soybean Mosaic Virus, Stem Canker, Sudden Death Syndrome, Viruses, and White Mold. The site also provides links to state specific information where available. Soybean disease information on this site will continue to be updated as new information becomes available.

NCERA-137 members participating in soybean rust monitoring through sentinel plots report results of the monitoring effort through the IPM PIPE website ( Although this is primarily a NCERA-208 Soybean Rust Committee activity, diseases other than soybean rust are monitored and reported through this site, and information regarding current disease levels in specific areas of specific states and disease management recommendations are provided. Monitoring of other soybean diseases will continue to be reported in this manner as long as IPM PIPE funding continues.

Results of collaborative research projects will be reported at scientific meetings and be published in peer reviewed journals. Communication of these findings will also be made available to producers, commercial field managers and agriculture industry personnel through Plant Disease Management Reports, fact sheets, web site materials, field days, and educational offerings in traditional Extension meeting formats. Surveys of the impact of information delivered will occur, depending on funding availability.


Officers are to include a chair and secretary who is the chair-elect. Officers will be elected for a one year term. Administrative guidance will be provided by an assigned Administrative Advisor and a CSREES Representative.

Literature Cited

Members of NCERA-137 (Formerly NCERA-212) regularly publish collaborative efforts in peer reviewed journals, disease management reports, Extension bulletins and on web sites. The following list highlights those citations that demonstrate collaborative efforts.


Mueller, D.S., Wise, K.A., Dufault, N.S., Bradley, C.A., Chilvers, M.I. 2013. Fungicides for Field Crops. The American Phytopathological Society Press, St. Paul, MN.

Refereed publications and abstracts

Abd-Elmagid, A., Garrido, P.A., Hunger, R., Lyles, J.L., Mansfield, M.A., Gugino, B.K., Smith, D.L., Melouk, H.A., Garzon, C.D. 201x. Discriminatory simplex and multiplex PCR for four species of the genus Sclerotinia. Journal of Microbiological Methods in press.

Abdelsamad, N., Mbofung, G. C., Robertson, A. E., Liebman, M., and Leandro, L.F. 2012. Long-term crop rotations suppress soybean sudden death syndrome in Iowa.Phytopathology 475P

Abeysekara, N., Matthiesen, R., Cianzio, S., Bhattacharyya, M. and Robertson, A. 2012. Identification of quantitative trait loci for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean. Phytopathology 102:S4.1

Bradley, C. A., Wood, A. Zhang, G. R., Murray, J. E., Phillips, D. V., and Ming, R. 2012. Genetic diversity of Cercospora sojina revealed by amplified fragment length polymorphism markers. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology 34:410-416.

Chen, S., Kurle, J., Sun, M., Naeve, S., Wyse, D., and Stahl, E. 2012. Preceding Crops Affected Soybean Iron-deficiency Chlorosis and Vesicular-arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Soybean Cyst Nematode Infested Fields. Crop Sci. doi: 10.2135/cropsci2012.03.0170; Published online 8 Oct. 2012. 53:1-10.

Chilvers, M.I. 2012. Molecular diagnostics in plant disease diagnostic clinics&whats the status? (Editorial) Fungal Genomics and Biology. 2:e102. doi:10.4172/2165-8056.1000e102

Chilvers, M.I. and Serven, B.L. Submitted Nov-12-12. Foliar fungicide efficacy on brown spot of soybeans in Michigan, 2012. Plant Disease Management Reports.

Chilvers, M.I., Jacobs, J.L. and Boyse, J.F. 2012 2012. Triazole foliar fungicide efficacy on Septoria brown spot in soybeans in Michigan, 2011. Plant Disease Management Reports. 6:FC026

Chilvers, M.I., Warner, F.W., Jacobs, J.L. and Wang, J. 2012. Efficacy of nematicide and fungicide seed treatments for soybean cyst nematode and soybean sudden death syndrome in Michigan, 2011. Plant Disease Management Reports. 6:ST003

Diaz-Arias ,M. M., Leandro, L. F., and Munkvold, G. P. 2012. Frequency of isolation, aggressiveness, and impact on yield of Fusarium root rot species in soybean in Iowa. Phytopathology 322P

Ellis, M. L. Diaz-Arias, M. M., Cruz, D. R., Munkvold, G. and Leandro, L. F. S. First report of Fusarium commune causing damping-off, seed rot, and seedling root rot on soybean (Glycine max) in the United States. Plant Disease (accepted)

Ellis, M. L. Diaz-Arias, M. M., Leandro, L. F. S. and Munkvold, G. 2012. First Report of Fusarium armeniacum Causing Seed Rot and Root Rot on Soybean (Glycine max) in the United States. Plant Disease 96:2693.

Gillitzer, P., Martin, A.C., Kantar, M., Kauppi,K.L., Dahlberg, S., Lis, D., Kurle, J., Sheaffer, C., and Wyse, D. 2012.Optimization of screening of native and naturalized plants from Minnesota for antimicrobial activity. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research. 6:938-949.

Hill, C. B., Chirumamilla, A., and Hartman, G. L. 2012. Resistance and virulence in the soybean-Aphis glycines interaction. Euphytica 186:635-646.

Hobbs, H. A., Jossey, S., Wang, Y., Hartman, G. L., and Domier, L. L. 2012. Diverse soybean accessions identified with temperature-sensitive resistance to Tobacco Streak Virus. Crop Science 52:738-744.

J. C. Bienapfl, C. M. Floyd, J. A. Percich, and D. K. Malvick. 2012. First report of Clonostachys rosea causing root rot of soybean in the United States. Plant Disease

Jiang, Y. N., Haudenshield, J. S., and Hartman, G. L. 2012. Characterization of Pythium spp. from soil samples in Illinois. Canadian Journal of Plant Patholgoy 34:448-454.

Jiang, Y. N., Haudenshield, J. S., and Hartman, G. L. 2012. Response of soybean fungal and oomycete pathogens to apigenin and genistein. Mycology: An International Journal of Fungal Biology 3:153-157.

Kim, K. S., Unfried, J. R., Hyten, D. L., Frederick, R. D., Hartman, G. L., Nelson, R. L., Song, Q., and Diers, B. W. 2012. Molecular mapping of soybean rust resistance in soybean accession PI 561356 and SNP haplotype analysis of the Rpp1 region in diverse germplasm. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 125:1339-1352.

Kolander, T.M., Bienapfl, J.C., Kurle, J.E., and Malvick, D.K. 2012. Symptomatic and asymptomatic host range of Fusarium virguliforme, the causal agent of soybean (Glycine max) sudden death syndrome. Plant Disease 96:1148-1153.

Leandro, L. F. S., Robertson, A. E., Mueller, D. S., and Yang, X.B. Climatic and environmental trends observed during epidemic and non-epidemic years of soybean sudden death syndrome in Iowa. Plant Health Progress (accepted)

Leandro, L. F. S., Tatalovic, N. and Lucked, A. 2012. Soybean sudden death syndrome  advances in knowledge and disease management. CAB Reviews 7:053. doi:10.1079/PAVSNNR20127053

Leandro, L.F., Robertson, A.E., Mueller, D.S., and X.B. Yang. 2013. Comparison of environmental conditions during epidemic and non-epidemic years of soybean sudden death syndrome in Iowa. Plant Health Progress. Accepted November 2012.

Luckew, A., Cianzio, S. and Leandro, L. F. S. 2012. Screening method for distinguishing soybean resistance to Fusarium virguliforme in resistant by resistant crosses. Crop Science 52 (5): 2215-2223.

Matthiesen, R. Abeysekara, N., Robertson, A. and Maroof, S. 2012. Combining isolates to screen for novel sources of resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean. Phytopathology 102:S4.77

Mbofung, G. C. Y., Harrington, T. C., Steimel, J., Navi, S. S., Yang, X. B., and Leandro, L. 2012. Multiloci fingerprint analysis reveals genetic variability within Fusarium virguliforme population from Iowa. Canadian J. Plant Pathology 34:83-97.

Mengistu, A., Arelli, P.A., Bellaloui, N., Bond, J.P., Shannon, G.J., Wrather, A.J., Rupe, J.B., Chen, P., Little, C.R., Canaday, C.H., Newman, M.A., and Pantalone, V.R. 2012. Evaluation of soybean genotypes for resistance to three seedborne diseases. Plant Health Progress: Online (DOI: 10.1094/PHP-2012-0321-02-RS).

Mengistu, A., Arelli, P.A., Bond, J.P., Shannon, G.J., Wrather, A.J., Rupe, J.B., Chen, P., Little, C.R., Canaday, C.H., Newman, M.A., and Pantalone, V.R. 2011. Evaluation of soybean genotypes for resistance to charcoal rot. Plant Health Progress: Online (DOI: 10.1094/PHP-2010-0926-01-RS).

Mueller, D., Wise, K., Dufalt, N., Bradley, C. and Chilvers, M.I. (Edited) 2013. Fungicides for Field Crops. APS Press. 120 pages.

Pedrozo, R. and Little, C.R. APSnet Image of the Week (February 14-28, 2012). "Phomopsis seed decay." APS publication number: FI00147; .aspx

Pedrozo, R., and Little, C.R. 2012. Identification and characterization of soybean seedborne fungi in Kansas. Phytopathology 102: S4.91

Peltier, A.J., Bradley, C.A., Chilvers, M.I., Malvick, D.K., Mueller, D.S., Wise, K.A., Esker, P.D. 2012. Biology, yield loss, and control of Sclerotinia stem rot of soybean. Journal of Integrated Pest Management. 3(2):B1-B7

Radwan, O., Li, M., Calla, B., Li, S., Hartman, G. L., and Clough, S. J. 2012. Effect of Fusarium virguliforme phytotoxin on soybean gene expression suggests a role in multidimensional defence. Molecular Plant Pathology DOI: 10.1111/mpp.12006.

Robertson, A.E., Block, C.C., Hurburgh, C.R. and Shepherd, L.M. 2012. Effect of Gosss leaf blight severity on grain quality and on Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis seed infection. Phytopathology 102:S4.101

Rojas, A., Jacobs, J., Bradley, C.A., Esker, P.D., Giesler, L., Jardine, D., Nelson, B.D., Malvick, D. K., Markell, S., Robertson, A.E., Rupe, J.C., Sweets, L. Wise, K.A., Chilvers, M.I. 2012. Survey of oomycete species associated with soybean seedling diseases in the United States. Phytopathology 102 (Suppl): S5.8

Smith, D.L., Watson, Q., Willis, D.K., German, T.L., Phibbs, A., Mueller, D.S., Dittman, J.D., Saalau-Rojas, E., Whitham, S.A. 2013. First Report of Soybean Vein Necrosis Disease Caused by Soybean vein necrosis-associated virus in Wisconsin and Iowa. Plant Disease. Accepted December 2012

Stewart, S. and Robertson, A.E. 2012. A modified method to screen for partial resistance for Phytopthora sojae in soybean. Crop Science 52:1181-1186

Tatalovic, N., Tylka, G. L., and Leandro, L. F. 2012. Effect of watering on the dynamics of Heterodera glycines and Fusarium virguliforme interaction in soybean roots. Phytopathology 448P

Twizeyimana, M., and Hartman, G. L. 2012. Pathogenic variation of Phakopsora pachyrhizi isolates on soybean in the United States from 2006 to 2009. Plant Disease 95:75-81.

Twizeyimana, M., Hill, C. B., Pawlowski, M., and Hartman, G. L. 2012. A cut-stem inoculation technique to evaluate soybean for re- sistance to Macrophomina phaseolina. Plant Disease 96:1210-1215.

Vittal, R., Haudenshield, J. S., and Hartman, G. L. 2012. A multiplexed immunofluorescence method identifies Phakopsora pachyrhizi urediniospores and determines their viability. Phytopathology 102:1143-1152.

Vittal, R., Yang, H., and Hartman, G. L. 2012. Anastomosis of germ tubes and nuclear migration of nuclei in germ tube networks of the soybean rust pathogen, Phakopsora pachyrhizi. European Journal of Plant Pathology 132:163-167.

Yang, H. C., Haudenshield, J. S., and Hartman, G. L. 2012. First report of Colletotrichum chlorophyti causing soybean anthracnose. Plant Disease 96:1699.

Zhang, X. C., Freire, M. C. M., Le, M. H., De Oliveria, L. O., Pitkin, J. W., Segers, G., Concibido, V. C., Baley, G. J., Hartman, G. L., Upchurch, G., Pedley, K. F., and Stacey, G. 2012. Genetic diversity and origins of Phakopsora pachyrhizi isolates in the United States. Asian Journal of Plant Pathology DOI: 10.3923/ajppaj.2012.

Extension publications

Chilvers, M.I. et al. Drought: Implications for near-term management decisions in field crops  Fungicides: To spray or not to spray? MSU Extension News, July, 5, 2012.

Chilvers, M.I. Management of soybean white mold: iTunes podcast now available. MSU Extension News, July, 30, 2012.

Chilvers, M.I. Phytoplasma (aster yellows) identified on Michigan soybeans. MSU Extension News, Oct, 4, 2012.

Chilvers, M.I. Soybean seedling disease study. Webcast, hosted at University of Nebraska Lincoln. Apr, 4, 2012. View...

Chilvers, M.I. Soybean vein necrosis-associated virus (SVNaV) confirmed in Michigan. MSU Extension News, Sep, 13, 2012. Picked up by Plant Management Network Sept, 20, 2012.

Chilvers, M.I., Jacobs, J., and Rojas, A. Multiple Pythium species associated with soybean and corn seedling disease in Michigan. MSU Extension News. May, 1, 2012.

Costamilan, L.M., Clebsch, C.C., Soares, R.M., Seixas, C.D.S., Godoy, C.V., and Dorrance, A.E. 2012. Diversity of Phytophthora sojae pathotypes from Brazil. European J. of Plant Pathol. DOI: 10.1007/s10658-012-0128-9.

Ellis, M.L., Paul, P.A., Broders, K.D., and Dorrance, A.E. 2012. Two new species of Pythium, P. schmitthenneri and P. selbyi pathogens of corn and soybean in Ohio. Mycologia 104: 477-487.

Ellis, M.L., Wang, H., Paul, P., St. Martin, S.K., McHale, L., and Dorrance, A.E. 2012. Identification of soybean genotypes resistant to Fusarium graminearum and genetic mapping of resistance quantitative trait loci in the cultivar Conrad. Crop Sci. 52:2224-2233.

Hobbs, H. A., Domier, L. L. and Nelson, B. D. 2012. First Report of Alfalfa mosaic virus and Soybean dwarf virus on Soybean in North Dakota. Plant Dis. 96:1829

Luster, D.G., McMahon, M.B., Edwards, H.H., Boerma, B.L., Lewis Ivey, M.L., Miller, S.A., and Dorrance, A.E. 2012. Novel Phakopsora pachyrhizi extracellular proteins are ideal targets for immunological diagnostic assays. AEM 78:3890-3895.

MacGuidwin, A. and Smith, D.L. 2012. Soil Testing for Nematodes. Soy Sentinel. Vol. 9. No. 3.
Mueller, D. and Sisson, A. Scouting White Mold in Soybean. Iowa State University Extension: CSI 020. September 2011.

Mueller, D., Robertson, A., Wiggs, S., Hodgson, E and ONeal, M. 2012. Evaluation of foliar fungicides and insecticides on soybean in 2011. ICMNews. 2012 Illinois Report  NCERA 212

Nelson, B., and Markell, S. 2012. A season for SCN. The North Dakota

Nelson, B.D., Bolton , M. D., Lopez-Nicora, H. D., and Niblack, T. L. 2012. First confirmed report of Heterodera schachtii in North Dakota. Plant Dis. 96:772.

Nguyen, V.T., Vuong, T.D., VanToai, T., Lee, J.D., Wu, X., Mian M.A.Rouf, Dorrance, A.E., Shannon, J.G., and Nguyen, H.T. 2012. Mapping of quantitative trait loci associated with resistance to Phytophthora sojae and flooding tolerance in soybean. Crop Sci. 52:2481-2493.

Robertson, A. 2012. Nineteen species of Pythium associated with damped-off soybeans in Iowa. ICMNews.

Robertson, A. and Chilvers, M. Soybean seedling disease study. Developed PowerPoint file in conjunction with Dr. Alison Robertson, Iowa State University to introduce the NIFA-CAP soybean oomycete project and provide introduction to soybean seedling diseases. The file was distributed to the oomycete extension network for use in winter meetings. Jan, 11, 2012.

Robertson, A. and Munkvold, G. 2012. Seedling diseases reported in corn and soybean. ICMNews.

Robertson, A., Mueller, D., Wiggs, S and Hodgson, E. 2012. 2011 Evaluation of fungicide and insecticide seed treatments on soybean in Iowa. ICMNews. htp://

Ruhl, G. and Wise, K. 2012. Symptoms of soybean vein necrosis linked to a new Tospovirus. Purdue Pest and Crop Newsletter. Issue 23.

Sisson, A., Mueller, D., Robertson, A., Hodgson, E., Schaefer, K., Licht, M., and McGrath, C. 2012. Mid-Season Soybean Scouting. Iowa State University Extension: CSI 0007.

Sisson, A., Mueller, D., Robertson, A., Hodgson, E., Schaefer, K., Licht, M., and McGrath, C. 2012. Late Season Soybean Scouting. Iowa State University Extension: CSI 0008.

Smith, D.L. and Phibbs, A. 2012. New Phytophthora spp. Causing Root Rot on Soybean in Wisconsin. Wisconsin Crop Manager. October 2.

Smith, D.L. and Willis, D.K. 2012. A New Virus of Soybean Confirmed in Wisconsin. Wisconsin Crop Manager. October 18, 2012.
Soybean Grower Magazine 1(2):16-17.

Wang, H., St. Martin, S.K., and Dorrance, A.E. 2012. Comparison of phenotypic methods and yield contributions of quantitative trait loci for partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae in soybean. Crop Science 52:609-622.

Wang, H., Wijeratne, A., Wijeratne, S., Lee, S., Taylor, C., St. Martin, S.K., McHale, L., and Dorrance, A.E. 2012. Dissection of two soybean QTL conferring partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae through sequence and gene expression analysis. BMC Genomics.2012, 13:428. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-13-428.

Werle, R., Bernards, M., Giesler, L. and Lindquist, J. 2013. Influence of Two Herbicides on Soybean Cyst Nematode (Heterodera glycines) Reproduction on Henbit (Lamium amplexicaule) Roots. Weed Technology 27:4146.

Wise, K. 2012. Fungicide applications in soybean: Risk vs. Reward. Purdue Pest and Crop Newsletter. Issue 19.

Wise, K. 2012. Sudden death syndrome in soybean appearing in Indiana. Purdue Pest and Crop Newsletter. Issue 21.

Wise, K., and Hughes, T. 2012. Scout soybean fields for charcoal rot. Purdue Pest and Crop Newsletter. Issue 16.


A. Rojas, J. Jacobs, C. A. Bradley, P. D. Esker, L. Giesler, D. Jardine, B. D. Nelson, D. K. Malvick, S. Markell,
A. E., Robertson, J. C. Rupe, L. Sweets, K. A. Wise, and M. I. Chilvers. 2012. Survey of oomycete species associated with soybean seedling diseases in the United States. Phytopathology 102:S4.102

Ameen, G., del Rio-Mendoza , L., Nelson, B. D. 2012. Characterization of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum sensitivity to metconazole in North Central United States. Phytopathology 102:S4.4

Anderson, G., Zumwalde, C., Brose, I., and Kurle, J.E. 2012. Increase in Phytophthora sojae virulence and number of pathotypes in Minnesota in the period 1984 to 2011. Phytopathology. 102(Suppl. 5):S5.1.

Barbeau, A., Martin, A., Anderson , G., Kurle , J. E., Wyse, D., Use of in-vitro and colorimetric techniques to assay extracts from indigenous plant species for antifungal properties. Phytopathology. 102(Suppl. 5):S5.1.

Facts and fiction: Fungicides on the Iowa Landscape. Pheasants Forever. January. Des Moines, IA (40 attendees)

Knodel, J., McMullen, M., Markell, S., Ashley, R., Endres, G., Waldstein, D., Larson, C., and Nelson, D. 2012. Integrated pest management survey for insect and disease pests of oilseed crops in North Dakota. Proceedings of the 7th International IPM Symposium. Memphis, TN. March 27-29, 2012.

Malvick, D. K., Curland, R. D., Ishimaru, C. A. 2012. Widespread distribution of Gosss bacterial leaf blight and wilt of corn and potential variation in virulence of Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis in Minnesota.

Managing Gosss wilt in corn and SDS in soybean. North Central Iowa Crop & Land Stewardship Clinic. January. Fort Dodge, IA (166 attendees)

Poromarto, S. H., Nelson, B. D., Goswami, R. S., Welsh, M. 2012. Reproduction of soybean cyst nematode on accessions of the core collection of Phaseolus vulgaris. Phytopathology 102:S4.93

Qiu, C. and Nelson, B. D. 2012. Genetic Variation and Aggressiveness of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in the United States. Proceedings of the 2012 Sclerotinia Initiative Annual Meeting, Bloomington, MN, January 18-20, 2012.

Rojas, A., Jacobs, J., Bradley, C. A., Esker, P. D., Giesler, L., Jardine, D., Nelson, B. D.,. Malvick, D. K, Markell, S., Robertson, A. E, Rupe, J. C, Sweets, L., Wise, K. A., Chilvers, M. I.. 2012. Survey of oomycete species associated with soybean seedling diseases in the United States.

Sorur, A. Y., Warner, Reinhardt, A., T., Pfaff, M., Bond, J. P., Leonardo, L, Malvick., D.K, Fakhoury, A. M.. 2012. Profiling microbial communities in soils of SDS-infested sybean fields using next-generation sequencing.

Soybean seedling disease biology and manageemnt. Soybean Disease Diagnostic and Management
Workshop, August, Boone, IA (20 attendees)

Soybean seedling diseases and seed treatments. Iowa State University Seed Treatment Workshop. July. Ames, IA (25 attendees)

Zitnick-Anderson, K. and Nelson Jr., B. D. 2012. Characterization and identification of Pythium from soybean roots in North Dakota. Phytopathology 102:S4.145

Zitnick-Anderson, K., and Nelson Jr., B. D. 2012. Stimulation of sexual structure production by Pythium. Phytopathology 102:S4.145

Collaborative Websites:

The Plant Health Initiative webpage at: contains contributions from NCERA-137 members working on Phialophora (Cadophora ) gregata, Phytophthora sojae, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Fusarium solani f.sp. glycines (F. verguliforme), Phakopsora pachyrhizi, Cercospora sojina, Diaporthe phaseoloru, Bean Pod Mottle Virus, Soybean Mosaic Virus and Heterodera glycines.

PIPE: Pest Information Platform for Extension and Education is a national warning system designed to help soybean farmers protect their crop from the devastating disease Asian Soybean Rust (ASR). Several NCERA 137 members oversee state sentinel plot systems and provide weekly commentary on the status of ASR and other soybean diseases in their states.

Plant Management Network ( This site contains the peer reviewed journal Plant Health Progress, Plant Disease Management Reports and Focus on Soybeans


Land Grant Participating States/Institutions


Non Land Grant Participating States/Institutions

Ontario - ON MInistry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, South Dakota State University, USDA-ARS-Urbana
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