NEERA1306: Management of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

(Multistate Research Project)

Status: Active

NEERA1306: Management of the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

Duration: 10/01/2013 to 09/30/2018

Administrative Advisor(s):


NIFA Reps:


Statement of Issues and Justification

Statement of Issue: The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys Stål (BMSB) is a highly polyphagous stink bug of Asian origin. In its native range of China, Korea and Japan, it is considered a periodic agricultural pest of soybeans, tree fruit and various ornamental and vegetable crops. The brown marmorated stink bug is also a nuisance pest in these countries due to its overwintering behavior of entering enclosed structures such as residences in large numbers each fall. Since its introduction into the United States around 1996, it has spread to over 40 states and the District of Columbia. H. halys has also established populations in Canada and Switzerland. It has also been intercepted in other countries such as New Zealand. In the United States BMSB has become a homeowner nuisance wherever it has established and in the eastern United States, become a severe agricultural pest on both conventional and organic farms in mid-Atlantic states with little or no management options and an emerging pest in surrounding states such as Kentucky, New York, North Carolina and Tennessee. In the western United States growers in agricultural areas of California, Oregon and Washington where BMSB is becoming established are also concerned about its impacts. In the United States where BMSB is currently a pest, it also attacks a wider range of agricultural crops than in Asia. Currently, damage is seen in numerous vegetables, tree fruit and field crops, and in nurseries. Due to this, failure to address this issue on a regional basis will result in severe losses in a variety of cropping systems including peaches, apples, soybeans and peppers resulting in economic hardships by growers and potential farm failures.

Need: In 2010, in response to severe losses in the mid-Atlantic United States due to BMSB, Drs. Tracy Leskey (USDA ARS) and George Hamilton (Rutgers University) created the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Working Group via a grant from the Northeastern IPM Center. The working groups goals were to bring together researchers, growers and others with the intent to discuss the situation and identify needs research and extension needs and priorities. The first meeting generated a long list of needs and priorities. They can be found at http://www.northeastipm.org/working-groups/bmsb-working-group/priorities-and-reports/. Due to continued funding from the Northeastern IPM Center, this group continues to meet and has grown to over 80 members from throughout the United States. Each time the group meets the list of priorities/needs are discussed and modified. As a priority is met it is removed. New priorities are added when needed. This proposal's objectives reflect current needs established by the working group and will be modified during the life of the project to reflect changes in priorities as identified by the working group.

A multi-state approach to this issue is warranted given the heavy losses incurred by agricultural producers in the eastern United States since 2010. In 2010, yield losses due to this insect in mid-Atlantic apples resulted $37 million in losses (American/Western Fruit Grower 2011) and in the tree fruit growing regions of Virginia and West Virginia damage approached 90% (Leskey & Hamilton 2010). Organic producers in this area observed similar amounts of damage to numerous fruits and vegetables. In 2011 and 2012, comparable damage levels were again observed in these and other eastern states and crops (apples, pears, peaches, tomatoes, peppers, grapes, brambles sweet and field corn and soybeans) from Virginia to New York.

Creating a multi-state project to address the needs currently identified by the BMSB working group and others will bring together researchers already working on this issue in the Northeast and other parts of the United States once a year to discuss, identify, and adjust research needs and priorities, and present progress updates. This approach will also allow participating researchers to coordinate their activities to avoid duplication. Finally, since this insect has spread throughout the United States, creating a multi-state project has the potential to bring together researchers from the northeast, from other geographic regions and from other cropping systems not present in the Northeast (cotton, nuts, etc.).

Justification: The brown marmorated stink bug was first observed in the United States in Allentown, PA around 1996 but was initially misidentified as a native pentatomid species. Following correct identification in 2001, it has been found in over 40 states. In several eastern states, its presence in agricultural crops has been confirmed in 2009 and was documented causing severe damage to apples, peaches, pears, peppers and tomatoes. In 2010, 2011 and 2012 damage by this insect was also observed in brambles, field corn, grapes, ornamentals, soybeans, and sweet corn.

Traditionally, management of stink bugs in soybeans, tree fruit and horticultural crops was accomplished through the use of targeted applications of organophosphate insecticides. However, with the passage of the Food Quality Protection Act in 1996, these materials have been slowly phased out resulting in increased damage by stink bugs in these crops. The addition of BMSB with its high rates of reproduction and survival puts these crops at greater risk. Many of the insecticides currently available to growers have variable effects (limited knockdown, recovery once treated, etc.) on resident populations and little or no residual effects on future invaders into treated fields and orchards. In the laboratory pyrethroid insecticides, the replacement for organophosphate insecticides in many cases, exhibit high levels of toxicity to the brown marmorated stink bug fifth instars and adults as do various neonicotinoid insecticides (imidacloprid and dinotefuran). Testing under field conditions has shown that pyrethroids such as bifenthrin to be the most efficacious. Prior to BMSB becoming a problem, pyrethroid use was discouraged in tree fruit and vegetables because of their negative effects to natural enemies. Today, due to the issues mentioned above, in many cases growers are relying on weekly applications of pyrethroids to manage BMSB thus abandoning 40 years of IPM program development. This use pattern is already causing secondary outbreaks of pest such as the wooly apple aphid and San Jose scale that were previously controlled by natural enemies putting growers on a "pesticide treadmill" that can lead to complete failures of management programs for BMSB and other pests.

In Asia, the brown marmorated stink bug is attacked by several egg parasitoids and one species of tachinid fly. However, as is customary with newly introduced species, natural enemies are rarely introduced at the same time. Two egg parasitoids and a tachinid fly have been observed attacking the brown marmorated stink bug in Delaware, Maryland, Pennsylvania and New Jersey but are generalist natural enemies and therefore not specific to the brown marmorated stink bug. Several native predators, including minute pirate bugs, ladybugs and spiders do attack BMSB. However, as with native parasitoids their impact has been limited. Exploration in Asia to find possible biological control agents has identified several potential egg parasitoids. These are currently in quarantine undergoing host specificity testing. The use of microbial agents is another potential non-chemical control method. However, to date, screening for possible candidates with toxicity to the brown marmorated stink bug has had limited success.

In addition, wherever, the brown marmorated stink bug occurs it has become a severe residential nuisance pest. Currently, there are no adequate pest management alternatives to prevent overwintering brown marmorated stink bug adults from entering residences in areas where they occur. Current recommendations for caulking of windows and/or the sealing of cracks and voids in exterior walls, eaves, etc. are only stop gaps. The use of insecticides to control the brown marmorated stink bug has proven effective in Japan; however, their usage is not currently labeled in the United States and therefore, is not currently an option. Unfortunately, homeowners and pest control professionals are creating their own potential solutions through the illegal use of bug bombs in attics and treatment of exterior/interior walls and eaves with insecticides. These practices pose health risks to homeowners, their families and the environment.

Expected Impacts

This project will document the development and evaluation of IPM tactics including monitoring, biological control and targeted use of pesticides. Information about the tactics will be discussed by each PI at state and regional grower meetings and will result in information being made available at participating university websites, the NE IPM Center BMSB Working Group website (http://www.northeastipm.org/working-groups/bmsb-working-group/) and the STOPBMSB website (http://www.stopbmsb.org/). Placing this information on the web will allow distribution to growers and others throughout the US.

We anticipate this project to have the following impacts:

1. The IPM tactics we propose to develop will be adopted by farmers in at least 23 states thereby potentially impacting hundreds of thousands of people through reductions in pesticide residues on field, fruit, nursery and vegetable crops. It would result in the cessation of illegal pesticide applications to control H. halys by farmers. Adoption of this program over large areas has the potential to reduce the spread of this invasive insect to agricultural areas in other states not currently impacted by BMSB. Finally, the success of this will allow growers to return to using previously well established management programs that were abandoned due to the introduction of BMSB.

2. This project will result in economic benefits in the form of decreased monetary losses due to yield reductions caused by this insect. It will also result in increased time being available for marketing of the crop that would otherwise be spent managing this insect. Finally, this project will ultimately result in fewer costs in managing this pest due to reductions in pesticide use.

3. The results of this project may also lead to the development of IPM tactics that could be implemented by in non-agricultural sectors (i.e., homeowners, building managers and pest control companies) reducing the illegal and often inappropriate use of insecticide by these groups. Anticipated reductions in insecticide use and the application of illegal or unnecessary insecticide treatments will result in reductions in health issues due the presence of large numbers of BMSB (asthma for example) and exposure to insecticide residues.

Related, Current and Previous Work

In 1996, the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål), was accidentally introduced into Allentown, PA from Asia (Hoebeke and Carter, 2003). Recent work by Xu et al. (In Press) showed that the initial introduction likely originated from the Bejing region of China. Since its initial introduction, H. halys has established throughout most of PA. In July of 2004, a website (www.rce.rutgers.edu/stinkbug/; Hamilton, 2004) was created that allows the public to report sightings of the insect. Since its creation, over 15,000 reports have been received. As a result, we have been able to track the spread of H. halys in PA and NJ and in the northeast confirm its presence and spread in CT, DE, MD, NH, NY, RI, VA, Washington D.C. and WV. Halyomorpha halys populations are also rapidly increasing wherever they have been found. For instance, in Beltsville, MD, populations have increased by over 300% since 2004. Work by Nielsen et al. (In Press) using a network of blacklight traps in New Jersey demonstrated that BMSB spread an average of 2.84 farms per year. In January of 2005, H. halys was first confirmed in Oregon (Rose 2005) and was also found in Vallejo, CA in a shipment of furniture originating in Allentown, PA in February of 2005 (Eberling 2005). In 2006, H. halys was first confirmed in Los Angeles and Orange County, CA. As of 2011, we have also confirmed that BMSB is either established or has been found over 30 states. BMSB has also been found in Canada, New Zealand and Switzerland (APHIS personal communication, Leskey et al. 2012, Wermelinger 2008). BMSB is considered establish and a nuisance pest in Hamilton Canada (Leskey and Hamilton 2012).

In Asia, H. halys reportedly has a very wide host range including tree fruit (Hoebeke and Carter, 2003). Watanabe (1996) discussed H. halys feeding damage on cherry in Japan. Funayama (1996) found that damage was heavier in early and mid-harvest apple cultivars in Japan. In Korea, H. halys is the dominant pest species of Citrus junos Sieb. ( Yuzu or Japanese citron) causing black concave spots during the fruit enlargement and yellowing period (Choi et al., 2000). Halyomorpha halys has also been observed damaging apricots, peaches and plums (Watanabe 1996; NPAG 2001). In the U.S., Bernon (2004) reported that in addition to apples, peaches and pears, H. halys has been found feeding on at least 20 ornamental trees and shrubs including crabapple, Norway maple, empress trees (Paulownia tomentosa), and roses. Specimens have also been collected feeding on tomatoes, peppers, asparagus fronds, raspberry, grapes, field and sweet corn, green beans, squash, pumpkins, soybeans and wheat (Leskey et al. 2012b, Kuhar et al. 2012). Since its introduction into the U.S., H. halys has caused significant crop losses in fruit orchards (Nielsen and Hamilton, 2009a, Leskey et al. 21012a).

Typical methods for monitoring or trapping stink bugs include the use of pheromone traps, beat sampling and black light trapping. Cullen and Zalom (2000) used both beat sampling and pheromone trapping to create a phenology model for monitoring nymphs of Euschistus conspersus Uhler (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). In low growing vegetable crops, canopy shake sampling was the most effective method to determine Euschistus sp. population densities along with observations of the soil surrounding the plants.

Black light traps in Japan have been used to show gradual increases in H. halys populations in July and August (Moriya et al., 1987) and has also been an effective way to monitor BMSB populations in the US (Nielsen and Hamilton, 2009b, Nielsen et al. (In Press)). Khrimian et al. (2008) showed that the aggregation pheromone of the brown-winged green bug, Plautia stali Scott, methyl (2E,4E,6Z)-decatrienoate and its isomers are attractive to H. halys. Halyomorpha halys is attracted not only to the EEZ-isomer, but also to at least two other isomers, including methyl (2E,4Z,6Z)-decatrienoate, a compound known to be part of pheromones of pentatomids in genus Thyanta. The ZEZ-isomer, not previously known to be attractive to H. halys, was moderately attractive in the field. Analyses of volatiles collected from dispensers used in field trials showed that all three compounds rapidly isomerize under daylight to form complex mixtures that seemed more attractive to H. halys than the individual isomers.

Traps baited with this aggregation pheromone to capture overwintering adults have been used to forecast potential H. halys infestations rates in the early spring (Tada et al., 2001) and has been used in combination with different colors to develop an adequate monitoring tool in the United States (Leskey et al. 2012c). A similar case of cross-attraction between heteropterans within the same trophic level has recently been reported by Endo et al. (2006). Nevertheless, the search for an aggregation pheromone from H. halys is ongoing (J. Aldrich, pers. comm.) and, if such a pheromone can be identified and easily synthesized, it would improve our ability to utilize semiochemical-baited traps for monitoring purposes.

Other types of monitoring systems have been tested to monitor H. halys. In Japan, Watanabe et al. (1994a, b) showed that slit-traps were attractive to H. halys seeking overwintering sites, and that unpainted traps coated with a clear lacquer were more attractive than traps painted black or white. For monitoring using semiochemicals to be effective against a pest, trap efficiency, trap density and lure strength parameters must be understood (El-Sayed, 2006). We have addressed the issue of trap efficiency. In 2004, a three year study using rubber septa treated with 2.5 mg of attractant was begun to evaluate different traps types (pyramid, football, smart trap and apple trap) available to monitor stink bug populations in ornamentals and soybeans. In 2004 and 2005, significantly higher trap catches were observed in pyramid traps in both ornamental trees and soybeans (Nielsen and Hamilton, unpublished data).

We have addressed the issue of lure strength. In 2007, we completed a two year study examining the response of H. halys to traps baited with different trap loading rates. This work showed that the 25 mg/trap load caught significantly more individuals than all other treatments each year (Khrimian, Hamilton and Shearer, unpublished data). In addition, the use of a trap loaded with 7.5 mg lure attracted significantly more H. halys than did the 2.5, 0.5 and 0 mg treatments. These results indicate that traps baited with a 25 mg/septum attractant may have potential for use in a mass trapping effort.

Stink bugs have historically been managed using organophosphorus insecticides, however, changes in insecticide chemistries and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency decisions that limit or prohibit the use of this class of insecticides has led researchers to investigate other management options. Currently, materials to control stink bugs include various pyrethroids (cyfluthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, esfenvalerate, fenpropathrin and permethrin), carbamates (oxamyl and methomyl), and neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, dinotefuran, clothianidin) (Ward, 2010). Nielsen et al. (2008), Doo et. al. (2013) and Kamminga et al. (2013) demonstrated in the laboratory that pyrethroids, neonicotinoids and growth regulators were toxic to BMSB, but to date, none have been adequately field tested against BMSB.

Another potential option for managing BMSB is biological control. Relatively little information exists regarding BMSB s natural enemies in Asia, although a few natural enemies have been recorded in the literature. Several egg parasitoids, Trissolcus mitsukurii, T. plautiae, T. itoi, (Arakawa & Namura 2002) and Gryon japonicum (Noda 1995) have been reported in Japan. Recent studies in Japan have reported one or more new species of Trissolcus from BMSB (M. Toyama, pers. comm.). Until very recently there were no published studies for natural enemies in China, but a new species, T. halyomorphae, was recently described (Yang et al. 2009). A parasitic tachinid fly, Bogosia spp., is reported to attack the adult BMSB in Japan (Kawada & Kitamura, 1983b). Studies conducted through a cooperative agreement with Seoul National University identified a tachinid fly, Pentatomophaga latifascia, attacking adult BMSB in Korea, but evidence to date suggests it has a wide host range and little specific impact. No nymphal parasitoids are reported from pentatomids.

In the U.S., Bernon (2004) reared two egg parasitoids, Telenomus podisi Ashmead (Hym.: Scelionidae) and Anastatus sp. (Hym.: Eupelmidae), from an early survey of eggs of H. halys on Paulownia. The former is a well-known parasitoid of southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula, and many other stinkbugs (Jones 1988), whereas Anastatus spp. are broadly polyphagous within their search habitats and attack eggs of many different insect families and orders. Bernon (2004) noted an unidentified tachinid fly stalking H. halys on Paulownia and collected dead adult BMSB with apparent tachinid exit holes. Tachinids were found in pheromone-baited traps being tested to attract the bug (Aldrich et al. 2006), but inspection of nearly a thousand wild adults at ARS BIIR laboratory in Newark over the past several years showed that only about 5% contained tachinid eggs, and no adult flies were reared from any of these (Hoelmer, unpublished data). This suggests that at least some indigenous tachinids will recognize and attack BMSB as a potential host, but are not physiologically suited to complete development in this host stink bug. ARS BIIR surveys identified two species of Anastatus and two or three species of Trissolcus (Hym.: Scelionidae) from wild-collected and sentinel egg masses. A majority of the low levels of parasitism seen was due to the Anastatus species. Although Trissolcus sps. are typically restricted to pentatomids, and are capable of high levels of parasitism (e.g., Koppel et al 2009), these species parasitized only 1-2% of BMSB eggs. Much higher levels of BMSB parasitism are reported in Asia (Toyama, unpublished data). Surveys to date have focused solely on Paulownia as a host plant of BMSB egg masses. Additional surveys need to be conducted to determine whether levels of parasitism vary among different host plants in different crop environments, as there may well be unknown differences in regional and habitat-specific composition of parasitoid species that will search for and attack BMSB in tree fruits, on vegetables, and in native and introduced ornamental species. This information will be very important in evaluating the need for a classical biological approach. Screening for egg parasitoids in soybeans and ornamentals has been initiated in DE, NJ and PA with limited success (Hoelmer et. al., 2008).

Objectives

  1. Assess the extent and nature of injury caused brown marmorated stink bug
  2. Develop and compare monitoring methods (light based/pheromone based traps, visual and knockdown assessments) for brown marmorated stink bug that can be used to assess emergence from overwintering sites, conduct population assessments and evaluate movement between different crops.
  3. Determine the potential for biological control of the brown marmorated stink bug
  4. Develop best management practices for the brown marmorated stink bug in field crops, fruit, nursery and vegetables
  5. Deliver research based IPM recommendations to growers
  6. Map the current distribution and severity of BMSB damage on a crop by crop basis.
  7. Determine host plant characteristics that impact attractiveness to BMSB and identify species that could potentially be used as a trap crop, etc.
  8. Identify the impacts of insecticide applications to manage BMSB on non-targets insects.

Methods

The procedures for this project's objectives are outlined below. The primary activities for this project are to hold an annual meeting; participate in coordinated research, implementation, and evaluation programs; and produce reports documenting state and regional activities. Meetings: This regional project will meet annually in conjunction with either the annual meeting of the Eastern Branch of the Entomological Society of America or the Brown Marmorated Working Group in order to increase cooperation among participants. This project will draw participants from at least 15 institutions with the possibility to include members from other USDA regions. Members will benefit from regular meetings to exchange information on research plans and progress, prioritize new research needs and facilitate the development of regionally based research grants proposals and co-authored publications. Objective 1. Assess the extent and nature of injury caused brown marmorated stink bug. Depending on individual state priorities we will establish sentinel plots using field crops, fruit, nursery and vegetables to evaluate damage caused by the brown marmorated sting bug in these systems. Plots will be maintained using standard practices but without the use of insecticide. Depending on the crop, beginning with the first appearance of adults, eggs or nymphs in these plots, each plot will be monitored on a weekly basis using either timed visual counts or beat sheets assessments. At harvest, yield estimates and damage evaluations from a subsample of plants within each plot will be made. Objective 2. Develop monitoring methods for brown marmorated stink bug. Depending on individual state priorities we will establish research plots in field crops, fruit, nursery and vegetables to develop and evaluate monitoring methods in these crops. Plots will be maintained using standard practices but without the use of insecticide. Depending on the crop, adult brown marmorated stink bugs will be monitored using a combination of blacklight traps, pheromone traps, direct visual counts, beat sheet counts or sweep netting. Nymphal populations will be monitored using weekly visual counts only. Data collected for blacklight and pheromone traps will be correlated with the first presence of adults and nymphal BMSB in plots. All other methods will be compared for differences in population estimates between methods. Objective 3. Determine the potential for biological control of the brown marmorated stink bug. This objective will be fulfilled using the plots established in each state for either objective 1 or 2. Sentinel brown marmorated stink bug egg masses will be outsourced on a minimum of eight randomly selected plants within plots. This will be initiated when naturally colonizing adults are observed in the plots and will be repeated every other week throughout the growing season. Each egg mass be examined 24 h later to detect predation. After 48-h, all egg masses will be collected, brought to the laboratory, examined for predation and then, held for emergence of adult parasitoids. The frequency of egg parasitization by a single parasitoid or combination of parasitoids will be calculated for the sentinel egg masses. Objective 4. Develop best management practices for the brown marmorated stink bug. Using the information, developed under objectives 1-3, we will develop crop specific best management plans (BMP s) for the brown marmorated stink bug. This will be done during the projects yearly annual meeting. Objective 5. Deliver research based IPM recommendations to growers. We will incorporate the information and Best Management Practices developed by this project into current grower recommendations. We will also deliver this information via websites, emails, newsletters, grower meetings, etc. Objective 6. Map the current distribution of BMSB and severity of BMSB damage on a crop by crop basis in the in the US. Depending on individual state priorities we will develop a coordinated system to gather occurrence and damage data using current web based reporting systems. NJ, PA and the Southern IPM Center currently have systems designed to track occurrence on a national basis and have recently linked each together in order to combine historical and newly generated data in a single data base. As researchers from other states join the project they will be encouraged to publicize these systems in order to increase data collection. In addition, a system to track damage severity on a crop by crop basis will also be developed. Objective 7. Determine host plant characteristics that impact attractiveness to BMSB and identify species that could potentially be used as a trap crop, etc. Depending on individual state priorities we will establish replicated plantings of various crops (for example peppers, sunflowers and soybeans) to determine their relative attractiveness to BMSB adults and nymphs when given a choice. If one or more crops are found to be more attractive than others, their attractiveness will be further tested in the laboratory using host finding choice test arenas. Plants confirmed by these tests will then be examined to determine why they are more attractive, i.e., volatile analysis, stage of crop development, etc. Objective 8. Identify the impacts of current insecticide applications to manage BMSB on non-targets insects. Depending on individual state priorities we will survey for the presence of non-target organisms such as native and managed bees, secondary pests, etc. in sprayed and unsprayed plots. Tree fruit and variety of vegetables will be evaluated.

Measurement of Progress and Results

Outputs

  • Project reporting by individual scientists through their institutions
  • Project reporting through a report from the regional project
  • Documentation of IPM tactics developed and evaluated

Outcomes or Projected Impacts

  • The IPM tactics we propose to develop will be adopted by farmers in 23 states thereby potentially impacting hundreds of thousands of people through reductions in pesticide residues on field, fruit, nursery and vegetable crops. It would result in the cessation of illegal pesticide applications to control H. halys by farmers. Adoption of this program over large areas also has the potential to reduce the spread of this invasive insect to agricultural areas in other states not currently impacted by BMSB.
  • This project will result in economic benefits in the form of decreased monetary looses due to yield reductions caused by this insect. It will also result in increased time being available for marketing of the crop that would otherwise be spent managing this insect. Finally, this project will ultimately result in fewer costs in managing this pest due to reductions in pesticide use.

Milestones

(2014): The first three objectives of this project (assess damage caused by BMSB, develop monitoring methods, and determine biological control potentials) will begin during year one. Each of these objectives are currently at different stages of development. Due to this milestones related to each will be reported included in annual reports. Project participants will meet and discuss project activities in conjunction with the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Working Groups fall meeting. A business meeting will be held discuss project objectives, etc.

(2015): Project participants will meet in conjunction with the Eastern Branch of the Entomological Society of America's Annual Meeting. A symposia to discuss recent research and developments will be held. An annual business meeting will be held to discuss project objectives, etc. Research, education, and outreach efforts will continue under the objectives of the project as in year 1. Based on the progress related to objectives 1-3, work on objectives 4 and 5 will begin.

(2016): Project participants will meet and discuss project activities in conjunction with the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Working Groups fall meeting. A business meeting will be held discuss project objectives, etc. Research, education, and outreach efforts will continue under the objectives of the project as in previous years. Based on the progress related to objectives 1-3, work on objectives 4 and 5 will continue. Any best management practices developed in year will be modified as needed.

(2017): Project participants will meet in conjunction with the Eastern Branch of the Entomological Society of America's Annual Meeting. A symposia to discuss recent research and developments will be held. An annual business meeting will be held to discuss project objectives, etc. Research, education, and outreach efforts will continue under the objectives of the project as in previous years. Based on the progress related to objectives 1-3, work on objectives 4 and 5 will continue. Any best management practices developed in year will be modified as needed.

(2018): Project participants will meet and discuss project activities in conjunction with the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Working Groups fall meeting. A business meeting will be held to discuss the continuance of this projects for additional 5 years. Research, education, and outreach efforts will continue under the objectives of the project as in previous years.

Projected Participation

View Appendix E: Participation

Outreach Plan

All information developed will be submitted publication in either refereed publication or as state based extension fact sheets and bulletins. Current state and regional grower production recommendation guides will be modified and distributed based on project outcomes. Discussions of the IPM tactics developed will be conducted by each PI's at appropriate state and regional grower meetings.

All information developed will be made available at three currently existing website dedicated to the brown marmorated stink bug: www.rce.rutgers.edu/stinkbug/, the NE IPM Center's Brown Marmorated Working Group website (http://www.northeastipm.org/working-groups/bmsb-working-group/) and StopBMSB.org. At the discretion of individual participants this information will also be made available on state based websites. Placing this information on the web will allow distribution to growers throughout the US.

Organization/Governance

The recommended Standard Governance for multistate research activities include the election of a Chair, a Chair-elect, and a Secretary. All officers are to be elected for at least two-year terms to provide continuity. Administrative guidance will be provided by an assigned Administrative Advisor and a CSREES Representative.

Literature Cited

Aldrich, J.R., A. Khrimian, X. Chen and M.J. Camp. 2009. Semiochemical based monitoring of the brown marmorated stink bug and unexpected attraction of the native green stink bug (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Maryland. Florida Entomologist 92: 483-491.

Aldrich JR , Khrimiana A , Zhang A,Shearer PW. 2006. Bug pheromones (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) and tachinid fly host-finding. Denisia 19, Neue Serie 50: 1015 1031.

American/Western Fruit Grower. (2011). Brown Marmorated Stink Bug Causes $37 Million in Losses to Mid-Atlantic Apple Growers. April 14, 2011. http://www.growingproduce.com/article/21057/brown-marmorated-stink-bug-causes-37-million-in-losses-to-mid-atlantic-apple-growers. Accessed June 15,2013.

Arakawa, R., and Y. Namura. 2002. Effects of temperature on development of three Trissolcus spp. (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), egg parasitoids of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Ståhl) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae). Entomological Science 5(2):215-218.

Bernon, G. 2004. Biology of Halyomorpha halys, The Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (BMSB) Final Report USDA APHIS CPHST Project T3P01. USDA APHIS.

Choi, D.S., K.C. Kim, K.C. Lim. 2000. The status of spot damage and fruit piercing pests on Yuzu (Citrus junos) fruit. Korean J. Appl. Entomol. 39(4): 259-266.

Cullen, E.M. and F.G. Zalom. 2000. Phenology-based field monitoring for consperse stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in processing tomatoes. Environ. Entomol. 29(3): 560-567.

Eberling, B. 2005. Non-native pest found in Vallejo. Daily Republic, Online Edition. Available at: http://www.dailyrepublic.com/articles/2005/03/05/local_news/news04.txt.

El-Sayed, A.M., D.M. Suckling, C.H. Wearing, and J.A. Byers. 2006. Potential of mass trapping for long-term pest management and eradication of invasive species.

Endo, N., Wada, T., Nishiba, Y., and Sasaki, R. 2006. Interspecific pheromone cross-attraction among soybean bugs (Heteroptera): Does Piezodorus hybneri (Pentatomidae) utilize the pheromone of Riptortus clavatus (Alydidae) as a kairomone? J. Chem. Ecol. 32:1605-1612.

Funayama, K. 1996. Sucking injury on apple fruit by the adult of brown Marmorated stink bug, Halyomorphamista (Uhler). Annual Ann. Rept. Plant Prot. North Japan 47: 140-142.

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