W3170: Beneficial Reuse of Residuals and Reclaimed Water: Impact on Soil Ecosystem and Human Health (formerly W2170)

(Multistate Research Project)

Status: Active

SAES-422 Reports

Annual/Termination Reports:

[09/11/2015] [09/09/2016] [08/08/2017] [09/06/2018]

Date of Annual Report: 09/11/2015

Report Information

Annual Meeting Dates: 06/11/2015 - 06/12/2015
Period the Report Covers: 10/01/2014 - 06/01/2015

Participants

Bamber, Kevin, bamber86@vtech.edu, Virginia Tech;
Basta, Nick, basta.4@osu.edu, Ohio State University;
Bastian, Bob, bastian.robert@epa.gov, EPA;
Berger, Karl, kberger@wwcog.org, Metropolitan Washington Council Governments;
Brown, Sally, slb@uw.edu, University of Washington;
Elliot, Herschel (Chip), Penn State University
Evanylo, Greg, gevanylo@vt.edu, Virginia Tech;
Halbach, Tom, thalbach@umn.edu, University of Minnesota;
Hettiarachchi, Ganga, ganga@ksu.edu, Kansas State University;
Hundal, Lakhwinder, HundalL@mwrd.org, Metropolitan Water Reclamation District (Chicago);
Kester, Greg, gkester@casaweb.org, California Association of Sanitation Agencies;
Lauviault, Leonard, lmlaur@nmsu.edu, New Mexico State University;
Lee, Linda, lslee@purdue.edu, Purdue University;
McAvoy, Drew, drew.mcavoy@uc.edu, University of Cincinnati;
O'Connor, George, GAO@UFL.edu, University Florida;
Pepper, Ian, ipepper@ag.arizona.edu, University of Arizona;
Picchiioni, Geno, gpicchio@nmsu.edu, New Mexico State University;
Singer, Rebecca, rebecca.singer@ecy.wa.gov, Washington State Department of Ecology;
Steiner, Jeffery, jeffrey.steiner@colostate.edu, Colorado State University;
Ying, Samantha, samying@ucr.edu, University of California-Davis

Brief Summary of Minutes

Business meeting:
1. Lakhwinder Hundal (Current Chair) welcomed the attendees and this was followed by introductions.
2. Update from Project Director – Jeff Steiner – Jeff emphasized on demonstrating the impact of research conducted by the committee members. He also gave information regarding reporting requirements. The group progress report should be for the entire committee and should clearly show what was accomplished, what is its impact, and what was done to educate the stakeholders (public outreach and education components) and disseminate information.
3. Bob Bastian (USEPA) mentioned that Ben Davis, Chair of the Sustainable Residuals Use Subcommittee of WEF requested that Lakhwinder Hundal work with W-3170 group to prepare a fact sheet on fate of trace organics (TOrCs) in land applied biosolids, other residuals and wastewater. There were some support for this. Some raised questions about why we need this considering what is already out there.
4. Greg Kestner (CASA) pointed out that identifying data gaps and needs would be useful for wastewater treatment facilities.
5. Future Meetings: The group has agreed to have next W-3170 Annual meeting (2016) in Columbus, OH; and 2017 annual Meeting in Arizona.
6. Business meeting was wrapped up at 9:10 AM.

Technical Meeting:
Selected members presented state reports.
Trace organics in residuals and wastewater
1. Linda Lee: Snapshot of selected trace organic research in biosolids-based fertilizers in soils
Trace Elements and pathogens
2. Lakhwinder Hundal: Trace metal uptake by vegetables grown in exceptional quality biosolids
3. Nick Basta: Lead contamination in urban soils and bio-accessibility
4. Samantha Ying: Biogeochemical driving arsenic release from soil/sediments
5. Ian Pepper: Microbial pathogen studies at the new university of AZ water and sustainable technology center (WEST) Land application of biosolids
6. Geno Picchioni/Leonard Lauriault: Challenges with reclaimed water and desalination residuals for potential beneficial use in New Mexico.
7. Kevin Bamber: Biosolids source and application timing for wheat in the mid-Atlantic region
8. Tom Halbach: Processing of waste residuals for beneficial use
9. Sally Brown: Bioretention systems to manage stormwater
10. Ganga Hettiarachchi- Mechanisms of trace element retention in a constructed wetland treatment system designed for FGD wastewater

Accomplishments

Objective 1: Evaluate the short- and long-term chemistry and bioavailability of nutrients, potentially toxic inorganic trace elements, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (TOrCs) in residuals, reclaimed water, and amended soils in order to assess the environmental and health risk-based effects of their application at a watershed scale.
Specific tasks:
(i) To develop and evaluate in vitro (including chemical speciation) and novel in vivo methods to correlate human and ecological health responses with risk-based bioavailability of trace elements and TOrCs in residuals and residual-treated soils.
(ii) Predict the long-term bioavailability and toxicity of trace elements and TOrCs in residual-amended urban, agricultural and contaminated soils.
(iii) Evaluate long-term effects of residuals application and reclaimed wastewater irrigation on fate and transport of nutrients, trace elements, TOrCs, and emergence/spread of antibiotic resistance in high application rate systems.
(iv) Evaluate plant uptake and ecological effects of potentially toxic trace elements and TOrCs from soils amended with residuals and reclaimed wastewater.
Accomplishments
Arizona
Pepper and his group at the University of Arizona developed a new method for converting Class B biosolids to Class A. This new treatment involved the use of a soil fumigant used for human root crops, namely sodium metam. This compound was shown to kill both human viruses such as poliovirus, and helminths such as Ascaris.

Laboratory and field evaluation of the methodology showed that the use of sodium metam resulted in a 4.7 log reduction of fecal coliforms; a 2.6 log reduction of Ascaris and a 4.0 log reduction of poliovirus. These data resulted in the methodology being approved by the EPA Pathogen Equivalency Committee as a “Process to Further Reduce Pathogens” (PFRP).

The group also monitored viruses in raw influent and final treated effluent using qPCR for a year at four wastewater treatment plants with secondary treatment consisting of: trickling filter; activated sludge or a 5 stage Bardenpho process. Monitoring data provided an indication of relative abundance (incidence); seasonal variation; and the extent of removal during wastewater treatment. Based on these criteria, the pepper mild mottle virus appeared to be best candidate for use as a model viral indicator of sewage pollution. In addition, the Bardenpho process was shown to be more efficient than the trickling filter or activated sludge process for virus removal.

They used viral surrogates to evaluate fate of ebola during flushing toilets. The Corona virus was utilized based on the following criteria: same viral order as Ebola; nucleic acid type; and lipid content. Murine norovirus was also utilized as a “worse case” for virus survival. Medical waste containing the virus was flushed down the toilet with and without disinfection. Data showed that flushing medical waste containing the virus can result in extensive contamination due to aerosols. However flushing with half a cup of bleach was shown to eliminate the contamination of the restroom and the toilet. Currently further work is being conducted to evaluate disinfectant procedures including type of bleach, contact, time and amount of waste. Future work will evaluate survival during wastewater treatment simulated in miniature anaerobic digesters.

Pepper and co-workers is also evaluating efficacy of real-time on-line sensors for their use as process control of advanced treatment of reclaimed water prior to subsequent portable reuse. For chemicals, real-time on-line sensors for pharmaceuticals and personal care products were evaluated. For chemicals, UV254 absorbance; total fluorescence; and excitation/emission fluorescence measurements (EEMS) provided the most effective process control. For microbial contaminants, sensors utilized were based on: laser light scattering; fluorescence from NADP and riboflavin; and light emission via the ATP luciferin/luciferase system. Of these monitoring via ATP production showed the most potential for process control of microbial contaminants.

Hawaii
Hue and his team evaluated phyto-availability of arsenic (As) in some agricultural soils that have a long history of sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) application, a herbicide used extensively between 1913 and 1945, mostly in sugarcane fields. Food crops grown in soils high in arsenic may pose a risk to human health when consumed repeatedly. When soils are flooded, as in certain types of cultivation, As becomes more available due to reducing conditions and microbial activity. In Hawaii, crops such as taro and watercress are grown in flooded soils.

A greenhouse experiment was implemented to measure the amount of arsenic accumulated in watercress (Nasturtium officinale) grown to harvestable size. Watercress was grown in containers with no drainage, holding 100 grams of high-As soil flooded with 1 liter of water plus Hoagland’s nutrient solution (1/4 strength). Glucose or ascorbic acid at 100 mg/L was used to decrease redox potential. Plants were grown for 4 weeks, thereafter shoots were harvested and analyzed for total As concentration. The experiment was repeated once with the same soils.

Ascorbic acid and glucose treatments did not significantly affect plant As uptake. Watercress grown in an Ultisol (Leilehua series) with 315 mg/kg total As (added 2 years before) contained an average of 10 mg/kg As in shoots and leaves on a dry weight basis. Watercress grown in a high amorphous iron oxides Andisol (Olaa series) with 315 mg/kg total As (applied several decades ago) contained an average of 1.16 mg/kg As in shoots and leaves. It appeared that different soils have different As phytoavailability at the same total As concentration; and reducing conditions may affect different forms of As in different ways.

Indiana
Lee and her team from Purdue focused on extraction and LC/MS/TOF analyses of 33 trace organic contaminants (TOrCs) in commercially available biosolids-based amendments/fertilizers (including class A cake, heat-dried commercial biosolids, and composted commercial biosolids) and 9 non-biosolids-based fertilizers (for comparative purposes). Included in the biosolids-based materials was the sludge standard NIST-2781, which included data for several, but not all, of the targeted TOrCs. TOrCs targeted in this study included synthetic musks and fragrances (SMFs), perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), and a suite of additional emerging contaminants (e.g., subset of pharmaceuticals and compounds from personal care products. The materials investigated included 4 heat- treated biosolids-based, 1 chemically heat treated biosolids-based, 5 composted biosolids-based, 1 biosolids-based cake, and 9 non-biosolids-based amendments/fertilizers. Results showed that the TOrCs concentrations in the NIST-2781 material were similar to those reported for the standard material. The two antimicrobial compounds, triclosan and triclocarbon, which are typically present in many personal care products from toothpastes to soaps, were found at 285-19,987 ?g/kg and 190-17,785 ?g/kg, respectively, with the concentrations greater in the heat-treated biosolids and cake sample. For bisphenol A (BPA) and BPA alternatives BPS, PBAF, and TBBPA we found 468-68,168 ?g/kg, 38-4797 ?g/kg, 5-84 ?g/kg, and 332 ?g/kg, respectively, which included one non-biosolids food waste compost. With phase out of BPA, we can expect BPS and BPAF concentrations to increase in wastewater influent and resulting biosolids. In soil biodegradation studies, BPS was shown to degrade rapidly with half-life less than one day (t1/2 ? 1 d), thus it is unlikely to persist once land-applied; however, BPAF is expected to persist for quite some time (t1/2 ~4.5 -6 weeks), but is also highly sorbed. The pharmaceuticals analyzed were 210-2891 ?g/kg cimetidine, 6-843 ?g/kg ciprofloxacin, 52-2,326 ?g/kg diphenhydramine, 190-456 ?g/kg ibuprofen, and 159-2,258 ?g/kg miconazole with concentrations greater in heat-treated biosolids and cake. Doxycycline, ofloxacin, simvastatin, sulfanilamide, and tetracycline were not detected in any samples. The only estrogen found was estrone (the primary metabolite of estradiol transformation) at 43-850 ?g/kg. Estradiol and ethinyl estradiol were not detected. The UV filters analyzed were 66-961 ?g/kg 2,2’-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone and 8.5-1,153.9 ?g/kg 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone. Seasonal fluctuations are expected given their use in sunscreens, however, they are also used as a UV protectant in food-grade plastics as well and were observed at the highest concentrations in a biosolids-based material from a plant receiving discharge from a food-plastics plant. For the SMFs, they observed only tonalide at 915-21,894 ?g/kg and galaxolide at 1,656-72,827 ?g/kg. Musk ketone and musk xylene were not detected in any samples. Nonylphenol ranged from 3,288 to 44,017 ?g/kg with limited detection in composted biosolids including the one biosolid-based cake. Parabens, which are naturally occurring, were observed in both biosolids and non-biosolid based materials with methyl and ethyl parabens found at 214-3,048 ?g/kg and 7.8-98.9 ?g/kg, respectively. Propyl and benzyl parabens were not detected. PFOA and PFOS were observed at 6.3-69.1 ?g/kg and 2.7-198.2 ?g/kg, respectively, which included non-biosolid food waste compost material.

Slurry desorption studies (worse case) for 3 TOrCs from 2 biosolid-based materials were conducted. There was negligible lag time (? 12 h) in release of BPA, triclocarbon and methyl paraben. Release would be much slower in a system more representative of a soil profile. Additional work for other PFASs are currently underway along with aerobic biodegradation studies, additional desorption experiments, and greenhouse plant uptake studies. In addition, pre- and post-compost material is being obtained from MWRDGC to directly assess what is lost in a well-characterized composting process.

New Mexico
NMSU evaluated oil/gas waste water derived from unconventional (shale oil) formations in the Permian Basin (NM and TX) to examine potentially toxic inorganic and organic contaminants that may impact human health and the environment. Compositional analysis revealed highly-complex mixtures with vast variability, which suggests a potential for environmental impact.

Xu et al. (NMSU) continued the research to investigate the adsorption capacities of metals and metalloids by drinking water treatment residuals. Meanwhile, the leaching of organic, inorganic and microorganisms from drinking water treatment residuals were evaluated as adsorbents for water treatment or soil application.
Xu et al. (NMSU) continued to develop treatment technologies to remove chemical contaminants from reclaimed water and desalination residuals for potential beneficial use. The organic and inorganic contaminants such as heavy metals, arsenic, and trace organic pollutants in produced water, municipal reclaimed water and treated concentrate were evaluated to assess the environmental and health risk-based effects through irrigation and surface discharge.

Objective 2: Evaluate the uses and associated agronomic and environmental benefits for residuals in agricultural and urban systems.

Specific tasks:
(i) Evaluate the ability of in situ treatment of contaminated soil with residuals to reduce chemical contaminant bioavailability and toxicity.
(ii) Determine the climate change impacts of organic residuals end use options (i.e., C sequestration, N2O emissions).
(iii) Quantify sustainability impacts such as water quality (reduced N impairment) and quantity benefits (increased plant available water, increased drought tolerance) and soil quality improvements associated with a range of organic residuals end uses.
(iv) Explore the potential for waste by-products to be used in urban areas including urban agriculture, stormwater infrastructure, green roofs, and in urban green space.
(v) Evaluate ecosystem services of degraded urban soils amended with residuals.
(vi) Use tools such as life cycle assessment to understand and compare the impacts of a range of residuals end use/disposal options.
Accomplishments
Florida
Florida researchers have a long history of conducting the real-world experiments needed to validate models of bioavailability and of accurately assessing human and environmental health of residuals-borne contaminants (and nutrients). We will continue these efforts, using standards methods prescribed by regulatory agencies (specifically, USEPA 1998; USEPA 2008 a,b) and expand the efforts to include promising new extractants and techniques for various chemical contaminants. Additionally, in cooperation with soil microbiology colleagues, we will address the issue of antibiotic résistance development in soils amended with various manures, focusing on how soil retention impacts antibiotic bioavailability to microbes. The spread of antibiotic disease résistance is of world-wide concern, and a major avenue for extramural funding that we intend to pursue. Research on nutrient and contaminant bioavailability in residuals (biosolids, animal manures, reclaimed water)-amended Florida soils, while extensive, remains incomplete. New ecological endpoints must be investigated to improve risk assessment to ensure environmental and human health. Research is also necessary to maximize the agronomic benefits (maximizing bioavailability) of reusing residuals while minimizing environmental impacts. We propose continuing a combination of laboratory, greenhouse, and field studies utilized in previous 5-year projects. We will also examine various techniques utilizing new trace organic extractants proposed as surrogates for plants, animals, and humans to allow Florida to remain a leader in this area.

Published results of studies determining the extent to which trace organic contaminants in reclaimed water pose a concern for transfer to children playing on recently irrigated turf. Risks associated with dislodgeable residues appear to be extremely small. Developed preliminary data demonstrating that antibiotic (AB) retention by soils can reduce the tendency for antibiotic residues to encourage AB resistance spread. Included the preliminary data in an interdisciplinary, multi-year proposal to pursue the issue further, with the intent of identifying opportunities for waste management, or amendment addition, to reduce concern about resistance spread. Confirmed the practicality and usefulness of land applying residuals from a cellulosic ethanol production facility to soil used to grow the biomass initially. The work is specific to a particular residual generated in FL, but the approach and identification of factors that can be important should be pertinent nationally. Participated in a multidisciplinary team responding to a call for proposals to address critical data for meaningful risk assessment of biosolids-borne trace organics.

Hawaii
Hue and co-workers from Hawaii assessed the nutrient retention capacities of two biochars when applied in combination with two composts to two highly weathered soils of Hawaii: a high Al Ultisol (Leilehua series) and a high Mn Oxisol (Wahiawa series). Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa cv. Bonsai) was used as the test plant in two greenhouse plantings. The results showed that the interaction between biochar and compost additions was significantly increased the pH, EC, P and K of both soils; improved Ca, Mg and Fe uptake; and increased shoot and total cabbage fresh and dry matter weights. Soil pH was increased over 1 unit on average, and EC (1:1 in water) was increased from 0.35 to 0.47 dS/m and 0.30 to 0.37 dS/m for the Ultisol and Oxisol, respectively; exchangeable Al in the Ultisol was decreased from 2.5 cmolc/kg to virtually zero; Mehlich-3 extractable Mn in the Oxisol decreased from 806 mg to 360 mg/kg. Chinese cabbage growth in the Ultisol amended with the lac tree ( Schleichera oleosa) wood biochar at 2% in combination with 2% vermicompost was almost twice as that of the lime + vermicompost treatment at the same rate. All essential nutrients in the plant tissues with the exception of N and K were sufficient for cabbage, suggesting that increased nutrients and reduced soil acidity by the combined additions of biochar and compost was the main contributing factors to good growth.

Kansas
Hettiarachchi and her team evaluated the uses and associated agronomic and environmental benefits for residuals in agricultural and urban systems using Lab, greenhouse and field research.

Laboratory, greenhouse and field research designed to assess the ability of residuals rich in C, P and Fe (for example non-composted or composted Class A biosolids) to reduce contaminant bioavailability in Brownfields have been continued. Chemical methods were used to evaluate reduction in risk from contaminants to human and ecological receptors.

The research indicated that the potential exposure pathway of concern was direct exposure of humans to contaminated soils. The pathway from contaminated soil to plant to human was insignificant.

Indiana
Lee et al (Purdue) assessed potential reclamation of railroad-impacted agricultural soil by using different amendments/treatments in pot studies with corn. Amendments/treatments soil composite from the impacted area were treated with either a urea amendment (220 lbs N/acre), biosolids amendment (25 tons/ha), biochar (1.5 wt%), or fish aquarium activated carbon (2.3 lbs/1000 ft2). In addition, soil collected at the fringe of the impacted area with addition of urea (220 lbs N/acre) was used and considered a ‘control’. In the latter, no emergence of weeds or corn was observed suggesting that the area of negatively impacted soil was increasing. There was also no emergence of weeds or corn in the soil composite with urea. In the presence of biosolids, there was no weed emergence and corn emergence was delayed and some leaf curling was observed. In the biochar and activated carbon amendments, emergence of weeds and corn was rapid, but limited phosphorus availability (P deficiency) was obvious. Observations suggest that a potential management plan of sequential addition of a limited amount of carbon material followed by biosolids prior to planting may take advantage of the best attributes of both materials. Amounts and timing between applications of the two amendments require further evaluation.

Colorado
Barbarick et al developed the idea that the uptake coefficients used in the original USEPA biosolids risk assessment of trace metal effects should be based on long-term data and not on one-time greenhouse or field studies.

Michigan
Tetracyclines are frequently found in soil and water environment, which could exert selective pressure on surrounding bacteria for development and enrichment of antibiotic resistant strains. Tetracycline contains ionizable functional groups that manifest several species with charges at different locales and differential net charges. Hui at al used an E. coli bioreporter to investigate tetracycline uptake and evoke antibiotic resistance genes from solution under varying conditions of pH, salt composition and organic acid ligands. The expression of antibiotic resistance gene in the E. coli bioreporter responded linearly to intracellular tetracycline concentration. Both Mg2+ and Ca2+ in solutions reduced uptake of tetracycline by E. coli hence diminishing the bioresponse. The presence of organic acid ligands altered tetracycline speciation in a manner that enhanced tetracycline uptake by E. coli. Increasing bacterial uptake of tetracycline and concomitant enhanced antibiotic resistance response were positively related to the degree of organic acid ligand complexation of metal cations in the order: citric acid > oxalic acid > malonic acid > succinic acid > acetic acid. Among the various tetracycline species present in solution, including both metal-complexed and free (noncomplexed) species, zwitterionic tetracycline was identified as the predominant species that most readily passed through the cell membrane eliciting activation of the antibiotic resistance gene in the E. coli.

Ohio
Developing management recommendations for lead contaminated urban soils is necessary to address public questions regarding best practices for using urban soils for food and recreation. Basta et al has investigated addition of phosphates to lead-contaminated soils as a management technique for reducing risk of exposure of children to soil lead. Lead contaminated soils (790 to 1,300 mg Pb kg-1) from a garden and a city lot in Cleveland, OH were incubated in a bench scale experiment for 1 year. Six phosphate amendments including bone meal (BM), fish bone (FB), poultry litter (PL), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), diammonium phosphate (DAP), and triple super phosphate (TSP) were added to pots at two application rates. Six phosphate amendments showed mixed results on their ability to reduce soil lead bioaccessibility (IVBA Pb) and exposure risk to children. speciation. Soil amendments were largely ineffective in reducing IVBA Pb in these two urban soils when using EPA Method 1340. However, P-treatments were much more effective when evaluated using modifications of EPA Method 1340. The greatest reductions in IVBA Pb were found at pH 2.5. Reductions in bioaccessible Pb from soil treatment ranged from 5-26% for the pH 2.5 extractions. A modified EPA Method 1340 that does not contain glycine and uses pH 2.5 rather than 1.5 has potential to predict efficacy of P soil amendments to reduce bioaccessible and bioavailable Pb.

Pennsylvania
Elliot et al. evaluated fate of Pin soils irrigated with secondary effluent for about 40 years. They performed a total phosphorus (TP) mass balance for adjacent cropped and forest sites that had been receiving wastewater irrigation for 40 years which indicated that 63 and 70% of net (applied minus harvested) TP could not be accounted for in the top 75 cm of soil in the field and forest, respectively. It is likely that surface runoff and subsurface lateral flow of effluent P, documented by other researchers, is partially responsible for the deficit of P in the 0-75 cm soil layer. Moreover, changes in the P-retention ability of the soil and the high hydraulic loading rate (irrigation plus natural precipitation of ~300 cm water per year) has probably caused leaching of P below the 75 cm depth. However, the surface Mehlich-P level stabilized at about 110 ppm, indicating the soils have tremendous capacity to accommodate P-containing effluent without increasing the concern for runoff loss of P. 2. Fate and transformations of emerging contaminants in soils: The hormones 17 beta-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), 17 alpha-ethynlestradiol (EE2) were found to be strongly retained by soils in column leaching experiments such that leachate estrogen concentrations were generally <10% of the applied levels. There was, however, evidence of the presence of preferential flow paths. Concentrations of carbamazazepine (CBZ) were determined in soils receiving wastewater irrigation for >25 years under three different land uses: cropped, grassed, and forested. Results suggest that the soils adsorb CBZ and slow its movement into groundwater, compared to the movement of non-adsorbed chemicals. 3. Amendments for reclamation of mined lands: Field experiments showed that manure and papermill sludge resulted in switchgrass production of 5-6 Mg/ha on strip mined land but Atlantic coastal panic grass and big bluestem had lowered production yields. Mushroom compost resulted in switchgrass yields as high as 10 Mg/ha, but this was accompanied by substantial increases in soil P levels.

Virginia
Xia et al. conducted rainfall simulations on plots receiving three manure treatments (surface application, subsurface injection, and no manure control) to determine the fate and transport of pirlimycin, an antibiotic commonly used in dairy production. Pirlimycin concentrations were higher in the soil of injection slit than in the soil receiving surface application; however, surface application resulted in greater mass loss of pirlimycin. Subsurface injection reduced runoff losses by 97%.

Xia et al. investigated the reaction kinetics of Fe3+-saturated montmorillonite to catalyze 17?-estradiol (?E2) transformation into less harmful oligomers using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Rapid ?E2 transformation in the presence of Fe3+-saturated montmorillonite in an aqueous system occurred. The disappearance of ?E2 follows 1st-order kinetic while the overall catalytic reaction follows the 2nd order kinetic with an estimated reaction rate constant of 200±24 (mmol ?E2/g mineral)-1h–1. ?E2 oligomers were found to be the major products of ?E2 transformation when exposed to Fe3+-saturated montmorillonite. About 98% of ?E2 were transformed into ?E2 oligomers which are >107 times less water soluble than ?E2 and, therefore, are much less bioavailable and mobile then ?E2.

Badgley et al. sampled and analyzed 12-year old reclaimed mine soils to determine whether amending with biosolids during the reclamation process had residual effects on soil microbial diversity. Both bacterial and fungal diversity were more influenced by vegetation type than biosolids application rate, suggesting that biosolids caused no long-term effects on soil microbial communities.

Eick et al. characterized properties of seleniferous soils and the associated vegetation near Soda Springs, Idaho to better understand soil properties that control plant Se uptake for the development of cost effective techniques to reduce Se concentrations in plants. Plant Se concentrations were greater in Western Mountain Astor (ranging from 500 to 7000 mg kg-1) than alfalfa.

Evanylo et al. compared the availability, N use efficiency and leaching potential of nitrogen from two application timing strategies of lime stabilized and anaerobically digested biosolids with routine inorganic N fertilization practices for wheat in the Virginia coastal plain. Grain yields, N use efficiency, and N recovery for both biosolids products with both application timing strategies were greater than or equal to inorganic fertilizer on soils of varying textures. The advantages of biosolids over inorganic fertilizer occurred whether the residuals were applied all at planting (i.e., 100% agronomic N rate) or 50% at planting with the remaining 50% agronomic N rate topdressed at the end of winter. On coarse-textured soil, the split anaerobically digested biosolids-fertilizer treatment increased yield and N use efficiency above that of the 100% agronomic anaerobically digested biosolids N rate at planting, but there were no differences between timing strategies in finer-textured soils or for lime stabilized biosolids.

Ervin and Evanylo compared the effects of various Exceptional Quality (EQ) biosolids products on rehabilitation of disturbed urban soil for the establishment and production of cool season turfgrass. Three split applications of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer during the year of establishment produced higher quality turfgrass than one-time agronomic N application rates of anaerobically digested biosolids, composted biosolids, and biosolids blended with sand and sawdust, likely due to better long term provision of N by the fertilizer. Second season split topdressing of the biosolids products more closely approximated the split fertilizer N growth and quality responses, demonstrating that turfgrass benefited from split biosolids N and residual organic matter effects.

From 2004-2014, Daniels et al. implemented and monitored a range of soil building treatments including lime+P additions, deep ripping, biosolids applied at 78 Mg/ha, minimum tillage and residue management to rehabilitate eastern Virginia prime farmland disturbed by mineral sands mining. After nine years, crop yields on restored mined lands averaged 75 to 80% of non-mined nearby farmlands and always exceeded local county mean yields. This work has demonstrated that intensive soil reconstruction will allow for the return of these mine soils to economically viable agriculture despite reduced yield.

From 2004 to the present, Daniels et al. characterized a wide range of dredge spoils to determine their use limiting properties and features. The researchers developed an Excel base screening template that uses approximately 100 chemical and physical laboratory parameters to categorize (A) "clean fill" materials that can be used without monitoring or surface water containment, (B) partially contaminated materials that can be beneficially re-used following remediation with appropriate monitoring, and (c) significantly contaminated materials that should not be used. This “screening template” approach was adopted as permit criteria by the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality in fall 2012 and revised in 2014 for site specific application in Charles City County.

Daniels et al. monitored the long term conversion of saline dredge materials to upland agricultural soils and local shallow groundwater effects. These materials quickly leach excess soluble salts and Na and were successfully cropped to winter wheat and soybeans in drier locations in 2014. Long term results of this program are summarized in a JEQ article cited below.

Lime stabilized biosolids were applied in fall 2013 to treat and stabilize newly exposed acid-sulfate soils due to recurring construction activities at the Stafford Airport site in Northern Virginia. Monitoring of revegetation confirmed that (a) continued usage of an acid-base-accounting approach to establish site loading rates based on predicted long-term lime demands was appropriate and (b) original subsoil materials >15 cm at this site had been largely unaffected by the original treatment in the early 2000s, and full “reclamation rates” of lime stabilized biosolids were still required.

Daniels and Evanylo tested four paper mill sludges, two wood ash materials, and completed work on three biosolids ashes for potential soil amendment certification by the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. This testing program enables beneficial land application of industrial by-products in lieu of landfilling.

Washington
Urban agriculture is experiencing a resurgence across the US. The potential benefits of urban agriculture from both the perspectives of ecosystem services and public health are only beginning to be addressed. Brown and co-workers have co- edited a two volume series on urban agriculture entitled Sowing Seeds in the city to be published by Springer. The first volume focuses on ecosystem and municipal services. It includes chapters on use of alternative water (stormwater, grey water and reclaimed water) including one written by Ian Pepper, (UA), residuals use (biosolids, food and yard waste) and greenhouse gas implications of residuals use in urban agriculture. The second volume focuses on human health. In the section on risk, we have contributed chapters from members of the group including Nick Basta (OSU) and Ganga Hettiarachchi. (KSU). These volumes are some of the first compiled considerations of this emerging topic that has great potential to benefit public health, increase urban sustainability and to foster ecosystem services in urban areas.

Brown and co-workers have also worked on defining standards for green stormwater infrastructure in urban areas. Green stormwater infrastructure relies on enhancing soil/plant systems’ ability to both allow stormwater to infiltrate and to remove contaminants from stormwater. These systems are being used both alone and in combination with grey or engineered systems as a way to limit combined sewer overflows in urban areas. They are also likely to enhance off peak stream flow and reduce the flashiness of urban streams. Current standards for these systems vary widely by location and appear to be more qualitative than quantitative. Our work tested the importance of compost feedstock for removal of nutrients and metals and found that feedstock (manure, biosolids, yard/food scraps) was a poor predictor of system performance. We also tested the potential for the phosphorus saturation index (PSI) to serve as a better predictor and found that this tool predicted P movement in these systems. We also demonstrated that high Fe water treatment residuals were beneficial in these systems. This builds on the literature and research done within the group (see Basta, Elliott, O’Connor) on the PSI as a tool for predicting P movement in biosolids amended soils.

Brown et al tested the resilience of a long-term mine waste impacted site amended with biosolids to maintain a plant cover and reduce hazards associated with the contaminants in situ. A range of measures including animal trapping and kidney and liver pathology were used to confirm the safety of this approach. In addition to confirming the efficacy of the use of amendments for restoration, we compared the relative ecosystem costs of topsoil harvesting and replacement with biosolids use for restoring the large acreage site. We estimated the costs of topsoil harvesting by using the rate of soil formation in combination with the current payback rate for the USDA Conservation Reserve Program to estimate costs of topsoil replacement. The greenhouse gas benefits of remediation with biosolids were used for comparison. The results clearly showed the benefits of residuals use, both as a result of effectiveness and for ecosystem services.

Publications

Journal articles

Attanayake, C.P., G.M. Hettiarchchi, S. Martin, and G.M. Pierzynski. 2015. Potential bioavailability of lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in compost-amended urban soils. J. Environ. Qual. 44:930-944. Doi: 10.2134/jeq2014.09.0400.

Barbarick, K.A., J.A. Ippolito, and J. McDaniel. 2015. Uptake coefficients for biosolids-amended dryland winter wheat. J. Environ. Qual. 44:286-292.

Bertagnoli, A.D., K.A. Meinhardt, M. Pannu, S. Brown, S. Strand, S.C. Fransen and D.A. Stahl. 2015. Influence of edaphic and management factors on the diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeota and bacteria in soils of bioenergy crop cultivars. Environ. Microbiology Reports 7:2:312-320

Betancourt, W.Q., M. Kitajima, A.D. Wing, J. Regnery, J.E. Drewes, I.L. Pepper, and C.P. Gerba. 2014. Assessment of virus removal by managed aquifer recharge at three full-scale operations. J. Env. Sci. Hlth, Part A. 49:1-8.

Brown, S. 2015. Greenhouse gas accounting for landfill diversion of food scraps and yard waste. Compost Sci. In press

Brown, S., M. Mahoney and M. Sprenger. 2014. A comparison of the efficacy and ecosystem impact of residuals-based and topsoil-based amendments for restoring historic mine tailings in the Tri-State mining district. Sci. Tot. Environ. 485-486:624-632.

Brown, S.L., A.Corfman, K. Mendrey, K. Kurtz, and F. Grothkopp. 2015. Stormwater Bioretention systems- testing the phosphorus saturation index and compost feedstocks as predictive tools for system performance. J. Environ. Qual., In press

Chao Q., D. Troya, C. Shang, S. Hildreth, R. Helm, and K. Xia. 2015. Surface Catalyzed Oxidative Oligomerization of 17?-estradiol by Fe3+-Saturated Montmorillonite. Environ. Sci. Technol. 49:956–964.

Cheng-Hua Liu, Ya-Hui Chuang, Tsan-Yao Chen, Yuan Tian, Hui Li, Ming-Kuang Wang, and Wei Zhang. 2015. Mechanism of Arsenic Adsorption on Magnetite Nanoparticles from Water: Thermodynamic and Spectroscopic Studies. Environ. Sci. Technol. 49:7726-7734.

Cun Liu, Cheng Gu, Kai Yu, Hui Li, Brian J. Teppen, Cliff T. Johnston, Stephen A. Boyd, and Dongmei Zhou. 2015. Integrating structural and thermodynamic mechanisms for sorption of PCBs by montmorillonite. Environ. Sci. Technol. 49:2796-2805.

Daniels, W., Z. Orndorff, C. Zipper. 2014. Predicting release and aquatic effects of total dissolved solids from Appalachian USA coal mines. International Journal of Coal Science and Technology 1:152-162.

Defoe, P.P, G.M. Hettiarachchi, C. Benedict, and S. Martin. 2014. Safety of Gardening on Lead- and Arsenic-Contaminated Urban Brownfields. J. Environ. Qual. 43:2041- 2078. Doi: 10.2134/jeq2014.03.0099.

Dutta, T., C. Dell and R. Stehouwer. 2014. Linking organic carbon, water content, and nitrous oxide emission in a reclaimed mine soil. Accepted online Sept 27, 2014 Land Degradation & Development, Doi: 10.1002/ldr.2333.

Elliott, H.A. and M. Taylor. 2014. Phosphorus partitioning in co-dewatering biosolids and water treatment residuals. Water Sci. Tech. 70(3):422-429.

Evans, D., C. Zipper, P. Donovan, W. Daniels. 2014. Long-term trends of specific conductance in waters discharged by coal-mine valley fills in central Appalachia, USA. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 50:1449-1460.

Fahrenfeld, N., K. Knowlton, L. A. Krometis, W. C. Hession, K. Xia, E. Lipscomb, K. Libuit, B. L. Green, A. Pruden. 2014. Effect of Manure Application on Abundance of Antibiotic Resistance Genes and their Attenuation Rates in Soil: Field-Scale Mass Balance Approach. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48:2643–2650.

Gunatilake, S. R., J. W Kwon, T. E. Mlsna, and K. Xia. 2014. A novel approach to determine estrogenic hormones in swine lagoon wastewater using QuEChERS method combined with solid phase extraction, and LC/MS/MS analysis. Anal. Methods. 6:9267-9275.

Huaizhou Xu, Xiaolei Qu, Hui Li, Cheng Gu, and Dongqiang Zhu. 2014. Sorption of Tetracycline to Varying-Sized Montmorillonite Fractions. J. Environ. Qual. 43:2079-2085.

Ippolito, J.A., K.A. Barbarick, and R.B. Brobst. 2014. Copper and zinc speciation in a biosolids amended, semiarid grassland soil. J. Environ. Qual. 43:1576-1584

Kitajima, J., A.T. Rachmadi, B.C. Iker, E. Haramoto, I.L. Pepper, and C.P. Gerba. 2015. Occurrence and genetic diversity of human cosavirus in influent and effluent of wastewater treatment plants in Arizona, United States. Arch. Virol. 160:1775-1779.

Kitajima, M., B.C. Iker, I.L. Pepper, and C.P. Gerba. 2014. Relative abundance and treatment reduction of viruses during wastewater treatment processes – identification of potential viral indicators. Sci. Tot. Environ. Vol. 488-489, pp. 290-296.

Koropchak, S., W. Daniels, A. Wick, G.R. Whittecar, N. Haus. 2015. Beneficial use of dredge materials for soil reconstruction and development of dredge screening protocols. J. Environ. Qual. Doi:10.2134/jeq2014.12.0529.

Liu, J., D.J. Sample, J. Owen, J. Li, and G.K. Evanylo. 2014. Assessment of selected bioretention blends for nutrient retention using mesocosm experiments. J. Environ. Qual. Vol 43, Doi: 10.2134/jeq2014.01.0017.

McDaniel, J.P., G. Butters, K.A. Barbarick, and M.E. Stomburger. 2015. Effects of Aporrectodea caliginosa on soil hydraulic properties and solute dispersivity. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 79:838-847.

Meinhardt, K.A., A. Bertagnolli, M. Pannu, S.E. Strand, S.L. Brown and D.A. Stahl. 2015. Evaluation of revised polymerase chain reaction primers for more inclusive quantification of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria. Environ. Microbiology Reports 7:2:354-363.

Odenheimer J., J. Skousen, L. McDonald, D. Vesper, M. Mannix, W. Daniels. 2014. Predicting release of total dissolved solids from overburden material using acid-base accounting parameters. Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis, Online First. Doi: 10.1144/geochem2014-276.

Orndorff, Z., W. Daniels, C. Zipper, M. Eick, M. Beck. 2015. A column evaluation of Appalachian coal mine cpoils’ temporal leaching behavior. Environ. Pollut. 204:39-47.

Pietrzykowski, M., W. Daniels. 2014. Estimation of carbon sequestration in pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) ecosystems developed on post-mining sites in Poland. Ecological Engineering 73: 209-218.

Ray, P., K.F. Knowlton, C. Shang, and K. Xia. 2014. Development and validation of a UPLC-MS/MS method to monitor cephapirin excretion in dairy cows following intramammary infusion. PLoS ONE. 9:1-12.

Ray, P., K.F. Knowlton, C. Shang, and K. Xia. 2014. Method development and validation: solid phase extraction (SPE)-ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) quantification of pirlimycin in bovine feces and urine. J AOAC International. 97:1730-1736.

Sherchan, S., S.A. Snyder, C.P. Gerba, and I.L. Pepper. 2014. Inactivation of MS2 coliphage by UV and hydrogen peroxide: comparison by cultural and molecular methodologies. J. Env. Sci. Hlth. Part A. 49:397-403.

Sherchan, S.P., Masaaki, K., Gerba, C.P., and Pepper, I.L. 2014. Rapid detection technologies for monitoring microorganisms in water. Biosensors J. 3:109. Doi: 10.4172/2090-4967.1000109.

Wanting Lin, Rui Sun, Xi Gao, Ranfang Xu, and Hui Li. 2015. Low-Molecular-Weight Organic Acids Enhance Desorption of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Soil. European Journal of Soil Science 66:339-347.

Woodward, E.E., D.M. Andrews, C.F. Williams, J.E. Watson. 2014. Vadose zone transport of natural and synthetic estrogen hormones at Penn State’s “Living Filter” wastewater irrigation site. J. Environ. Qual. 43:1933-1941.

Ya-Hui Chuang, Yingjie Zhang, Wei Zhang, Stephen A. Boyd, and Hui Li. 2015. Comparison of accelerated solvent extraction and quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe method for extraction and determination of pharmaceuticals in vegetables. J. Chromatogr. A 1404:1-9.

Yarwood, S., A. Wick, M. Williams, W. Daniels. 2015. Parent material and vegetation influence early soil microbial community establishment following 30-years of rock weathering. Microbial. Ecol. 69:383-94.

Yingjie Zhang, Stephen A. Boyd, Brian J. Teppen, James M. Tiedje, and Hui Li. 2014. Role of Tetracycline Speciation in the Bioavailability to Escherichia coli for Uptake and Expression of Antibiotic Resistance. Environ. Sci. Technol. 48:4893-4900.

Yingjie Zhang, Stephen A. Boyd, Brian J. Teppen, James M. Tiedje, and Hui Li. 2014. Organic Acids Enhance Bioavailability of Tetracycline in Water to Escherichia coli for Uptake and Expression of Antibiotic Resistance. Water. Res. 65:98-106.

Zeyou Chen, Hui Li, Yanzheng Gao, and Anping Peng. 2015. Removal of Phenanthrene and Acenaphthene from Aqueous Solution by Enzyme-Catalyzed Phenol Coupling Reaction. Chemical Engineering Journal 265:27-33.

Abstracts/ presentations

Bamber, K.W., G.K. Evanylo and W.E. Thomason. 2014. Nitrogen cycling from fall applications of biosolids to winter small grains. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings, Long Beach, CA. Nov. 2-5, 2014.

Bero, N., S. Griffith, D.J. Soldat, J. Stier, E.H. Ervin, and G. Evanylo. 2014. Using biosolids for turfgrass sod production. Agron. Abr. p. 89253. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings, Long Beach, CA. Nov. 2-5, 2014.

Ervin, E.H., A. Boyd, and G. Evanylo. 2014. Development and testing of EQ biosolids mixes for amending disturbed urban soils and improving tall fescue drought resistance. Agron. Abr. p. 87504. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings, Long Beach, CA. Nov. 2-5, 2014.

Evanylo, G.K. 2014. Integration of the role of vegetation and soil in urban landscape environmental quality: Session summary & posing future needs. In Symposium: Effects of nutrient cycling in urban grassland soils on soil and water quality. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings, Long Beach, CA. Nov. 2-5, 2014.

Evanylo, G.K., J. Liu, and D. Sample. 2014. Bioretention cell performance: Influence of media chemical and physical properties. BioCycle East pre-conference workshop: Soils and the Chesapeake. Ellicott City, MD. Oct 27.

Evanylo, G.K., J. Liu, D. Sample, J. Owen, and J. Li. 2014. Comparison of bioretention media composition on performance. BioCycle East Conference. Ellicott City, MD. Oct 28.

Favorito, J., Eick, M.J. and Grossl, P.R. 2015. Selenium biogeochemistry in calcareous soils. CSES graduate symposium. Blacksburg, VA.

Hemmerling, J., M. L. Mashtare, and L. S. Lee. 2014. Evaluating Contaminants of Emerging Concern in Commercial Biosolid-based Fertilizers. SURF Poster Symposium. West Lafayette, IN. (Award: Top Ten Poster).

Hettiarachchi, G.M., C. Attanayake, P. Defoe, and S. Martin. 2014. Growing food crops on urban soils. ASA/SSSA/CSA Annual Meetings, Long Beach, CA. Nov. 2014.

Hettiarachchi, G.M., C. Attanayake, P. Defoe, S. Martin, and G. M. Pierzynski. 2014. Minimizing human exposure to contaminants in urban soils. ASA/SSSA/CSA Annual Meetings, Long Beach, CA. Nov. 2014.


Huertas A.F. L., M. L. Mashtare, and L. S. Lee. 2014. Persistence of Emerging Contaminants from Commercial Biosolids-Based Fertilizers in Aerobic Soils. Purdue University Ecological Sciences and Engineering Poster Symposium, West Lafayette, IN.

Lee, L.S., Mashtare, M.M., Hemmerling, J. and A.F.L. Huertas. 2015 Assessing Organic Contaminants of Emerging Concern in Commercially Available in Biosolid-based Fertilizers. WEF/IWE Residuals and Biosolids Workshop.

Mashtare, M. L., J. Hemmerling, A. Zull, and L. S. Lee. 2014. Evaluating Poly/Perfluoroalkyl Substances in Commercial Biosolids-based Fertilizers. 2014 Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) North America 35th Annual Meeting, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Mashtare, M. L., J. Hemmerling, and L. S. Lee. 2014. Evaluating Contaminants of Emerging Concern in Commercial Biosolid-based Fertilizers. Soil in the City Conference

Mashtare, M. L., J. Hemmerling, F. L. Huertas Ayala, and L. S. Lee. 2014. Evaluating the Concentration and Bioavailability of Micropollutants in Commercial Biosolids-based Fertilizers. 2014 ASA, CSSA, and SSSA International Annual Meetings, Long Beach, CA.

McAdams, B. N., M. L. Mashtare, and L. S. Lee. 2014. Characterization and Reclamation of Railroad-Impacted Soils. Purdue University Ecological Sciences and Engineering Poster Symposium, West Lafayette, IN. (Award: 2nd Place Poster)
McDaniel, J., K. Barbarick, and G. Butters. 2015. Soil phosphorus accumulation following 20 years of wheat-fallow with biosolids. American Society of Agronomy Abstract 94-8.
Pepper, I.L., Snyder, S.A., Yu, H-W., and Anumol, T. 2014. Monitoring for Reliability and Process Control of Potable Reuse Applications. Water Reuse Conference, Sao Paulo Brazil. Oct. 2014.

Qin, C., K. Xia, D. Troya, C. Shang. Oxidative Coupling Processes on Fe3+-Saturated Montmorillonite Surfaces: Polymerization of 17?-Estradiol. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings, Long Beach, CA. Nov. 2-5, 2014.

Ray, P., K. F. Knowlton, C. Shang, and K. Xia. 2015 Fecal and urinary elimination kinetics of cephalosporin and lincosamide antibiotics in dairy cows following intramammary infusion: Application of SPE clean-up and UPLCMS/MS quantification approach. 249th American Chemical Society National Meeting, Denver, CO. Mar. 22–26.

Schmitz, B., Gerba, C., and Pepper, I. Pathogen and Nutrient Removal During Wastewater Treatment at a 21st Century Wastewater Treatment Plant. 19th European and Organic Resources Conference, Manchester, UK, Nov. 2014.


Weeks, J., G.M. Hettiarachchi, E. Santos, and J. Tatarko. 2014. Assessment of Potential Human Inhalation Exposure to Soil Trace Elements Resulting from Agricultural Activity on Urban Brownfield Sites. ASA/SSSA/CSA Annual Meetings, Long Beach, CA. Nov. 2013

Xia, K., and L. Hundal. Occurrence and fate of emerging contaminants in biosolids and biosolids-amended soils. 2014 International Symposium on Environment and Health (ISEH 2014). Beijing, China. July 4-5 2014.

Xia, K., B. Badgley, C. Hession, L.A. Krometis, and T. Sosienski. Occurrence of Emerging Contaminant 4-Nonylphenol in Stream Water of a Mixed Use Small Watershed: Impact of Urban Storm Water Runoff. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings, Long Beach, CA. Nov. 2-5, 2014.

Xia, K., B. Badgley, C. Hession, L.A. Krometis, T. Sosienski. Occurrence of 4-Nonylphenol in a Mixed Use Small Watershed. 2014 Mid-Atlantic Water Conference. Shepherdstown, West Virginia, Sept. 24-25, 2014.

Xia, K., C Qin, D. Troya, and C. Shang. Surface catalyzed polymerization oemerging contaminants by Fe(III)-modified montmorillonite. 2014 International Symposium on Environment and Health (ISEH 2014). Beijing, China. July 4-5 2014.

Books and Book chapters

Brown, S and N. Goldstein. The Role of Organic Residuals in Urban Agriculture. In Brown, S.L., K. McIvor and E. Snyder (Eds). Sowing seeds in the city: Ecological and Municipal Considerations. Springer Publishers. In press

Brown, S. Soils and Climate Change. In Brown, S.L., K. McIvor and E. Snyder (Eds). Sowing seeds in the city: Ecological and Municipal Considerations. Springer Publishers. In press

Brown, S. A Guide to Types of Non Potable Water and the Potential for Reuse in Urban Systems. In Brown, S.L., K. McIvor and E. Snyder (Eds). Sowing seeds in the city: Ecological and Municipal Considerations. Springer Publishers. In press

Brown, S. and C. Cogger. Soil formation and nutrient cycling. In Brown, S.L., K. McIvor and E. Snyder (Eds). Sowing seeds in the city: Ecological and Municipal Considerations. Springer Publishers. In press

Brown, S.L., K. McIvor and E. Snyder (Eds). Sowing seeds in the city: Ecological and Municipal Considerations. Springer Publishers. In press
Brown, S.L., K. McIvor and E. Snyder (Eds). Sowing seeds in the city: Human Dimensions. Springer publishers. In press

Cogger, C. and S. Brown Curbside gardens. In Brown, S.L., K. McIvor and E. Snyder (Eds). Sowing seeds in the city: Ecological and Municipal Considerations. Springer Publishers. In press

Emery, I. and S. Brown Lettuce to Reduce Greenhouse Gases: A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Conventional and Community Agriculture. In Brown, S.L., K. McIvor and E. Snyder (Eds). Sowing seeds in the city: Ecological and Municipal Considerations. Springer Publishers. In press

Hue, N.V. 2015. Bioremediation of arsenic toxicity, p. 155-165. In Arsenic Toxicity and prevention. Narayan Chakrabarty (Ed.). CRC Press.

McIvor, K. and S. Brown. A Case Study: Integrating Urban Agriculture into the Municipal Infrastructure in Tacoma, WA. In Brown, S and N. Goldstein. The Role of Organic Residuals in Urban Agriculture. In Brown, S.L., K. McIvor and E. Snyder (Eds). Sowing seeds in the city: Ecological and Municipal Considerations. Springer Publishers. In press

Wang, Lawrence K., Nazih K. Shammas, Gregory K. Evanylo and Mu-Hao S. Wang. 2014. Engineering and management of agricultural land application. In L.K. Wang and C.T. Yang (Eds.) Modern Water Resources Engineering. Handbook of Environmental Engineering series. Humana Press -Springer Science, NY, USA.


Extension Bulletin

Defoe, P.P. D. Presley, and G.M. Hettiarachchi. Gardening on Lead-contaminated Soils. MF3166. http://www.ksre.ksu.edu/bookstore/pubs/MF3166.pdf

Martin, S. and G.M. Hettiarachchi. 2014. Gardening on Brownfields: Testing Your Soil for Contaminants. MF3192. http://www.ksre.ksu.edu/bookstore/pubs/MF3192.pdf


Trade Journals

Brown, S. 2007-present Climate Change Connections- monthly column Biocycle magazine.

Technical Reports

Barbarick, K.A., and J. McDaniel. 2015. Biosolids application to no-till dryland crop rotations. Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Report. TR15-5.
Barbarick, K.A., T. Gourd, and J. McDaniel. 2015. Application of anaerobically digested biosolids to dryland winter wheat. Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Report. TR15-4.

Dissertations and Theses

Bamber, Kevin. 2014. Nitrogen cycling from fall applications of biosolids to winter wheat. CSES M.S. Thesis. [Evanylo]

Berek, A. K. 2015. Biochar as a soil amendment. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Hawaii. May 2015. 142 p.

Webinars

October 15, 2014. G. Hettiarachchi conducted a webinar entitled “Managing contaminants in urban vegetable gardens to minimize human exposure” as part of the CLU-IN Webinar Series (an ongoing series of webinars organized by USEPA Technology Innovation and Field Service Division).

September 26, 2014. G. Hettiarachchi and S. Martin conducted a webinar titled “Contaminant Uptake in Food Crops grown on Brownfield Sites” as part of the Redevelopment Institute’s Sustainability Series, an ongoing series of webinars focused on sustainable development topics.

Impact Statements

  1. Linda Lee and her group analyzed TOrC in the commercially available biosolids-based materials and found that the concentrations fell within ranges previously reported for municipal biosolids. Generally, detection in the cake and heat-treated samples we had were higher than in composted products or soils. It was further noted that composting may reduce the concentrations of most TOrCs found biosolids. Non-biosolids composts had elevated concentrations of parabens, food waste, had elevated concentrations of chemicals common in the food service industry.
  2. Pepper et al developed a new technology to effectively remove pathogenic viruses from sewage during wastewater treatment. This research resulted in a new PFRP (Process to Further Reduce Pathogens), which has been approved by the EPA?s Equivalency Committee as a new PFRP.
  3. Xu et al found innovative cost-effective technologies that could provide additional water supply through water reuse and water recovery of residuals. They examined the compositional complexity and variability of oil production waste water derived from fractured shale oil formations.
  4. Research conducted by Hue et al shows that precaution should be taken when growing crops, such as taro or watercress, in high-As soils under flooded conditions. They also observed that biochar when added along with fertilizers seemed to regulate the plant nutrient release in poor soils.
  5. Reclamation of soils in both urban and agricultural settings with a management plan that includes use of products from various industrial and public treatment processes such as biochar and biosolids, respectively, hold promise of being an effective, sustainable, and good stewardship approach.
  6. Results of research conducted by Hettiarachchi et al. will help in enhancing the capabilities of gardeners or farmers to produce vegetable and fruit crops locally without potential adverse health effects to the grower or the end consumer while at the same time contributing to the meaningful revitalization of brownfield sites in a sustainable manner.
  7. The current risk assessment of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance suffers from the lack of appropriate models to link environmental exposure and bioresponse. Research conducted by Li et al indicate environmental factors such as pH, metal cations and organic acid ligands can modulate the selective pressure exerted by tetracyclines for development and enrichment of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Incorporation of tracycline speciation into the risk assessment framework for evaluating environmental exposure and the corresponding development of antibiotic resistance is recommended.
  8. Urban gardening and other re-purposing of vacant land such as recreational or residential housing is transforming land use in post-industrial historic cities, like Detroit and Cleveland, which are actively demolishing vacant buildings and leaving empty lots. This increased human contact with urban soils poses risks of exposure to lead and other historical contaminants in soil. Adding phosphate soil amendments to Pb-contaminated soils offers one management technique for reducing Pb exposure. The effectiveness of soil phosphate treatments to reduce Pb bioaccessibility is usually measured using the standard laboratory procedure USEPA Method 1340. Research results of Basta et al show USEPA Method 1340 greatly underestimates the effectiveness of soil P amendments to reduce the threat from Pb. A simple modification of USEPA Method 1340 shows some soil P amendments were effective in greatly reducing Pb exposure in a Pb contaminated garden and vacant lot soil from Cleveland, OH.
  9. Elliot et al conducted several workshops, seminars, courses, a webinar, and presentations at professional meetings to disseminate knowledge and transfer technology in the area of land-based recycling of residuals. Three state-wide courses were held for commercial-scale composters focusing on leaf and yard composting and incorporating food and other organic residuals into composting systems. A workshop held for natural resource managers on interpreting soil test results related to soil physical properties and soil sustainability. A presentation was given to biosolids professionals on the impact of NRCS Code 590 policies on phosphorus application due to land application of biosolids. Information on use of residuals for mined land production of warm-season grasses was disseminated to professionals in the field.
  10. The Penn state group disseminated their research findings to the scientific community on and off campus through reports to OPP wastewater committee for management of wastewater effluent, seminars, and national scientific meeting attendees at the Soil Science Society of America.
  11. Research findings of Xia et al showed that subsurface injection of manure may be implemented to reduce loss of manure-borne emerging contaminants in surface runoff. Research findings Xia et al demonstrated that Fe3+-saturated montmorillonite could be used as a cost-effective material for efficient removal of phenolic organic compounds from wastewater.
  12. Research of Badgley showed that biosolids cause no long-term effects on soil microbial community diversity in reclaimed mine soils.
  13. Evanylo et al showed that lime stabilized or anaerobically digested biosolids could be applied at 100% of the agronomic N rate to Coastal Plain soils before planting wheat in Virginia with N use efficiency equal to or greater than that of inorganic N best management practices.
  14. Ervin and Evanylo demonstrated that EQ biosolids could be used effectively to establish and grow turfgrass on disturbed urban soils, and their benefits increase with time.
  15. Demonstration of mineral sands mined land restoration practices developed by Daniels et al. has enabled (a) positive changes in mine operations/closure procedures, (b) a new state regulatory provision that allows topsoil to be processed for mineral yield, (c) new regulations permitting higher rates of biosolids to be applied to mined lands, and (d) a new collaborative program with North Carolina State University as mineral sands mining expands into North Carolina.
  16. Daniels et al developed a dredge material quality screening tool which was adopted as a permit criteria by the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality. Adoption of Daniels et al. novel mined and disturbed land biosolids reclamation rates within Virginia?s regulatory framework would result in substantial improvements in mined and disturbed land reclamation at much lower cost.
  17. Brown et al is focusing on the ecological impact of residuals use in terms of providing ecosystem services. As the importance of these services are increasingly recognized, using this broader context when understanding residuals end use options will provide a more relevant platform for municipal decision making.
  18. Barbarick et al showed that use of uptake coefficients from long-term studies provide a better foundation for risk assessment of biosolids-borne trace metals in agroecosystems. This could lead to better regulations regarding specific trace metals.
  19. Overall, the Committee members published 39 peer reviewed journal articles, 24 abstracts in conference proceedings, 10 book chapters, and 2 dissertations and thesis to disseminate research findings to the scientific community.
  20. The Committee members organized 2 webinars, published 2 extension bulletins, 1 technical report, and published an article in a trade journal; and conducted many seminars, workshops, and training sessions to disseminate knowledge to the general public, industry, and other stakeholders.
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Date of Annual Report: 09/09/2016

Report Information

Annual Meeting Dates: 06/26/2016 - 06/28/2016
Period the Report Covers: 01/01/2015 - 12/31/2015

Participants

Basta, Nick, basta.4@osu.edu, Ohio State University;
Bastian, Bob, bastian.robert@epa.gov, EPA;
Brown, Sally, slb@uw.edu, University of Washington;
Chaney, Rufus, Rufus.Chaney@ars.usda.gov, USDA-ARS;
Daniels, Lee, wdaniels@vt.edu, Virginia Tech;
Elliot, Herschel (Chip), hae1@engr.psu.edu, Penn State University
Evanylo, Greg, gevanylo@vt.edu, Virginia Tech;
Halbach, Tom, thalbach@umn.edu, University of Minnesota;
Hettiarachchi, Ganga, ganga@ksu.edu, Kansas State University;
Hundal, Lakhwinder, lhundal@innowllc.com;
Jelinski, Nick, jeli0026@umn.edu, University of Minnesota;
Kester, Greg, gkester@casaweb.org, California Association of Sanitation Agencies;
Li, Hui, lihui@msu.edu, Michigan State University
McAvoy, Drew, drew.mcavoy@uc.edu, University of Cincinnati;
O'Connor, George, gao@ufl.edu, University Florida;
Pepper, Ian, ipepper@ag.arizona.edu, University of Arizona;
Sommers, Lee, Lee.Sommers@ColoState.edu, Colorado State University
Tian, Guanglong, guanglong.tian@mwrdgc.dst.il.us, Metropolitan Water Reclamation District (Chicago);
Wang, Meie, meie.wang@ars.usda.gov, USDA-ARS

Brief Summary of Minutes

W2170 Annual Meeting Program Minutes


Host: Nicholas Basta, The Ohio State University


Columbus, OH


 


 


Sunday, June 26th


Location: Marriott Spring Hill Suites Conference Center


3:30-5:00 PM: Business Meeting



  1. Welcome and Introductions

  2. Annual report update A question regarding reporting date-under the new project it will be previous year report (2015 in 2016)

  3. Discuss venue for 2017 and 2018:  Washington DC (2018) and Los Angeles, California (2017)

  4. Other business

    1. Virginia biosolids council-House Joint Resolution (HJ) 120 Challenges- public acceptance/public perception By Greg Evanylo

    2. TNSS 2.0- updates on the review the risk assessment for 503 by Bob Brobst

    3. Need for actively recruiting new members has also been discussed



  5. Finalized presentations for Monday-Tuesday: Ganga Hettiarachchi 

  6. Short overview of UF happenings George O’Connor


Dr. Rufus Chaney Retirement Dinner and Reception


6:00 PM: Dinner at the Hunan Lion


8:30 to 11 PM: Reception at the Spring Hills Marriott, Conference Room


 


Monday June 27th


Location: Ohio Union in the Suzanne Scharer Room, 3rd floor


8:30 AM-11:45 AM: Urban soils: Challenges and Opportunities for W3170 members


Developing EQ biosolids product recipes for use in urban soils by Greg Evanylo Group


Other State Reports and Volunteered Presentations


Director’s message (10:00 AM Call-in)- New reporting requirements and other updates were provided by Michael Harrington


Challenges and Opportunities for W3170 members: Discussion led by Nick Basta and Ganga Hettiarachchi


Noon-2:00 PM: Lunch


2:15 PM-4:30 PM: Reusing nutrients in waste materials and wastewaters


Water and Energy Sustainable Technology Center Studies on Wastewater Treatment and Biosolids by Ian Pepper


Kern County Litigation Update by Greg Kester


The use of EQ biosolids products for establishment, growth and quality of turfgrass by Greg Evanylo Group


Vegetable uptake of pharmaceuticals from water by Hui Li


Other State Reports and Volunteered Presentations


6:30 PM: Dinner


Columbus Hofbräuhaus


 


Tuesday, June 28th


Location: Ohio Union in the Suzanne Scharer Room, 3rd floor


8:30 AM-10:00AM: Use of biosolids for growing energy crops


Use of biosolids for Switchgrass establishment: LCA, archaea by Sally Brown


Land Application of Biosolids in a Deep Row Hybrid Poplar Trench System by Herschel (Chip) Elliott


New Phytotechnology for Cleaning Contaminated Military Sites by Ganga Hettiarachchi


Other State Reports and Volunteered Presentations


10:00 AM -11:30 AM: Other topic areas


Developing exposure and toxicity data for priority trace organics in biosolids by Drew McAvoy


Other State Reports and Volunteered Presentations


11:30 AM: Discussion and wrap-up


Noon: Adjourn Meeting

Accomplishments

PROGRESS of WORK and PRINCIPAL ACCOMPLISHMENTS


 


Objective 1: Evaluate the short- and long-term chemistry and bioavailability of nutrients, potentially toxic inorganic trace elements, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (TOrCs) in residuals, reclaimed water, and amended soils in order to assess the environmental and health risk-based effects of their application at a watershed scale.


Specific tasks:



  1. To develop and evaluate in vitro (including chemical speciation) and novel in vivo methods to correlate human and ecological health responses with risk-based bioavailability of trace elements and TOrCs in residuals and residual-treated soils.

  2. Predict the long-term bioavailability and toxicity of trace elements and TOrCs in residual-amended urban, agricultural and contaminated soils.

  3. Evaluate long-term effects of residuals application and reclaimed wastewater irrigation on fate and transport of nutrients, trace elements, TOrCs, and emergence/spread of antibiotic resistance in high application rate systems.

  4. Evaluate plant uptake and ecological effects of potentially toxic trace elements and TOrCs from soils amended with residuals and reclaimed wastewater.


Objectives 1 Accomplishments:


Arizona


Pepper et al. conducted research to evaluate human pathogenic virus removal during wastewater treatment.  The model viruses chosen for this study were: Pepper Mild Mottle Virus, Aichivirus, Norovirus, Enterovirus, Adenovirus, JC Polyomavirus and BK Polyomavirus.  All viruses were monitored for a year in raw influent and final treated effluent using qPCR. Four wastewater treatment plants were evaluated with secondary treatment consisting of: trickling filter; activated sludge or a 5 stage Bardenpho process. Monitoring data provided an indication of relative abundance (incidence); seasonal variation; and the extent of removal during wastewater treatment. Based on these criteria, the pepper mild mottle virus appeared to be best candidate for use as a model viral indicator of sewage pollution. In addition, the Bardenpho process was shown to be more efficient than the trickling filter or activated sludge process for virus removal. Two manuscripts have been submitted to the Journal of Residual Science and Technology and Environmental Science and Technology.


 


The USEPA is interested in evaluating the methodology used for coliphage detection, and determining if phage can be used as an indicator for enteric viruses during wastewater treatment. Pepper et al. evaluated 4 E.coli hosts recommended by the U.S. EPA for male specific and somatic phage detection.  They collected wastewater samples from three wastewater treatment trains in two plants and analyzed phage incidence through cultural assay. Two E.coli hosts for both male specific phage and somatic phage were evaluated.  Key findings were: the double agar overlay assay is superior to the single agar overlay; the E.coli host CN-13 for somatic phage may be the optimal host for cultural coliphage detection; and the Bardenpho process results in greater removal of coliphage than conventional activated sludge or trickling filters.


 


Pepper et al. evaluated the survival of Ebola in toilet waste and during wastewater treatment through the use of viral surrogates. MS-2 virus was utilized based on the following criteria: same viral order as Ebola; nucleic acid type; and lipid content. Medical waste containing the virus was flushed down the toilet with and without disinfection. Following flushing, the incidence of the virus in the toilet water and on fomites within the restroom was evaluated. In addition, the survival of surrogates during anaerobic digestion was also evaluated. Disinfection of toilet waste was compromised by the presence of the high organic load. Overall peracetic acid was shown to be the most effective disinfectant followed by quaternary ammonium and bleach. Flushing the toilet was also shown to result in significant contamination of fomite surfaces within the restroom. The survival of 5 different viruses during wastewater treatment was evaluated during mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion. Thermophilic digestion resulted in greater inactivation than mesophilic digestion. Also, lipid containing virus similar to Ebola survived less well than other viruses.


 


Pepper et al. conducted transformational research to produce Class A biosolids at greatly reduced costs. Two new technologies are being combined to (1) Reduce hauling costs of biosolids by an innovative dewatering process that increases the % solids to 75%, and (2) produce Class A biosolids that meet vector attraction reduction for beneficial reuse. Design of the technologies is complete and include a spiral dewatering system that dewaters sludge from 2 to 20% solids, and a heat pump dehumidification module that converts the 20% Class B cake to a Class A biosolids with 75% total biosolids. A 1-year demonstration project will be conducted at the Green Valley Arizona Wastewater Treatment Plant.


 


Colorado


Barbarick et al. continued to investigate the long-term benefits of biosolids additions to a dryland winter wheat agroecosystem. They found that uptake coefficients for nutrients and trace metals in biosolids-amended soils were much lower than those used for Risk Analysis by USEPA.  They also found that biosolids additions would shift the Cu and Zn soil forms.


 


Florida


Florida researchers (O’Conner et al.) have a long history of conducting the real-world experiments needed to validate models of bioavailability and of accurately assessing human and environmental health of residuals-borne contaminants (and nutrients). They have initiated studies designed to provide data essential to science-based risk assessments of biosolids-borne trace organics. Preliminary studies provide boundary conditions for more detailed studies to follow. Also began installation of field-monitoring devices that will convert demonstration plots into long-term field sites where the fate and transport of several biosolids constituents, e.g., nutrients, trace organics, metals can be monitored. Preliminary greenhouse (range-finding) studies identified concentration ranges, biosolids loading rates, and other treatment variables that should be carefully controlled in detailed (definitive) studies. Similarly, preliminary studies were conducted to identify experimental procedures, e.g., equilibration times, solid to solution ratios, and soil pH values needed to assess biosolids-borne antibiotic retention-release characteristics. Detailed studies to follow in the next reporting period.


 


Hawaii


Hue et al. conducted a literature review on bioremediation of arsenic toxicity. Arsenic (As) exists in soil, water, and air naturally at low levels, which could be raised unintentionally by human activities (e.g., coal burning, ore smelting, or using arsenical pesticides). At elevated levels, As can be toxic to human health and the environment. Being chemically similar to phosphate, arsenate [As(+5) in forms of H2AsO4- and HAsO42-] enters the cell via the phosphate transport systems (Pit and Pst), whereas arsenite [As(+3) in the neutral form of As(OH)3] passes through aquaglyceroporin gates. The severity of As toxicity varies with As species with As(+3) being the most toxic followed by As(+5); organic As (e.g., arsenobetain, arsenocholine) the least. Bioremediation of As could be realized via (1) oxidation of As(+3) to As(+5), (2) methylation by bacteria and fungi, and/or (3) extraction by plants (phytoremediation). This review presents detailed information about these remediation processes.


 


Biochar is the solid material that is formed by decomposing biomass at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen in a process called pyrolysis. Biochar is a promising soil amendment for sustainable agriculture, including the amelioration of soil acidity. Hue et al. applied Lac tree (Schleichera oleosa) wood and ricehusk biochars  at 4% and 8% alone or in combination with lime at 4 and 8 cmolckg-1 and compost at 0.1 and 0.2% to two strongly acid soils (pH 3.9-4.0, exchangeable Al 8-14 cmolckg-1) then planted with soybean cv Anjasmoro ( a cultivar sensitive to Al)  twice as the test plant. Biochar effects on the soils properties and the growth of soybean were measured. The results indicated that upon biochar additions, soil pH and cation exchange capacity were increased, exchangeable Al was reduced, and plant nutrients were variously enhanced, depending on the biochars feedstocks and rates and the soil acidity levels. Shoot and root dry weights of soybean from the soils amended with biochars alone were increased 2.1 and 1.6 folds and 2.3 and 1.5 folds for the first and the second plantings, respectively. CaCO3 equivalent and nutrients content were the biochar properties principally responsible for the acid soil productivity improvement and subsequently the plant growth enhancement. The lac tree wood biochar improved soils’ properties (mainly soil fertility) and soybean growth more than the rice husk biochar. However, because of the availability of biochars and based on the net benefit analysis  we would recommend rice husk biochar at 8% alone or in combination with lime at 8 cmolckg-1 and compost at 0.2% for improvement of tropical acid soils and soybean production.  


Kansas


Kansas State University researchers (Hettiarachchi et al.) evaluated the long-term (two to seven years) bioavailability of trace elements and/or organic contaminants (such as with As, Cd, Pb, Zn and/or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) in mildly contaminated urban brownfields soils or mine waste materials amended with different organic amendments (manures, various compost types, composted and non-composted class A biosolids products).


Minnesota


University of Minnesota researchers continued studies to evaluate the use of recycled phosphorus (P) from biosolids. The focus in 2015 was to evaluate a struvite derived from wastewater as a slow release phosphate source for potato production.  The struvite used is a commercially available P fertilizer source sold as Crystal Green.  To evaluate struvite, the third year of a three-year study was conducted on a loamy sand soil with a medium soil test P level at the Sand Plain Research Farm in Becker, Minnesota.  Treatments compared two blends of a struvite product (Crystal Green, Ostara) with MAP, relative to 100% MAP, as sources of P2O5 for Russet Burbank potato production.  MAP was banded or broadcast at planting at a rate of 100 lbs∙ac-1 P2O5, and two different blends of Crystal Green and MAP (1:3 or 1:1 ratios of Crystal Green to MAP) were broadcast at 100 or 75 lbs∙ac-1 P2O5.  These treatments were compared to a zero-P2O5 control treatment.  Tuber yield increased, while tuber size decreased, with P2O5 application rate.  Tuber yield and size were not related to the proportion of P2O5 provided by Crystal Green, nor to whether 100% MAP was broadcast-applied or banded.  Petiole P concentration weakly decreased with increasing proportion of P2O5 supplied as Crystal Green on June 16, the first of five petiole sampling dates, but was not otherwise related to the form of P2O5 applied.  Under the conditions of this study, the use of blends of MAP and Crystal Green did not provide advantages or disadvantages, in terms of tuber yield and quality, compared to 100% MAP.


 


Pennsylvania


Researchers at Pennsylvania State University studied three vernal pools impacted by spray-irrigated wastewater effluent to assess the impact of weekly irrigation on the occurrence, persistence, and fate of estrogens (17alpha- and 17beta-estradiol, estrone, estriol, and ethinylestradiol) during an 8-week study. Nearly 100% of the daily samples (n>130) collected contained estrogens, and the concentrations were several times higher compared to the wastewater. Data suggest transformation of estrone back to 17alpha- and 17beta-estradiol potentially due to anaerobic conditions in the vernal pools. Uptake of antibiotics into wheat was documented for wheat growing in soil irrigated with wastewater effluent. Concentrations were in the ng/g range. Freundlich coefficients were determined for antibiotics sorbed to soil. HPLC-MS/MS approaches for analysis of estrogens were investigated to determine the extent to which matrix effects from soil extractions interfere with analytical reliability, and to optimize column stationary phases and mobile phases for separations of 10 estrogenic compounds. Biosolids were placed in trenches (at 386 Mg per ha) and hybrid poplar were planted in the cover soil. Two downgradient monitoring wells were analyzed for various parameters including nitrate.   Ten months after entrenchment, well water quality suggests no impact from the biosolids. Longer term monitoring is needed draw conclusions about the impact of biosolids trenching on groundwater quality.  Erosion and acidic soil conditions contributed to poor poplar growth and mortality in the first year.  Some of the lime-stabilized biosolids should be applied into plow-layer depth soils to facilitate growth of poplars and surface-cover vegetation to reduce erosional losses.  A greenhouse study was conducted to establish thresholds for negative effects on vegetation and soils from Marcellus Shale production water.  The salinity threshold for negative effects on grasses (fescue and ryegrass) was an electrical conductivity of about 40 mS per cm for a single spill with periodic small rain events.


 


Virginia


Eick et al. characterized soils from phosphate mine sites in Soda Springs, ID for physical and chemical properties. The Se concentrations in plant samples were determined, with maximum values reaching 7000 mg Se kg-1 soil. Selenium speciation data obtained from extractions using ion chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (IC-ICP-MS) determined that selenite was the predominant species in soluble fractions, with smaller levels of selenate present. Using a sequential extraction procedure (SEP), lower levels of soluble Se were noted with moderate Se levels found in carbonate and amorphous iron oxide fractions. Highest levels of Se were observed in organic and residual fractions. Using simple linear regression, the sum of water soluble, phosphate exchangeable Se, and carbonate-associated Se correlated well with Se concentrations found in the Se hyperaccumulator, Western mountain aster (R2 = 0.77).


 


Using synchrotron-based x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), soils were further evaluated in order to determine mechanisms of sequestration. Soils contained Se predominantly in the elemental and organic forms. Smaller quantities were adsorbed to iron oxides and carbonate minerals, with some Se co-precipitation occurring with carbonate minerals. This information is consistent with the previously completed SEP.


 


The effects of salicylic and citric dissolved organic carbon (DOC) acids on selenate and selenite solubility were evaluated using a batch reactor sorption technique. This was conducted on an amorphous iron oxide, 2-line ferrihydrite, from pH 5 to 9. Citric acid exhibited a pronounced increasing effect on Se solubility, especially from pH 5 to 8 for selenite and pH 5 to 6 for selenate. Little competitive effects were noted for Se species with salicylic acid.


 


Xia et al. conducted rainfall simulations on plots receiving three manure treatments (surface application, subsurface injection, and no manure control) to determine the fate and transport of five different antibiotics commonly used in dairy production. Surface application, compared with subsurface injection, resulted in 80-97% greater mass loss of all five antibiotics investigated during a rainfall event after the manure application. Horizontal and vertical diffusion of antibiotics were the highest for plots receiving rainfall immediately, comparing to rainfall at day 3 and 7 after manure application.


 


Xia et al. collected antibiotics-containing manure from the treated animals and composted the manure using the FDA recommended static and turned techniques. Disappearance of all antibiotics, except pirlimycin, followed bi-phasic first-order kinetics. However, individual antibiotics displayed different fate patterns in response to the treatments. Reduction in concentration of chlortetracycline (71 to 84%) and tetracycline (66 to 72%) was substantial, while near-complete removal of sulfamethazine (97 to 98%) and pirlimycin (100%) was achieved. Tylosin concentration was highly variable and its removal during composting was poor. Both turned and static composting were generally effective for reducing most beef and dairy antibiotic residuals excreted in manure, with no apparent negative impact of antibiotics


 


Xia et al. investigated the effectiveness of Fe3+-saturated montmorillonite to deactivate harmful microorganisms in wastewater. Microbial deactivation efficiency was 92% when a secondary wastewater effluent was mixed with 10 g/L of Fe3+-saturated montmorillonite for 0.5 h. This deactivation efficiency was similar to that when the same water was subjected to UV-disinfection.


 


Washington


Washington researchers (Brown et al.) co- authored two peer reviewed manuscripts on bioavailability of contaminants. Co-authors for both are members of the W 3170 group and both manuscripts were conceived as a result of the work of the group.  The first manuscript, co-authored by Chaney and Hettiarachchi addressed the issue of Pb contaminated urban soils and the potential for risks for urban agriculture.  Potential transfer of Pb from soils to food crops was evaluated using peer reviewed literature.  Direct ingestion of soil with elevated Pb was also considered.  The authors developed practical guidelines to minimize any potential risk of exposure. The paper was published in the special section of the Journal of Environmental Quality devoted to the Soils in the City conference that was the group’s annual meeting in 2014.  The second manuscript reviewed use of soil amendments including municipal biosolids and other residual based materials to reduce metal toxicity and restore ecosystem function to metal contaminated waste materials at mining sites.  Brown and Chaney co-authored this manuscript. 


They have also submitted a manuscript for review on the impact of soil filtration on water quality for two types of reclaimed water. This was done to investigate the potential to use soil filtration as an alternative to engineered treatment as well as to see if sites permitted for irrigation could also be used to augment subsurface flows.  One water was treated by sand filtration and the other was treated using a membrane bioreactor system.  Both waters met Washington State standards for unrestricted use for irrigation.  Metals, nutrients and estrogenic activity of the leachate were measured.  In general, filtration through soil did not significantly alter water quality with the exception of greatly reduced estrogenic activity in the sand filter water.  Their results suggest that over irrigation using reclaimed water is a means to augment subsurface flows.  


 


Objective 2: Evaluate the range of uses and associated agronomic and environmental benefits/advantages for residuals in agricultural and urban systems.


 


Specific tasks:



  1. Evaluate the ability of in situ treatment of contaminated soil with residuals to reduce chemical contaminant bioavailability and toxicity.

  2. Determine the climate change impacts of organic residuals end use options (i.e., C sequestration, N2O emissions).

  3. Quantify sustainability impacts such as water quality (reduced N impairment) and quantity benefits (increased plant available water, increased drought tolerance) and soil quality improvements associated with a range of organic residuals end uses.

  4. Explore the potential for waste by-products to be used in urban areas including urban agriculture, stormwater infrastructure, green roofs, and in urban green space.

  5. Evaluate ecosystem services of degraded urban soils amended with residuals.

  6. Use tools such as life cycle assessment to understand and compare the impacts of a range of residuals end use/disposal options.


 


Objective 2 Accomplishments:


Kansas


Researchers at Kansas State University (Hettiarachchi et al.) evaluated the success and use of specific residuals as soil treatment technologies to remediate mildly contaminated urban brownfields. The success of residue additions on reducing human and ecological risk was evaluated based on scientific methods recognized by USEPA and scientific communities.  Additionally agronomic and environmental benefits/advantages of residual additions to mildly contaminated urban brownfields were also evaluated.


 


Ohio


The following information was made available based on the worked performed by Basta et al. Developing management recommendations for lead contaminated urban soils is necessary to address public questions regarding best practices for using urban soils for food and recreation. Adding phosphates to lead-contaminated soils offers one management technique for reducing risk of exposure of children to soil lead.   Lead contaminated soils (790 to 1,300 mg Pb kg-1) from a garden and a city lot in Cleveland, OH were incubated in a bench scale experiment for 1 year.  Six phosphate amendments including bone meal (BM), fish bone (FB), poultry litter (PL), monoammonium phosphate (MAP), diammonium phosphate (DAP), and triple super phosphate (TSP) were added to pots at two application rates. Six phosphate amendments showed mixed results on their ability to reduce soil lead bioaccessibility (IVBA Pb) and exposure risk to children. Soil amendments were largely ineffective in reducing IVBA Pb in these two urban soils when using EPA Method 1340.  However, P-treatments were much more effective when evaluated using modifications of EPA Method 1340. The greatest reductions in IVBA Pb were found at pH 2.5.  Reductions in bioaccessible Pb from soil treatment ranged from 5-26% for the pH 2.5 extractions.  A modified EPA Method 1340 that does not contain glycine and uses pH 2.5 rather than 1.5 has potential to predict efficacy of P soil amendments to reduce bioaccessible and bioavailable Pb. 


 


Virginia


Badgley et al. examined the effects of biosolids application to soil in a laboratory mesocosm on the production of auxin and other plant growth promoting hormones by soil microorganisms that could potentially promote drought resistance in crops. The microbiome in the soil samples from this experiment have been sequenced and analyzed and found to shift significantly after addition of biosolids, particularly in soils with low amounts of initial organic matter. The microbial community effects lasted at least three months.


 


From 2004-2015, Daniels et al. implemented and monitored a range of soil building treatments including lime+P additions, deep ripping, biosolids applied at 78 Mg/ha, minimum tillage and residue management to rehabilitate eastern Virginia prime farmland disturbed by mineral sands mining. After ten years, crop yields on restored mined lands averaged 75 to 80% of non-mined nearby farmlands and always exceeded local county mean yields. This work demonstrates that intensive soil reconstruction will allow for the return of such mined soils to economically viable agriculture.


 


Daniels and Evanylo completed testing of a papermill sludge that resulted in certification by the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services as a beneficial soil amendment.


 


Ervin and Evanylo compared the effects of various exceptional quality (EQ) biosolids products on rehabilitation of disturbed urban soil for the establishment and production of cool season turfgrass. By the third season, higher residual N from the biosolids compost resulted in greater turfgrass quality than with inorganic fertilizer or non-composted biosolids (dewatered, anaerobically digested biosolids; biosolids blended with sand and sawdust). All biosolids products demonstrated greater residual N availability than the inorganic fertilizer as measured by greater biomass production and vegetation quality.


 


Washington


Brown et al. tested the importance of compost feedstock in predicting the performance of stormwater bioretention soil mixtures in a replicated greenhouse trial. Biosolids/ yard waste based, animal manure/ sawdust and food/yard waste based composts were included in the trial.  We also investigated the predictive ability of the phosphorus saturation index to predict P movement in these systems.  This work was published in the special section of the Journal of Environmental Quality from the Soil in the City conference.  This builds on the literature and research done within the group (see Basta, Elliott, O’Connor) on the PSI as a tool for predicting P movement in biosolids amended soils as well as work done by Evanylo on bioretention soil mixtures. 


 


Washington researchers also evaluated changes in the soil microbial community with a focus on ammonia oxidation for switchgrass fertilized with synthetic fertilizer or biosolids. These communities were compared with changes in cultivated row crops and native soils.  The largest observed changes were from native soils to agricultural soils.  Reduced diversity in both archaea and bacteria were seen as lands were cultivated.  Changes in AOA and AOB as a result of biosolids fertilization were minimal (Bertagnolli et al., 2016).  As part of the same study we analyzed the energy costs/ benefits of alternative fertilizers for switchgrass production.  Here co-planting alfalfa and switchgrass and use of biosolids were compared with traditional fertilizers.  Yield and chemical characteristics of the harvested biomass were used to estimate total ethanol potential.  Nitrous oxide measures in combination with calculated energy costs of fertilizer production were used to determine offsets/ costs of fertilizer alternatives.  The alfalfa switchgrass mixtures had lower yield as well as lower ethanol potential than conventionally fertilized switchgrass.  Reduced N2O emissions and fertilizer offsets were not sufficient to compensate for reduced TEP.  Municipal biosolids did not impact quality or yield of the switchgrass.  Measured N2O emissions, while higher than synthetic fertilizers, were significantly lower than default emissions and lower than fertilizer emissions when considered on a total N applied basis.  Use of biosolids provided an approximately 10% reduction in the greenhouse gas intensity of the switchgrass ethanol (Brown et al, submitted).

Publications

PUBLICATIONS ISSUED or MANUSCRIPTS APPROVED 2015


 


Journal Articles


 


Attanayake, C.P., G.M. Hettiarachchi, S. Martin, and G.M. Pierzynski. 2015. Potential bioavailability of lead, arsenic, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in compost-amended urban soils. J. Environ. Qual. 44:930-944. 


Barbarick, K.A., J.A. Ippolito, J.P. McDaniel. 2015. Uptake Coefficients for Biosolids-Amended Dryland Winter Wheat. J. Environ. Qual. 44:286-292.


Basta, N.T., D.M. Busalacchi, L.S. Hundal, K. Kumar, R.P. Dick, R.P. Lanno, J. Carlson, A.E. Cox, and T.C. Granato. 2015. Restoring ecosystem function in degraded urban soil using biosolids, biosolids blend and compost. J. Environ. Qual. Special Issue: Soil in the City. 45(1): 74-83.


Bertagnoli, A.D., K.A. Meinhardt, M. Pannu, S. Brown, S. Strand, S.C. Fransen and D.A. Stahl. 2016. Influence of edaphic and management factors on the diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing thaumarchaeota and bacteria in soils of bioenergy crop cultivars.  Environmental Microbiology Reports 7:2:312-320


Brown, S. L., R.L. Chaney, and G.M. Hettiarachchi. 2016.  Lead in urban soils: a real or perceived concern for urban agriculture?  J. Environ. Qual.  45:26-36.


Brown, S.L., A.Corfman, K. Mendrey, K. Kurtz, and F. Grothkopp.  2016. Stormwater Bioretention systems- testing the phosphorus saturation index and compost feedstocks as predictive tools for system performance.  J. Environmental Quality, J. Environ. Qual., 45:1:98-106.


Brown, S. 2016. Greenhouse gas accounting for landfill diversion of food scraps and yard waste. Compost Sci. 24:1: 11-19


Carlson, J., J. Saxena, N. Basta, L. HUndal, D. Busalacchi. 2015. Application of organic amendments to restore degraded soil: effects on microbial properties. Environ. Monit. Assess 187(3):1-15.


Chao Q., D. Troya, C. Shang, S. Hildreth, R. Helm, and K. Xia. 2015. Surface Catalyzed Oxidative Oligomerization of 17β-estradiol by Fe3+-Saturated Montmorillonite. Environ. Sci. Technol. 49:956–964.


Dutta, T., C.J. Dell, R.C. Stehouwer. 2015. Nitrous oxide emissions from a coal mine land reclaimed with stabilized manure. Land Degrad. Develop., doi: 10.1002/ldr.2408.


Franklin, A.M., C.F. Williams, D.M. Andrews, E.E. Woodward, J.E. Watson. 2015. Uptake of three antibiotics and an anti-epileptic drug by wheat crops spray irrigated with wastewater treatment plant effluent. J. Environ. Qual. (Accepted 9/9/2015).


Gall, H.E., S.A. Sassman, B. Jenkinson, L.S. Lee, C.T. Jafvert. 2015. Comparison of export dynamics of nutrients and animal-borne estrogens from a tile-drained Midwestern agroecosystem. Water Res. 72:162-173.


Henry, H., M. F. Naujokas, C. Attanayake N.T. Basta, Z. Cheng, G.M. Hettiarachchi, M. Maddaloni, C. Schadt, and K. G. Scheckel. 2015. Bioavailability-based in situ remediation to meet future lead (Pb) standards in urban soils and gardens. Environ. Sci. Technol. 49 (15), pp 8948–8958.


Ippolito, J.A., K.A. Barbarick, and R.B. Brobst. 2015. Copper and zinc speciation in a biosolids-amended, semiarid grassland soil. J. Environ. Qual. 43:1576-1584.


Meinhardt, K.A., A. Bertagnolli, M. Pannu, S.E. Strand, S.L. Brown and D.A. Stahl. 2015. Evaluation of revised polymerase chain reaction primers for more inclusive quantification of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria. Environmental Microbiology Reports 7:2:354-363.


Kaiser, M.L., M.L. Williams, N. Basta, M. Hand, and S. Huber. 2015. When vacant lots become urban gardens: Chaacterizing the perceived and actual food safety concerns of urban agriculture in Ohio. J. Food Protect. 78(11):2070-2080.


Kulesza, S. B., R. O. Maguire, K. Xia, J. Cushman, K. F. Knowlton, and P. Ray. 2016. Impact of manure injection on pirlimycin transport in surface runoff. J. Environ. Qual. 45:511–518.


Koropchak, S., W. Daniels, A. Wick, G.R. Whittecar, N. Haus. 2015. Beneficial use of dredge materials for soil reconstruction and development of dredge screening protocols. Journal of Environmental Quality doi:10.2134/jeq2014.12.0529.


Li, Jie, Kan Li, Xin-Yi Cui, N.T. Basta, Li-Ping Li, Hong-Bo Li, and L.Q. Ma. 2015. In vitro bioaccessibility and in vivo relative bioavailability in 12 contaminated soils: Method comparison and method development.  Science of the Total Environment. 532:812-820


McDaniel, J.P., G. Butters, K.A. Barbarick, and M.E. Stromburger. 2015. Effects of Aporrectodea caliginosa on soil hydraulic properties and solute dispersivity. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 79:838-847.


Nelson, W. Beyer, Nicholas T. Basta, Rufus Chaney, Paula F. P. Henry, Thomas May, David Mosby, Barnett A. Rattner, Kirk G. Scheckel, Daniel Sprague. Bioaccessibility tests accurately estimate bioavailability of lead to quail. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. Accepted Article DOI: 10.1002/etc.3399


Obrycki, John F., Nicholas T. Basta, Kirk Scheckel, Albert Juhasz, Brooke N. Stevens, and Kristen K. Minca. Phosphorus amendment efficacy on soil Pb depends upon bioaccessible method conditions. J. Environ. Qual. Special Issue: Soil in the City. 45(1): 37-44.


Orndorff, Z., W. Daniels, C. Zipper, M. Eick, M. Beck. 2015. A column evaluation of Appalachian coal mine spoils’ temporal leaching behavior. Environmental Pollution 204: 39-47.


Pietrzykowski, M., W.L. Daniels and S.C. Koropchak. 2015. Microtopographic effects on growth of young bald cypress (Taxodium distichum L.) in a created freshwater forested wetland in southeastern Virginia. Ecol. Eng. 83:135-143.


Sterner, G. R. Bryant, P. Kleinman, J. Watson, T. Alter. 2015. Community implementation dynamics: Nutrient management in the New York City and Chesapeake Bay watersheds. Intl. J. Rural Law Policy. 2015 Special Edition 1. pp. 1-15.


Tian, G., A. Cox, K. Kumar, T. Granato. G. O'Connor, H. Elliott. 2016. Assessment of plant availability and environmental risk of biosolids-phosphorus in a U.S. Midwest corn-belt soil. J. Environ. Mgt. 172: 171-176.


Yarwood, S., A. Wick, M. Williams, W. Daniels. 2015. Parent material and vegetation influence early soil microbial community establishment following 30-years of rock weathering. Microbial Ecology 69: 383-94.


Books and Book Chapters


Brown, S.L., K. McIvor and E. Snyder (Eds). Sowing seeds in the city: Ecological and Municipal Considerations.  Springer Publishers.


Brown, S.L., K. McIvor and E. Snyder (Eds). Sowing seeds in the city: Human Dimensions.  Springer publishers.  


Brown, S. and C. Cogger. Soil formation and nutrient cycling. In Brown, S.L., K. McIvor and E. Snyder (Eds).  Sowing seeds in the city: Ecological and Municipal Considerations.  Springer Publishers.  In press


Brown, S. A Guide to Types of Non Potable Water and the Potential for Reuse in Urban Systems. In Brown, S.L., K. McIvor and E. Snyder (Eds). Sowing seeds in the city: Ecological and Municipal Considerations.  Springer Publishers.  In press


Brown, S and N. Goldstein. The Role of Organic Residuals in Urban Agriculture. In Brown, S.L., K. McIvor and E. Snyder (Eds). Sowing seeds in the city: Ecological and Municipal Considerations.  Springer Publishers.  In press


Brown, S. Soils and Climate Change. In Brown, S.L., K. McIvor and E. Snyder (Eds). Sowing seeds in the city: Ecological and Municipal Considerations.  Springer Publishers.  In press


Cogger, C. and S. Brown Curbside gardens. In Brown, S.L., K. McIvor and E. Snyder (Eds). Sowing seeds in the city: Ecological and Municipal Considerations.  Springer Publishers.  In press


Emery, I. and S. Brown Lettuce to Reduce Greenhouse Gases: A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Conventional and Community Agriculture. In Brown, S.L., K. McIvor and E. Snyder (Eds). Sowing seeds in the city: Ecological and Municipal Considerations.  Springer Publishers.  In press


Hettiarachchi, G.M., C. P. Attanayake, P.D. Defoe, and S.E. Martin. 2015. Mechanisms to reduce risk potential. In Sowing Seeds in the City. K. McIvor, E. Hodges Snyder and S.L. Brown editors. Springer Publishing. In Press.


Hue, NV. 2015. Bioremediation of arsenic toxicity. P. 155-165. In: Arsenic Toxicity and Prevention. Narayan Chakrabarty (ed.). CRC Press. Boca Raton, FL.


McIvor, K. and S. Brown. A Case Study: Integrating Urban Agriculture into the Municipal Infrastructure in Tacoma, WA. In Brown, S and N. Goldstein. The Role of Organic Residuals in Urban Agriculture. In Brown, S.L., K. McIvor and E. Snyder (Eds). Sowing seeds in the city: Ecological and Municipal Considerations.  Springer Publishers.  In press


Proceedings


Daniels, W.L., J.M. Parker, Z.W. Orndorff, L.C. Ross, S.C. Koropchak, C.E. Zipper and M.J. Eick. 2015. Evaluation of a simple column leaching method to predict potential TDS losses from central Appalachian overburden materials. 13 p. In J. Craynon (Ed.), Proc., 2nd Environmental Considerations in Energy Production Conf., Sept. 20-23, 2015, Pittsburgh, PA, Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (SME); www.smenet.org.


Whitacre, S.D., N.T. Basta and W.L. Daniels. 2015. Evaluation of soil and dust as an exposure medium for arsenic, cadmium, lead and other contaminants in Appalachian coal mining communities. 12 p. In J. Craynon (Ed.), Proc., 2nd Environmental Considerations in Energy Production Conf., Sept. 20-23, 2015, Pittsburgh, PA, Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (SME); www.smenet.org.


Yuqin  Jiao, Julie K.  Bower, Wansoo  Im, Nicholas  Basta, John  Obrycki, Mohammad Z.  Al-Hamdan, Allison Wilder, Claire  Bollinger, Tongwen , Zhang, Ludie  Hatten, Jerrie  Hatten, Darryl B.  Hood. 2015. Development of Educational PPGIS Risk-Communication Tools and Application to Evaluating Urban Soils. In Proceedings from the 2015 Minority Health and Health Disparities Grantees' Conference, as a Special Issue of the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH). J. Community Medicine. http://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/13/1/11.


Zipper, C.E., E.V. Clark, W.L. Daniels and R.J. Krenz. 2015. Mine spoil fill construction for reducing total dissolved solids in discharged waters. 8 p. In J. Craynon (Ed.), Proc., 2nd Environmental Considerations in Energy Production Conf., Sept. 20-23, 2015, Pittsburgh, PA, Society for Mining, Metallurgy & Exploration (SME); www.smenet.org.


                                                                   


Abstracts


Alghamdi, A., D.R. Presley, M. B. Kirkham, G.M. Hettiarachchi, and B. Paul. 2015. Soil physical properties at an abandoned mine in central USA. ASA/SSSA/CSA Annual Meetings, Nov. 2015, Minneapolis, MN.


Bamber, K. and G. Evanylo. 2015. Effects of biosolids type and soil texture on appropriate biosolids application rate and timing to winter wheat. Water Environment Federation Residuals and Biosolids Conference. Beltsville, MD. June 11.


Basta, N.T. 2015. Restoring ecosystem function in degraded urban soil using biosolids, biosolids blend and compost. Ohio Water Environment Association, 2015 Biosolids Specialty Workshop. Columbus, OH Dec. 3, 2015.


Basta, Nicholas T., Dawn M. Busalacchi, Lakhwinder S. Hundal, Kuldip Kumar, Richard P. Dick, Roman P. Lanno, Jennifer Carlson Albert E. Cox, and Thomas C. Granato. 2015. Restoring ecosystem function in degraded urban soil using biosolids, biosolids blend and compost. Society of Ecological Restoration Midwest Great Lakes Annual Meeting, Glencoe, IL, Mar 27-29, 2015.


Betts, Aaron R., Brooke Stevens, Nicholas T. Basta, and Kirk G Scheckel. 2015. Correlating arsenic (As) and iron (Fe) speciation to as bioavailability from a collection of contaminated soils with varying contamination sources and soil properties. Presentation 262-6. ASA, CSSA, and Soil Science Society International Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN Nov. 15-18, 2015.


Chao Q., K. Xia. Removal of 17β-estradiol from wastewater using Fe3+-saturated montmorillonite. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings, Minneapolis, MN, November 15-18, 2015.


Chayapan, P., V. Gudichuttu, G.M. Pierzynski, G.M. Hettiarachchi, and L.R. Baker. 2015. Long-term effects of compost additions to chemical and biological properties of metal-contaminated soils.  The 13th International Conference on Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements. July 2015, Fukushima, Japan.


Clark, E., W.L. Daniels, Z. Orndorff, C.E. Zipper, and K. Eriksson. Evaluation of Appalachian mine spoil leachate chemistry and its associated geochemical influences. In R.I. Barnhisel (Ed.). Proc., Nat. Meet. Amer. Soc. Mining and Rec., Lexington, KY, Reclamation Opportunities for a Sustainable Future, June 7–11, 2015. ASMR, 1305 Weathervane Dr., Champaign, IL 61821. http://www.asmr.us/


Cushman J., R. Maguire, and K. Xia. Fate of thiamethoxam (TMX), a neonicotinoid insecticide, coated on corn seeds – A greenhouse study. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings, Minneapolis, MN, November 15-18, 2015.


Daniels, W.L. 2015. Development of soil and site reconstruction guidance for created non-tidal wetland sites in the Mid-Atlantic USA. Abstract #207-7, 2015 Annual Meetings Amer. Soc. Agron., Crop Sci. Soc. Amer. and Soil Sci. Soc. Amer., Nov. 15-18, 2015, Minneapolis, MN. https://scisoc.confex.com/scisoc/2015am/webprogram/start.html


Diatta, S., G. Evanylo, W. Thomason and W.L. Daniels. 2015. Germination and early seedling growth of seven varieties of pearl millet [Pennisetum Glaucum (L.) R. Br.] under saline conditions. Abstract #415-10, 2015 Annual Meetings Amer. Soc. Agron., Crop Sci. Soc. Amer. and Soil Sci. Soc. Amer., Nov. 15-18, 2015, Minneapolis, MN. https://scisoc.confex.com/scisoc/2015am/webprogram/start.html


Diallo, N., G. Evanylo, W.L. Daniels, W. Thomason, and B. Badgley. 2015. Improved management of iron-affected soils for Casamance rice production. Abstract #420-4, 2015 Annual Meetings Amer. Soc. Agron., Crop Sci. Soc. Amer. and Soil Sci. Soc. Amer., Nov. 15-18, 2015, Minneapolis, MN. https://scisoc.confex.com/scisoc/2015am/webprogram/start.html


Evanylo, G.K. 2015. Enhancing urban soil function with amendments to reduce stormwater runoff quantity and impairment of quality. In Soil and Vegetation Management for Stormwater Control. Urban and Anthropogenic Soils Division Symposium. ASA, CSSA, SSSA Annual International Meetings. Minneapolis, MN. November 15-18.


Favorito, J., M.J. Eick, and P.R. Grossl. Selenium Biogeochemistry in Calcareous Soils. Virginia Tech Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences Research Poster Symposium. Blacksburg, Virginia. February 6, 2015


Favorito, J., M.J. Eick, and P.R. Grossl. 2015. Relating Selenium Bioavailability to Calcareous Soil Physiochemical Properties and Mineralogical Sinks. Presented at ASA, CSSA, and SSSA Annual Meetings, Minneapolis, MN. 16-19 Nov. Paper 262-11.


Hettiarachchi, G.M. and S. Martin. 2015. Growing safely to produce healthy crops- community gardens on previously used sites. American Community Gardening Association, August 15, Denver, CO.


Hettiarachchi, G.M., C. P. Attanayake, P. Defoe, and S. Martin. 2015. Managing urban garden soils: Minimize potential for soil contaminant transfer. The 100th Annual Meeting of Ecological Society of America, Aug. 2015. Baltimore, MD.


Hettiarachchi, G.M., C. Attanayake, P. Defoe, and S. martin. 2015. Gardening on contaminated urban soils: Mechanisms to reduce risk potential. The 12th International Phytotechnologies Conference, Sep. 2015, Manhattan, KS.


Hettiarachchi, G.M. 2015. Promising opportunities to use biosolids in revitalizing urban brownfields. International Water Association/Water Environment Federation/ Residuals and Biosolids Conference. June 2015. Washington, DC.


Johnson, D.K., W.L. Daniels and C.E. Zipper. 2015. Geochemical characteristics of low versus high TDS potential strata in Central Appalachian surface coal mines. In R.I. Barnhisel (Ed.). Proc., Nat. Meet. Amer. Soc. Mining and Rec., Lexington, KY, Reclamation Opportunities for a Sustainable Future, June 7–11, 2015. ASMR, 1305 Weathervane Dr., Champaign, IL 61821. http://www.asmr.us/


Mitchell, V.L., S.Whitacre, S.W. Casteel, P. Myers, and N.T. Basta. 2015. New in vitro model accurately predicts arsenic bioavailability in soils. Society of Toxicology, Sand Diego, CA. Mar. 22-26, 2015.


Obrycki, J.F. and N.T. Basta. 2015. Beneficial Use of Sediments in Soil Blends to Cap and Remediate Contaminated Urban Soils. Presentation 86-11. ASA, CSSA, and Soil Science Society International Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN Nov. 15-18, 2015.


Obrycki, J. F. and N.T. Basta. 2015. Managing Pb Contaminated Urban Soils Using Low Rates of P Amendments. Presentation 325-5. ASA, CSSA, and Soil Science Society International Annual Meeting, Minneapolis, MN Nov. 15-18, 2015.


Ott, E.O., J.M. Galbraith, W.L. Daniels and T. Fall. 2015. Soil morphology and soil carbon in a constructed sandy freshwater tidal wetland. Abstract #147-6, 2015 Annual Meetings Amer. Soc. Agron., Crop Sci. Soc. Amer. and Soil Sci. Soc. Amer., Nov. 15-18, 2015, Minneapolis, MN. https://scisoc.confex.com/scisoc/2015am/webprogram/start.html


Ross, L.C., W.L. Daniels, S. Koropchak and C.E. Zipper. Effect of leaching scale on prediction of total dissolved solids release from coal mine spoils and refuse. In R.I. Barnhisel (Ed.). Proc., Nat. Meet. Amer. Soc. Mining and Rec., Lexington, KY, Reclamation Opportunities for a Sustainable Future, June 7–11, 2015. ASMR, 1305 Weathervane Dr., Champaign, IL 61821. http://www.asmr.us/


Sosienski T., S. Kulesza, R. Maguire, and K. Xia. Fate of Hormones in a Field Receiving Dairy Manure and Poultry Litter: Effect of Surface-Application and Subsurface Injection. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings, Minneapolis, MN, November 15-18, 2015. (won the best graduate student presentation for the Division of Environmental Quality).


Waller, L., Badgley, B., Evanylo, G., Krometis, L.A., Strickland, M., Wynn-Thompson, T. Factors affecting denitrification potential and the microbial ecology of established bioretention cells across the Mid-Atlantic Region. Water Resources Conference of the Virginias, Roanoke, WV. Oct. 5-6, 2015.


Waller, L., Badgley, B., Evanylo, G,. Krometis, L.A., Strickland, M., Wynn-Thompson, T., Factors affecting denitrification potential and the microbial ecology of established bioretention cells across the Mid-Atlantic Region. American Society of Microbiology – Virginia Branch. Richmond, VA. Nov. 6-7, 2015.


Waller, L., Badgley, B., Evanylo, G., Krometis, L.A., Strickland, M., Wynn-Thompson, T. Microbial diversity and denitrification potential in functioning bioretention cells across the Eastern Mid-Atlantic region. American Society of Microbiology National Conference – New Orleans, Louisiana. May 30 – Jun 2, 2015.


Weeks, J. and G.M. Hettiarachchi. 2015. Taking the next step: Exploration of naturally produced, organic compounds to alter the mobility and lability of soil elements. ASA/SSSA/CSA Annual Meetings, Nov. 2015, Minneapolis, MN.


Weeks, J., G.M. Hettiarachchi, E. Santos, and J. Tatarko. 2015. An assessment of the trace element exposure risk to urban brownfields gardeners via inhalation. The 12th International Phytotechnologies Conference, Sep. 2015, Manhattan, KS.


Xia, K., S. B. Kulesza, R. O. Maguire, P. Ray, K. F Knowlton, and J. Cushman. Impact of Manure Application Technologies on the Fate of Pirlimycin and Chlortetracycline in Soil. 250th ACS National Meeting. Boston, MA, August. 16-20, 2015.


Theses


Matsumura, K. 2015. Effects of oxidation-reduction conditions and selected soil amendments on the solubility, mobility, and phytoavailability of arsenic in two high-arsenic soils of Hawaii. MS thesis, Univ. of Hawaii. December 2015. 80 p.


Ross, L.C., 2015. Effect of Leaching Scale on Prediction of Total Dissolved Solids Release from Coal Mine Spoils and Refuse. M.S. Thesis, Virginia Tech, 195 p.


Bulletins


OARDC Report. 2015. Spent foundry sand’s second life: OK to use in some soils. July-August, 2015.


Trade Journals


Brown, S. 2007-present Climate Change Connections- monthly column Biocycle magazine.


Research Reports


Barbarick, K.A., T. Gourd, and J. McDaniel. 2015. Application of anaerobically digested biosolids to dryland winter wheat. Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Report.  TR15-4.


Barbarick, K.A., and J. McDaniel. 2015. Biosolids application to no-till dryland crop rotations. Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Report. TR15-5.


Rosen, C., J. Crants J., M. McNearney, and P. Bierman. 2015. Evaluation of Crystal Green and Crystal Green/MAP Blends as Phosphate Sources for Irrigated Potatoes.  Minnesota Area II Potato Research and Promotion Council and Northern Plains Potato Growers Association 2015 Research Report.  pp. 19-27. 


Webinars


Hettiarachchi, G.M. Urban Vegetable Gardening. April 2015. One-hour Webinar organized by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), as part of monthly webinar series.


 


 


 


 


 


 

Impact Statements

  1. The two- volume set on urban agriculture is one of the first comprehensive sets on this increasingly important topic. Understanding alternative food systems and benefits associated with them is the focus of these volumes. The work of the W 3170 group is well represented in them. The general statement regarding research at UW is that our work focuses on identifying a wide range of end use options and associated benefits with those uses for municipal biosolids. [Brown et al.]
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Date of Annual Report: 08/08/2017

Report Information

Annual Meeting Dates: 06/11/2017 - 06/13/2017
Period the Report Covers: 01/01/2016 - 12/31/2016

Participants

Harry Allen, USEPA Region 9, Allen.HarryL@epa.gov
Layne Baroldi, Synagro, lbaroldi@SYNAGRO.com
Nick Basta, Ohio State University, basta.4@osu.edu
Ned Beecher, North East Biosolids & residuals Association, ned.beecher@nebiosolids.org
Sally Brown, University of Washington, slb@u.washington.edu
Matt Copeland, Sanitation Districts of Los Angeles County (LACSD), mcopeland@lacsd.org
Elisa D’Angelo, University of Kentucky, edangelo@uky.edu
Jim Dunbar, Lystek, jdunbar@lystek.com
Chip Elliot, Penn State University, hae1@engr.psu.edu
Greg Evanylo, Virginia Tech, gevanylo@vt.edu
Tom Fang, LACSD, tfang@lacsd.org
Melissa Fischer, LACSD, MFischer@lacsd.org
Kathryn Gies, West Yost, kgies@westyost.com
Peter Green, University of California, Davis, pggreen@ucdavis.edu
Jennifer Harrington, Vallejo S&FCD, jharrington@vsfcd.com
Ganga Hettiarachchi, Kansas State University, ganga@ksu.edu
Jim Ippolito, Colorado State University, Jim.Ippolito@colostate.edu
Nic Jelinski, University of Minnesota, jeli0026@umn.edu
Christina Jones, City of LA, christina.jones@lacity.org
Malika Jones, LACSD, mjones@lacsd.org
Jonathan Judy, University of Florida, jonathan.judy@ufl.edu
Zach Kay, City of Santa Rosa, ZKay@srcity.org
Greg Kester, California Association of Sanitation Agencies (CASA), gkester@casaweb.org
Jihyun (Rooney) Kim, Purdue University, jrkim@purdue.edu
James Kim, City of LA, james.kim@lacity.org
Qiong Lei, City of LA, qiong.lei@lacity.org
Ernesto Libunao, City of LA, ernesto.libunao@lacity.org
Persephone Ma, University of Minnesota
Drew McAvoy, University of Cincinnati, mcavoydm@ucmail.uc.edu
Tom Meregillano, Orange County Sanitation District (OCSD), MEREGILLANO@OCSD.COM
Farhana Mohamed, City of LA, Farhana.Mohamed@lacity.org
Rob Morton, LACSD, RMorton@lacsd.org
Lynne Moss, Black & Veatch, MossLH@bv.com
George O'Connor, University of Florida, gao@ufl.edu
Lola Olabode, WE&RF, lolabode@werf.org
Ochan Otim, City of LA, ochan.otim@lacity.org
Ian Pepper, University of Arizona, ipepper@ag.arizona.edu
Mahesh Pujari, City of LA, mahesh.pujari@lacity.org
Giti Radvar, OCSD, gradvar@ocsd.com
Chelsea Ransom, CH2M, Chelsea.Ransom@ch2m.com
Jesus Rocha, City of LA, jesus.rocha@lacity.org
Becca Ryals, University of Hawaii, ryals@hawaii.edu
Shahrouzeh Saneie, City of LA, shahrouzeh.saneie@lacity.org
Stella Sendagi, Penn State University/West Basin MWD, ssendagi@gmail.com
Maria Silveria, University of Florida, mlas@ufl.edu
Chris Stacklin, OCSD, cstacklin@ocsd.com
Rick Staggs, City of Fresno, Rick.Staggs@fresno.gov
Mike Stenstrom, University of California LA, stenstro@seas.ucla.edu
Guanglong Tian, Chicago MWRD, TianG@mwrd.org
Cindy Vellucci, OCSD, cvellucci@ocsd.com
Karri Ving, San Francisco Public Utilities Commission (SF PUC), KVing@sfwater.org
Clinton Williams, United States Department of Agriculture, clinton.Williams@ars.usda.gov
Kang Xia, Virginia Tech, kxia@vt.edu
Sam Ying, University of California Riverside, samying@gmail.com
Mike Zedek, OCSD, mzedek@ocsd.com
Jeff Ziegenbien, Inland Empire Utilities Agency, jziegenb@ieua.org

Brief Summary of Minutes

Accomplishments

Objective 1: Evaluate the short- and long-term chemistry and bioavailability of nutrients, potentially toxic inorganic trace elements, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (TOrCs) in residuals, reclaimed water, and amended soils in order to assess the environmental and health risk-based effects of their application at a watershed scale.


Specific tasks:



  • To develop and evaluate in vitro (including chemical speciation) and novel in vivo methods to correlate human and ecological health responses with risk-based bioavailability of trace elements and TOrCs in residuals and residual-treated soils.

  • Predict the long-term bioavailability and toxicity of trace elements and TOrCs in residual-amended urban, agricultural and contaminated soils.

  • Evaluate long-term effects of residuals application and reclaimed wastewater irrigation on fate and transport of nutrients, trace elements, TOrCs, and emergence/spread of antibiotic resistance in high application rate systems

  • Evaluate plant uptake and ecological effects of potentially toxic trace elements and TOrCs from soils amended with residuals and reclaimed wastewater.


Objectives 1 Accomplishments:


Arizona


USEPA is interested in evaluating the methodology used for coliphage detection, and determining if phage can be used as an indicator for enteric viruses during wastewater treatment. Pepper et al. evaluated four E.coli hosts recommended by the U.S. EPA for male specific and somatic phage detection.


The team collected wastewater samples from three wastewater treatment trains in two plants and analyzed phage incidence through cultural (plaque) and molecular (qPCR) assays. Two E.coli hosts for both male specific phage and somatic phage were evaluated.  Key findings were:


Methodology



  • The double agar overlay assay is superior to the single agar overlay.

  • The coli host CN-13 for somatic phage may be the optimal host for cultural coliphage detection.

  • The Bardenpho process results in greater removal of coliphage than conventional activated sludge or trickling filters.


 Cultural vs Molecular Detection Methods



  • Cultural detection of coliphage

    • Advantage: observe infectivity, cheap method

    • Disadvantage: only host specific phage detected



  • Molecular detection of coliphage

    • Advantage: detects broader groups of phage

    • Disadvantage: no information on infectivity




Phase as Indicators



  • Phage are potentially useful as indicators of human pathogenic virus

  • Incidence of coliphage is related to incidence of human viruses (correlation analyses are in progress)


Colorado


Barbarick, Ippolito et al. continued to investigate the long-term benefits of biosolids land application to dryland winter wheat-fallow and a dryland winter wheat-corn-fallow agroecosystems.  The team continued to observe that crop uptake coefficients for nutrients and trace metals in biosolids amended soils were much lower than those used for risk analysis by USEPA.  Biosolids apply metals to soils, with the largest metal application rates being Cu and Zn.  Biosolids land application to dryland agroecosystems appears to concentrate Cu and Zn in the soil surface with no appreciable downward movement.  Zn addition may be beneficial in semi-arid cropping systems, such as those found in eastern Colorado, as plant available Zn soil concentrations may be borderline in terms of inducing Zn deficiency symptoms.  They completed Pathway Analyses to determine direct and indirect influences on grain concentrations and cumulative uptake of P, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ni.  Their findings suggest that, of all elements studied, Zn application across biosolids amended sites may offset potential Zn deficiency symptoms present in semi-arid soils.  The team completed several biochar soil-application projects pertaining to heavy metal sequestration, with findings suggesting that biochars can convert bioavailable trace metal forms to those less plant available.


The team continued to investigate changes in soil P forms under biosolids-amended irrigated and dryland conditions, and biochar land application effects on soil heavy metal concentrations. They began investigating the use of the Soil Management Assessment Framework to ascertain differences in soil quality between biosolids and inorganic N fertilizer applications.


Florida


O’Connor et al. assessed phytoavailability of biosolids-borne antibiotics (Ciprofloxacin – CIP and Azithromycin – AZ) in so-called range-finding and definitive greenhouse studies. The studies involved spiking CIP and AZ to a turf green sand, the sand amended with 1% animal manure, and a silt loam soil. The media represented differences in material cation exchange capacities and organic matter contents, both of which were expected to affect antibiotic availability. Lettuce, radishes, and fescue grass were grown to maturity to assess compound toxicities and yields. Compound analyses for the compounds has been delayed, so no uptake characterization is currently available.


Environmentally relevant concentrations of biosolids-borne compounds, or compounds spiked at very high concentrations into the sand amended with animal manure or biosolids, or the silt loam soil had no adverse effects on plant yields. Excessive concentrations of CIP (~36 mg CIP/kg soil) spiked into the unamended sand resulted in phytotoxicities for all crops, but excessive concentrations of AZ (3.2 mg AZ/kg soil) spiked into the sand had no effect. The excessive concentrations represent 100 years of applying biosolids (at 1% by weight) containing 95th percentile concentrations of each compound. The results suggest that the environmentally relevant concentrations of biosolids-borne CIP and AZ do not adversely affect growth and yield of radishes, lettuce, and fescue grass even in biosolids-amended sand systems. The presence of adequate inherent organic matter (and CEC) in most agricultural soils likely further abates potential adverse effects of biosolids-borne CIP and AZ.


Sorption/desorption studies were conducted using a traditional approach of spiking antibiotics to soils amended with biosolids (or not) and a different approach - amendment of biosolids pre-equilibrated with the compounds to soils. The latter technique mimics a more environmentally realistic scenario where CIP and AZ are biosolids-borne. Several methods were used to assess the desorbability of biosolids-borne compounds in hopes of, eventually, correlating desorbability to lability to plants, earthworms, microbes, etc. Despite effects of soil properties on sorption displayed in the traditional approach to study, biosolids-borne CIP and AZ behavior was dominated by biosolids-sorption and was essentially independent of soils to which biosolids are amended. Further, although sorption coefficients for CIP and AZ to biosolids are only “moderate” (~400 L/kg), desorption is strongly hysteretic (H values   ≤ 0.003). Data suggest that biosolids-borne CIP and AZ are specifically-sorbed, and that desorption is severely limited. Thus, the bioaccessibility and bioavailability of biosolids CIP and AZ is expected to be minimal. Such behavior has major implications for considerations of the influence of biosolids-borne CIP and AZ on plants, earthworms, microbes, microbially-mediated reactions, and antibiotic development/persistence in amended systems. Such impacts are the subject of on-going and planned studies.


Hawaii


Hue et al. studied arsenic reactions and brake fern (Pteris Vittata L.) uptake in Hawaiian Soils. In Hawaii, past agricultural use of arsenical pesticides has left elevated levels of arsenic in some soils. Given the volcanic ash origin and fast weathering conditions of Hawaii, Hawaiian soils often contain high amounts of amorphous aluminosilicates and/or iron hydroxy-oxides, which can retain As strongly. More specifically, As sorption and desorption isotherms that were performed on an Andisol and an Ultisol showed that the former soil required 1100 mg kg-1 added As, and the latter 300 mg kg-1 added As to maintain 0.20 mg L-1 As in soil solution. In an attempt to remove As by plants (phytoremediation), greenhouse experiments were established on an As-contaminated Andisol, which had 315 mg kg-1 total As and was amended with 0, 5 g kg-1 compost, 5 g kg-1 Fe as amorphous Fe(OH)3, or 250 mg kg-1 P as treble superphosphate, and on a low-As (15 mg kg-1) Ultisol, which was spiked with 0, 150 or 300 mg kg-1 As as Na2HAsO4.7H2O. Chinese brake fern (Pteris vittata L.), an As hyperaccumulator, was used as the test plant. Arsenic concentrations in the fern fronds averaged 355 mg kg-1 in the Andisol and 2610 mg kg-1 (first planting, 2 months after As addition) and 1270 mg kg-1 (second planting, 12 months after As addition) in the Ultisol that contained 300 mg kg-1 of added As. It appears that different chemical reactions, such as surface complexation and aging effect, controlled the availability of soil As and plant uptake. As a first step toward identifying soil contamination with As and potential phytoremediation, Mehlich-3 extraction method could be used because it correlated positively well with bioaccessible As (as extracted with HCl, pH 1.5, incubated at 37°C for 1 hour) and with As concentration in fern Fronds.


Kansas


Hettiarachchi et al. continued their evaluations on long-term benefits of specific residual (class A biosolids) amendments for contaminated urban soil (Pb) remediation/management using x-ray absorption spectroscopy and in vitro bioaccessibility extraction test (also known as Physiologically-Based Extraction Test). Results showed that the dominant Pb species in the three tested urban soils were Pb adsorbed to Fe (oxy(hydr)oxides (Pb-Fh) and Pb adsorbed to organic C (Pb-Org C)and the fraction of Pb-Org C was increased as soil-compost mixture aged in the field. They also observed that during the in vitro extraction test, Pb-sorbed to Fe (oxy(hydr)oxide was dissolved; and Pb-org C and hydroxypyromorphite were formed. Aged soil-compost mixture reduced Pb-Fh dissolution during the in vitro extraction.


Kentucky


The work done by D’Angelo et al. showed that the hazard risks associated with application of antibiotic laden-biosolids to soils largely depends on release rates from biosolid particles, which is governed by the fraction of the total concentration that can be released to solution and diffusion rate in the biosolids aggregates. These processes were determined for ciprofloxacin in a Class A municipal biosolids using a combination of sorption-desorption isotherms, diffusion cell, diffusion gradient in thin films (DGT), and numerical modeling (e.g. 2D-DIFS) approaches.


Minnesota


University of Minnesota researchers (Jelinski et al.) screened 58 houses and over 2,500 soil samples from households across the Twin Cities for soil lead via pXRF and wet chemical methods. Their data show that over half of investigated cores now have their maximum lead concentrations at depths deeper than 10cm, to 20 or 40 cm in some cases, suggesting ongoing physical or chemical processes which are redistributing lead in urban soils. These processes have important implications: if anthropogenic lead inputs have been distributed deeper into the soil over time through biotic and abiotic agents, concentrations of lead at the surface may have been diluted, so that decades-old predictions of the surficial concentrations of soil lead may overestimate the current loading and risk at the surface. Understanding the depth distribution of lead is also important for making better recommendations for urban agricultural uses of soil, where contaminant screening in the top portion of the soil may not accurately reflect the total lead loadings that will be made available once the soil is mixed more deeply.


New Mexico


Preliminary data from a project conducted by researchers at New Mexico State University (Lauriault et al.) showed that cotton productivity using treated municipal wastewater after canal water was used for establishment was equal to cotton productivity when only canal water was used. Their observations indicated that use of treated municipal wastewater for cotton establishment reduced plant populations and yields compared to establishment supported by only precipitation.


The Advisory Committee to the Agricultural Science Center at Tucumcari has still made no progress toward acquiring faculty to work on studying impact of TOrC’s in treated municipal wastewater on germination and early seedling growth of selected agronomic crops due to a downturn in the state budget.


Ohio


Arsenic is one of the most common contaminants of concern exceeding risk criteria because soil ingestion is the primary human health risk driver at many urban, military, U.S. Brownfields and CERCLA sites with As-soil contaminated .  Use of contaminant total content instead of bioavailability is often overly conservative and can result in costly and unnecessary soil remedial action. Basta et al. completed the following two large research projects that determined the ability of in vitro bioaccessible methods to predict relative bioavailable As in contaminated soils. 


Mechanisms and Permanence of Sequestered Pb and As in Soils: Impact on Human Bioavailability. N.T. Basta (PI), Dr. Kirk G. Scheckel, USEPA NRMRL; Dr. Philip M.


Jardine, Dr. Chris W. Schadt, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Dr. Karen Bradham, USEPA NERL; Dr. David J. Thomas, USEPA NHREEL; Dr. Brooke Stevens, OSU; Dr. Richard Hunter Anderson, USAF; Dr. Rufus L. Chaney, USDA ARS. Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP)


Relative Bioavailability of arsenic in soils from mine scarred lands. V.L. Hanley, P. Meyers, California Dept. of Toxic Substances Control (PI); N.T.Basta; S. Casteel, Univ. of Missouri; C. Kim, Chapman Univ., A. Foster, USGS Menlo Park, CA; Dr. Charles Alpers, USGS. U.S. EPA Brownfields Training, Research and Technical Assistance Grant.


Both of these studies were comprehensive evaluations of the ability of different in vitro bioaccessibility (IVBA) methods to predict RBA As. The following conclusions are:



  • Total soil As concentration was not correlated with RBA As determined by the adult mouse (r2 = 0.24) or the juvenile swine (r2 = 0.09) bioassays.

  • In general, all of the IVBA methods were predictive of RBA for both the mice and swine bioassays.

  • IVBA As from the gastric extraction is a better predictor than IVBA As from the intestinal extraction. Using the GE may also provide more conservative RBA As because the IVBA values are greater for the GE than for the IE (i.e. the As is more soluble) representation a worst case scenario for the estimating As RBA for soil ingestion.

  • Recently concluded research has shown California Bioaccessibility (CAB) method is an accurate predictor of swine RBA As for soils with high oxide content and soil As concentrations <1,200 mg As/kg, including soils 1 and 2 for which USEPA Method 1340 and OSU IVG under predicted RBA As.


Our research team developed a new method, the California Bioaccessibility (CAB) method to provide a conservative estimate of RBA As on mining sites soils in California.


Pennsylvania


Antibiotic uptake results indicate that there is possibility for uptake of some of the antibiotics by wheat irrigated by wastewater, but the concentrations in grain would indicate that the average daily wheat consumption of 166 g per adult would result in amounts that are six orders of magnitude below a single dose.


A 9-month field study was conducted to compare two methods of dairy manure application – surface broadcast and shallow disk injection – on the transport of estrogens in surface runoff. The field study was conducted from October 2014 – June 2015 on 12 research plots, with 10 natural surface runoff events sampled during this period.  Overall, the estrogen loads leaving the fields that had received manure applications via shallow disk injection were an average of two orders of magnitude lower than the loads leaving the fields that had received manure via surface broadcast.


A 2-month field study was conducted in April – June 2015 to assess the impacts of wastewater irrigation activities on the presence of estrogens in vernal pools at Penn State’s Living Filter.


High-temporal resolution (2 minute) soil moisture data monitored at 6 depths at 4 locations were assessed to understand the impacts of wastewater irrigation activities on the frequency of preferential flow occurrence. Irrigated sites experienced preferential flow for ~45% of events (where an event is defined as rainfall or an irrigation event) compared to ~25% of rainfall events at the non-irrigated control sites.


The HERD model (Hormone Export and Recovery Dynamics) model, a hydrologic and biogeochemical model that predicts the fate and transport of estrogens in tile-drained fields receiving animal residual applications, was developed and validated. The model simulations suggest that the manure application history of a site matters in the ability of the model to adequately predict field observations.  Additionally, the simulation results suggest that the long-term application of animal wastes may result in the build-up of legacy sources within the soil profile that could result in a water quality recovery lag time on the order of a few decades, which is similar to nutrient recovery lag times.


Virginia


Xia et al. conducted rainfall simulations on plots receiving three manure treatments (surface application, subsurface injection, and no manure control) to determine the fate and transport of eleven hormones and five different antibiotics commonly used in dairy production. Surface application, compared with subsurface injection, resulted in 80-97% greater mass loss of hormones and antibiotics during a rainfall event after the manure application. Limited horizontal and vertical diffusion of hormones from the manure injection slits occurred. Horizontal and vertical diffusion of antibiotics were the highest in plots receiving rainfall immediately than in those receiving rainfall 3 and 7 days after manure application.


Xia et al. determined the fate of commonly used dairy and beef cattle antibiotics in their excreted forms in three different soils amended with manure or composted manure. Antibiotic dissipations in the raw manure-amended soils followed bi-phasic first order kinetics during the 120-day incubation. The first phase half-lives were 6.0 to 18 days for sulfamethazine, 2.7 to 3.7 days for tylosin, and 23 to 25 days for chlortetracycline. During the second dissipation phase, there was insignificant dissipation for sulfamethazine, while the second phase half-lives were 41 to 44 days for tylosin and 75 to 144 days for chlortetracycline. In contrast, antibiotic dissipation in the compost-applied soils followed one-phase first order kinetics with insignificant dissipation for sulfamethazine and half-lives ranging from 15 to 16 days for tylosin and 49 to 104 days for chlortetracycline. After incubating 120-days, regardless of the compost type (static vs. turned) the concentrations of antibiotics in compost-applied soils were significantly lower (p<0.0001) than those in the manure-applied soils. Soil type had no significant effect on the rates of antibiotic dissipation (p>0.05).


Xia et al. investigated the environmental fate and transformation of thiamethoxam (TMX), a neonicotinoid commonly coated on seeds of major crops. Residue levels of TMX and its metabolite clothianidin (CLO) in different matrices (except for root) decreased during the growing season. More than 90% of seed-coated TMX was transferred into plant and soil or leached into water system from the seed coatings by V1 stage (day 8). About 67-83% of TMX was lost in sand and clay columns systems at the V5 stage (day 36). TMX can be easily leached into groundwater through unstructured clay soil under heavy rainfall conditions. Overall, clay soils with low total organic carbon had higher leaching potential, lower sorption, and faster dissipation for TMX compared with sandy soils.


 


Objective 2: Evaluate the range of uses and associated agronomic and environmental benefits/advantages for residuals in agricultural and urban systems.


Specific tasks:



  • Evaluate the ability of in situ treatment of contaminated soil with residuals to reduce chemical contaminant bioavailability and toxicity.

  • Determine the climate change impacts of organic residuals end use options (i.e., C sequestration, N2O emissions).

  • Quantify sustainability impacts such as water quality (reduced N impairment) and quantity benefits (increased plant available water, increased drought tolerance) and soil quality improvements associated with a range of organic residuals end uses.

  • Explore the potential for waste by-products to be used in urban areas including urban agriculture, stormwater infrastructure, green roofs, and in urban green space.

  • Evaluate ecosystem services of degraded urban soils amended with residuals.

  • Use tools such as life cycle assessment to understand and compare the impacts of a range of residuals end use/disposal options.


Objective 2 Accomplishments:


Arizona


Previous research at Tres Rios Wastewater Treatment Plant showed that Bardenpho secondary treatment of sewage resulted in effluent with very low numbers of human pathogenic viruses. The goal of this current project was to determine if viruses were actually inactivated during Bardenpho treatment or whether viruses merely partitioned into the solid phase due to the longer retention time of the process. Specific objectives were: Determine if Bardenpho treatment resulted in greater concentrations of viruses in the sewage sludge than conventional activated sludge treatment; and Determine if this results in greater concentrations in biosolids after anaerobic digestion. Study approach was consisted of collecting sludge samples pre-anaerobic digestion and post anaerobic digestion, analyzing samples for enteric viruses via cell culture and comparing new results to historical conventional activated sludge data for virus removal.


Data show that mean enteric virus concentrations in undigested sludge following Bardenpho treatment (Tres Rios WWTP) were 58.7 MPN/4g compared to lower values 10.4 MPN/4g in historical conventional activated sludge (older Ina Rd WWTP). However, following anaerobic digestion, mean virus values in the biosolids (Tres Rios) were 0.5 MPN/4g compared to 1.4 MPN/4g from historical biosolids (Ina Rd).


Colorado


Barbarick, Ippolito et al. completed a study focused on the beneficial reuse of drinking water treatment facility Al-WTR in an engineered urban wetland.  Findings showed that Al-WTR application can significantly increase P capture and lessen offsite P movement into adjacent waterbodies.  The team anticipates continuing this work within Colorado over the next several years.


Florida


An intended, long-term, well-instrumented field study was established by Silveira et al. to evaluate various agronomic and environmental impacts of biosolids applied to pastures in south Florida. Land application of (especially) Class B biosolids to pasture land is common in Florida and well received by ranchers, but remains a practice that concerns some. Environmental concerns and the need for (or lack thereof) legislation to protect against possible environmental impacts with respect to water quality are the major focus of the project. The experiment is designed to evaluate the effects of various locally available biosolids alone, and in combination with a locally available biochar, on forage, soil, and water quality, and on greenhouse emissions. Biosolids are applied at rates sufficient to supply the UF/IFAS recommended 180 kg PAN/ha (160 lb. PAN/A), allowing for various losses of N through an adjustment of total N application of 1.5 (thus, the equivalent of 270 kg N/ha). Mineral fertilizer N is applied as a comparison treatment. Biochar is applied at a 1% by weight rate (~22.4 Mg/ha). Soil cores are routinely collected by depth, and drain gauge lysimeters are used to monitor water quality. Static gas chambers are used to monitor CH4, N2O and CO2 emissions on a regular basis.  Rainfall simulation installations will also be used to assess field runoff amounts and water quality, pending additional resources.


Excessive rainfall in the Spring of 2016 delayed the applications of materials until August, but initial soil and amendment characterization, background data on water quality and gas emissions, and instrument validation was completed. Spring applications (April) occurred in 2017, as is more common for the region. Various forage quantity and quality measurements will be assessed as a function of treatments. The major thrust, however, is to demonstrate the environmentally-benign effects of biosolids applied in accordance with state recommendations and to assess the potential for a local biochar to further reduce fugitive nutrient losses. An additional objective to demonstrate impacts of the treatments on C cycling/accumulation. A number of laboratory studies are underway to examine the potential benefits of co-application of biochar and biosolids on N and P losses. Efforts are also underway to attract research funds to support the field effort for a minimum of 3 more years; support to date has been from special legislative allotments to the Florida Cattlemen’s Association and “fiscal year-end” funding from the FL AES. Continued, and adequate future support is tenuous.


Hawaii


Highly weathered soils in the tropics are nutrient poor, thus hardly support good plant growth. Hue et al. studied potential of biochars to improve soil nutrient retention in highly weathered soils. The objective of this study was to assess the nutrient retention capacities of two biochars when applied in combination with two composts to two highly weathered soils of Hawaii: a Ultisol (Leilehua series) and an Oxisol (Wahiawa series). The experiment design was factorial, and all treatments were arranged in a completely randomized design with three replicates. Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa cv. Bonsai Chinensis group) was used as the test plant in two greenhouse trials. Plant fresh and dry weights (harvested 34 days after sowing), soil pH and EC, total N, and other nutrients in soils and plant tissues were measured. The results showed that the interaction between biochar and compost additions was significantly increased the pH, EC, P and K of both soils; improved Ca, Mg and Fe uptake; and increased shoot and total cabbage fresh and dry matters. Soil pH was increased over 1 units on average, and EC was increased from 0.35 to 0.47 dS/m and 0.30 to 0.37 dS/m for the Ultisol and Oxisol, respectively; exchangeable aluminum in the Ultisol was decreased from 2.5 to virtually zero; Mehlich-3 extractable Mn and Fe in the high- Mn Oxisol decreased from 806 and 63.9 mg/kg to 360 and 36.9 mg/kg, respectively.  Chinese cabbage  growth in the Ultisol amended with the lac tree (Schleichera oleosa) wood biochar at 2% in combination with 2% vermicompost was almost twice as that of the  amended with lime and vermicompost at the same rate. All essential nutrients in the plant tissues, with exception of N and K, were sufficient for the cabbage growth, suggesting increased nutrients and reduced soil acidity by the combined additions of biochar and compost were the probable cause.


Kansas


A new field study, to investigate potential for using residual (class B biosloids) amendment at contaminated military sites, has been started in summer 2016 by Kansas State University researchers (Hettiarachchi et al.). This will be continued for two years and the main objective is to find ways to utilize unused land/sites to grow second generation biofuel crops while maintaining or improving soil quality, and keeping soil contaminants in place. Results so far shows that tilling and soil treatment additions have increased the dry matter yield. Soil analysis for various parameters including bioaccessible lead and plant tissue analysis for lead and nutrients are underway.


Plant systems have a significant capacity to remediate marginal waters through several phytoremediation processes including uptake (e.g., nutrients, trace elements), accumulation (e.g. salts), and assist with biotransformation of inorganic compounds (e.g., nutrients, trace elements). Salicornia could be a suitable halophilic plant to capitalize on its salt-tolerance potential for treating marginal waters. A greenhouse study was initiated to determine ability of Salicornia europaea to grow in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater, which is high in salts and selenium (Se); or brackish waters. This work will be continued in 2017.


Minnesota


In the U.S., coffee roasters generate approximately 32 million pounds of coffee chaff each year, most of which ends up in landfills. JavaCycle, a local startup company in Minnesota has developed a method to blend and combine the coffee chaff with grain meal, bone/meat meal and potassium sulfate to create an all-purpose 4-4-4 organic fertilizer (https://www.java-cycle.com/products/).  Researchers at University of Minnesota (Jelinski et al.) are currently evaluating two forms of this fertilizer, one containing 10% coffee chaff and the other containing 40% coffee chaff as an amendment for potting mixes.   The overall goal is to identify the optimum rates of the two fertilizer blends for producing greenhouse lettuce and greenhouse tomatoes.


New Mexico


Brewer et al. have continued our evaluation of solid waste processing using pyrolysis to recover water and nutrients for water, food, and energy sustainability. We have created biochars from a variety of waste products (agricultural residues, halophyte biomass, invasive species biomass, solid wastes on spacecraft); we are in the process of testing their impacts on soil quality, their potential for soil-less growth media, and their ability to be used as adsorbents for trace organic contaminants in water.


Hedge-pruning pecan trees is an essential cultural practice that generates significant tonnages of wood biomass of relatively limited economic value, and has historically regarded as a waste product. Increasing the wood’s value could aid pecan growers and one such use is shredding, chipping, and screening the raw material for use in potting substrates.  That value-added use could also reduce dependence on peatmoss to, in turn, benefit greenhouse and nursery growers who are in close proximity to pecan growers throughout the southern U.S.  Picchioni et al. (2006) reported good potential for pecan wood chips to partially replace peatmoss in greenhouse potting substrates, and outlined steps needed to turn such a pecan wood “eco-cycle” into reality, much like has occurred with the southern pine industry. 


In the arid southwestern United States, water is scarce. Drought and diminishing freshwater have created a need for alternate water sources. Reverse osmosis (RO) is used to desalinate groundwater but results in highly saline concentrate. Flores et al. (2016) reported findings pertaining to reuse of reverse osmosis concentrate as an irrigation source for salt tolerant plants.


Pennsylvania


Miscanthus biomass production on mined land and response to nutrient application as inorganic fertilizer or as spent mushroom compost (SMC) is being investigated in a multi-year experiment by researchers at Pennsylvania State University. Year two production was greater than year one and in both years yield was increased by nutrient addition. There was no difference in yield response between SMC and inorganic fertilizer. Soil N availability and miscanthus N uptake also did not differ between nutrient sources.


A greenhouse study was conducted to establish thresholds for negative effects on vegetation and soils from Marcellus Shale production water (PW). A PW spill assessment decision matrix was developed to guide response to small PW spills.  Based on visual observations and soil testing, the matrix provides a framework for choosing between standards remedial action (excavation and landfilling) and natural attenuation.


Virginia


Badgley et al. determined that original design and engineering factors of bioretention systems have more impact on controlling denitrifying bacteria than local environmental conditions. Results also show that microbial denitrification might be much lower than anticipated in many systems, suggesting that there is potential to improve performance with regard to nitrogen removal from stormwater. Trends observed in established systems suggest that strategic use of organic matter in the soil medium and vegetation types are the two most important factors to increase denitrification.


Long-term (10 year) effects of wood waste compost additions on soil and vegetation properties in created forested wetlands were evaluated by Daniels et al. in two replicated (n = 4) experiments in eastern Virginia. Loading rates at one experiment varied from 56 to 330 Mg/ha (dry) and were incorporated into truncated plastic and clayey subsoil materials. The loading rate at the second site was 75 Mg/ha and the compost was incorporated into sandy dredge materials and compared with local topsoil return (15 cm) vs. no amendment. Combined results from the two experiments indicate that optimal compost addition rates are approximately 75 Mg/ha and that while the impacts of compost additions on development of appropriate soil redox conditions and associate redoximorphic features are clear, their net effect on vegetation response is mixed. Compost additions clearly aided initial establishment and growth of herbaceous and woody vegetation at the loading rate experimental site, but had no net effect at the second experiment when compared with topsoil return.


Ervin and Evanylo compared the effects of various exceptional quality (EQ) biosolids products on rehabilitation of disturbed urban soil for the establishment and production of cool season turfgrass. Application rates of amendments were 171 kg N ha-1yr-1 with Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation recommendations for an established tall fescue stand. Amendments were top-dressed (applied to surface) and split applied on June 14, 2016 and September 21, 2016. Biosolids products performed better than the inorganic fertilizer during the trial period. Clipping yield, normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI), turfgrass quality rating and soil bulk density, were significantly improved by biosolids products applied at the agronomic nitrogen rate than the biosolids applied at the phosphorus rate and the inorganic fertilizer (p-value <0.05). This study has shown that as you increase the rate of biosolids applied, you improve turfgrass response and reduce bulk density. Lower biosolids rates such as the biosolids sand-sawdust phosphorus rate will improve plant quality and growth, but it is not enough to impact bulk density.


Evanylo et al. established a greenhouse study to compare the effects of DC Water (Blue Plains Advanced Water Reclamation facility) exceptional quality (EQ) biosolids blended with organic and mineral residuals (sawdust + sand or woody mulch) with proven industry EQ products. EQ biosolids included two Tagro (Tacoma, WA) blended products (one biosolids-sand-sawdust blend and one biosolids-woody mulch blend), Alexandria (VA) Renew Enterprises biosolids blended with woody mulch, OceanGro (Ocean County, NJ) thermally dried and granulated product, and Spotsylvania County (VA) biosolids composted with woody waste. A soybean growth bioassay showed that the incorporation of the blended DC Water EQ biosolids into the soil at normal agronomic rates support adequate germination, emergence, seedling vigor, and plant growth; however, use of these products as the entire rooting media resulted in phytotoxicity, likely due to high soluble salt concentrations. A tall fescue bioassay nitrogen calibration study showed that the nitrogen in the DC Water blended products was approximately 20% plant-available.


Evanylo et al. established a vegetable study in August 2016 on a manufactured urban soil comprised of clayey subsoil fill from two construction sites. The site was instrumented with lysimeters for collection of leachate, which is being analyzed for pH, EC, C, N forms, and P. We have applied and are testing the effects of various rates (1x and 5x agronomic N rate) of dried & cured dewatered EQ biosolids, EQ biosolids blended with shredded woody mulch, and composted biosolids; and 1x agronomic N rates of thermally-dried biosolids and inorganic fertilizer. Yields of fall-grown vegetables (cabbage, beets, radishes, lettuce, and kale) and nitrate leached to lysimeters were higher with the 5x than the 1x agronomic N rate of biosolids and inorganic fertilizer N, but N loss was not significantly greater than with the 1x agronomic N rate of inorganic fertilizer.


Washington


Brown cooperated with a large group to address the hazards associated with Pb contamination in urban soils (Laidlaw et al., 2017). Her contribution summarized the research on the use of biosolids to reduce Pb availability in situ.  That work included cooperation with multiple members, both past and present of the W 3170 research group.  The conclusion in this manuscript suggests that wider spread use of biosolids in urban areas has the potential to offer protection against lead exposure. 


Brown was part of a team tasked by the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality to evaluate the impact of different food waste management alternatives (Morris et al., 2017). Life cycle assessment was used for this analysis.  Composting, in sink disposal, direct anaerobic digestion and combustion were considered.  In addition to traditional LCA parameters, this study included a section on the soil impact of each end use/ disposal method.  Here Brown used examples in the literature from biosolids application to serve as a surrogate for digestate. 


Brown also worked with Dr. David Montgomery whose new book: Growing a Revolution: Brining our soil back to life describes different tools to restore soils. She provided him with a number of papers as well as introductions to the biosolids community.  As a result, the use of biosolids is featured in one chapter of the book as a highly effective tool to restore soils. 


Brown was asked by the US Compost Council to author a pamphlet on how compost production and use can impact Climate Change. The pamphlet was released early in 2017 and provides a clear, easy to read and understand guide to how land application of composts and other organics such as municipal biosolids can be an effective tool to both reduce fugitive gas emissions and to sequester carbon. 

Publications

PUBLICATIONS ISSUED or MANUSCRIPTS APPROVED 2016


 


Journal Articles


Bamber, K. W., G. K. Evanylo, and W. E. Thomason. 2016. Importance of Soil Properties on Recommended Biosolids Management for Winter Wheat. Soil Sci. Soc. of Am. J. 80:919-929. doi:10.2136/sssaj2016.02.0039


Barbarick, K.A., J.A. Ippolito, and J. McDaniel. 2016. Path Analysis of grain P, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Ni in a biosolids-amended dryland wheat agroecosystem. J. Environ. Qual. 45:1400-1404.


Basta, N.T., D.M. Busalacchi, L.S. Hundal, K. Kumar, R.P. Dick, R.P. Lanno, J. Carlson, A.E. Cox, and T.C. Granato. 2016. Restoring ecosystem function in degraded urban soil using biosolids, biosolids blend and compost. Special Issue: Soil in the City. J. Environ. Qual. 45(1): 74-83.


Berek, A., and N. Hue. 2016. Characterization of biochars and their use as an amendment to acid soils. Soil Sci. 181:412-426.


Beyer, Nelson, W., Nicholas T. Basta, Rufus Chaney, Paula F. P. Henry, Thomas May, David Mosby, Barnett A. Rattner, Kirk G. Scheckel, Daniel Sprague. Bioaccessibility tests accurately estimate bioavailability of lead to quail. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 35: 2311–2319, 2016.


Brewer, C.E., Hall, E.T., Schmidt-Rohr, K., Laird, D.A., Brown, R.C., Zygourakis, K. (2016) Temperature and reaction atmosphere effects on properties of corn stover biochar, Environmental Progress & Sustainable Energy, in press, DOI: 10.1002/ep.12503.


Brown, S. 2016. Greenhouse gas accounting for landfill diversion of food scraps and yard waste. Compost Sci. 24:1: 11-19.


Brown, S.L., A.Corfman, K. Mendrey, K. Kurtz, and F. Grothkopp. 2016.  Stormwater Bioretention systems- testing the phosphorus saturation index and compost feedstocks as predictive tools for system performance. J. Environ. Qual., 45:1:98-106


Brown, S.L. and R.L. Chaney. 2016. Use of amendments to restore ecosystem function to metal mining impacted sites: tools to evaluate efficacy. Current Pollution Reports. 2:91-102


Brown, S., R.L. Chaney, and G.M. Hettiarachchi. 2016. Lead in urban soils -- A real or perceived concern for urban agriculture? J. Environ. Qual. 45: 26-36. OPEN ACCESS doi:10.2134/jeq2015.07.0376


D’Angelo, E.M., and Daniel Starnes. 2016. Desorption Kinetics of Ciprofloxacin in Municipal Biosolids Determined by Diffusion Gradient in Thin Films. Chemosphere 164:215-224.


Daniels, W. L., Zipper, C. E., Orndorff, Z. W., Skousen, J., Barton, C. D., McDonald, L. M., and Beck, M. A. (2016). Predicting total dissolved solids release from central Appalachian coal mine spoils. Env. Poll. 2016: 371-379. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2016.05.044


Dutta, T., C.J. Dell and R.C. Stehouwer. 2016. Nitrous oxide emissions from a coal mine land reclaimed with stabilized manure. Land Degradation & Development 27:427–437. Article first published online : 13 AUG 2015, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2408


Elzobair, K.A., M.E. Stromberger, and J.A. Ippolito. 2016. Stabilizing effect of biochar on soil extracellular enzymes after a denaturing stress. Chemosphere. 142:114-119.


Elzobair, K.A., M.E. Stromberger, J.A. Ippolito, and R.D. Lentz. 2016. Contrasting effects of biochar versus manure on soil microbial communities and enzyme activities in an Aridisol. Chemosphere. 142:145-152.


Flores, A.M., M.K. Shukla, D. Daniel, A.L Ulery, B.J. Schutte, G.A. Picchioni, and S. Fernald. 2016.  Evapotranspiration changes with irrigation using saline groundwater and RO concentrate. Journal of Arid Environments 43:1-7.


Franklin, A.M., C.F. Williams, D.M. Andrews, E.E. Woodward, J.E. Watson. 2016. Uptake of three antibiotics and an anti-epileptic drug by wheat crops spray irrigated with wastewater treatment plant effluent. J. Environ. Qual.45:546-554.


Franklin, A.M., D.S. Aga, E. Cytryn, L. Durso, J.E. McLain, A. Pruden, M.C. Roberts, M.J. Rothrock, Jr., D. Snow, J.E. Watson, R.S. Dungan. 2016. Antibiotics in Agroecosystems: Introduction to the Special Section. J. Environ. Qual. 45:377-393.


Gall, H.E., N.B. Basu, M.L. Mashtare, P.S.C. Rao, L.S. Lee. 2016. Assessing the impacts of anthropogenic and hydro-climatic drivers on estrogen legacies and trajectories. Advances in water Resources 87: 19-28.


Hopkins, I., H.E. Gall, H. Lin. 2016. Natural and anthropogenic controls on the frequency of preferential flow occurrence in a wastewater spray irrigation field. Agricultural Water Management In Press. DOI:dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2016.09.011.


Hue, N. and A. Ahmad. 2016. Arsenic Reactions and Brake Fern (Pteris Vittata L.) Uptake in Hawaiian Soils. Plant soil environ. 63:11-17. Doi:10.17221/428/2016-PSE.


Ippolito, J.A., M.E. Stromberger, R.D. Lentz, and R.S. Dungan. 2016. Hardwood biochar            and manure co-application to a calcareous soil. Chemosphere. 142:86-91.


Ippolito, J.A., T.F. Ducey, K.B. Cantrell, J.M. Novak, and R.D. Lentz. 2016. Designer, acidic biochar influences calcareous soil characteristics. Chemosphere. 142:184-191.


Ippolito, J.A. 2015. Aluminum-based water treatment residuals use in a constructed wetland for capturing urban runoff phosphorus: Column study. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 226:334. DOI 10.1007/s11270-015-2604-2.


Laidlaw, M.A.S., G.M. Filippelli, S. Brown, J. Paz-Ferreiro, S.M. Reichman, P. Netherway, A. Truskewzcz, A.S. Ball, H.W. Mielke. 2017.  Case studies and evidence-based approaches to addressing urban soil lead contamination.  Applied Geochemistry http://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2017.02.015


Mina, O., H.E. Gall, L.S. Saporito, P.J.A. Kleinman. 2016. Estrogen transport in surface runoff from agricultural fields treated with two application methods of dairy manure. J. Environ. Qual. In Press. DOI:10.2134/jeq2016.05.0173.


Morris, J., S. Brown, M. Cotton, and H.S. Matthews. 2017.  Life-cycle assessment harmonization and soil science ranking results on food-waste management methods.  Environ. Sci. Tech. DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.6b06115


Novak, J.M., J.A. Ippolito, R.D. Lentz, K.A. Spokas, C.H. Bolster, K. Sistani, K.M. Trippe, and M.G. Johnson. 2016. Soil health, crop productivity, microbial transport, and mine spoil response to biochars. Bioenerg. Res. 9:454-464.


Obrycki, John F., Nicholas T. Basta, Kirk Scheckel, Albert Juhasz, Brooke N. Stevens, and Kristen K. Minca. 2016. Phosphorus amendment efficacy on soil Pb depends upon bioaccessible method conditions. Special Issue: Soil in the City J. Environ. Qual. 45(1): 37-44.


Picchioni, G.A., S.A. Martinez, J.G. Mexal, and D.M. VanLeeuwen. 2016.  Vegetative growth and leaf nutrient status of ‘Carpino’ chrysanthemum on a pecan wood-amended commercial substrate. HortScience 51:177-185.  (Journal cover article).


Rachmadi, A.T., Kitajima, M., Pepper, I.L., Gerba, C.P. 2016. Enteric and indicator virus removal by surface flow wetlands. Sci. Tot. Environ. 542:976-982.


Karna, R., G.M. Hettiarachchi, M. Newville, C-J Sun, and Q. Ma. 2016. Synchrotron-Based X-Ray Spectroscopy Studies for Redox-Based Remediation of Lead, Zinc, and Cadmium in Mine Waste Materials. J. Environ. Qual. 45:1883-1893. doi: 10.2134/jeq2015.12.0616.


Schmitz, B., Kitajima, M., Campillo, M., Gerba, C., Pepper, I. 2016. Virus reduction during advanced Bardenpho and conventional wastewater treatment processes. Env. Sci. & Technol. 50:9524-9532.


Schmitz, B., Pearce-Walker, J., Gerba, C.P., Pepper, I.L. 2016. A method for determining Ascaris viability based on early-to-late stage in vitro ova development. J. Res. Sci. Technol. 13:275-286.


Sterner, G. R. Bryant, P. Kleinman, J. Watson, T. Alter. 2015. Community Implementation Dynamics: Nutrient Management in the New York City and Chesapeake Bay Watersheds. International Journal of Rural Law and Policy. 2015 Special Edition 1. UTS ePress. New South Wales. <http://epress.lib.uts.edu.au/journals/index.php/ijrlp/article/view/4366>


Tian, G, A. Cox, K. Kumar, G.A. O’Connor, and H.A. Elliott. 2016. Assessment of plant   availability and environmental risk of biosolids-phosphorus in a U.S. Midwest corn-belt soil. J. Environ. Mgt. 172: 171-176.


Wijesekara, H., N.S. Bolan, M. Vithanage, Y.Xu, S. Mandal, S.L. Brown, G.M. Hettiarachchi, G.M. Pierzynski, L. Huang, Y. S. Ok, M.B. Kirkham, C. Saint. A. Surapaneni. 2016. Utilization of biowaste for mine spoil rehabilitation. Advances in Agronomy 138:97-173


Presentations/Abstracts


Alghamdi, A., M.B. Kirkham, D.R. Presley, G.M. Hettiarachchi and B. Paul. 2016. Heavy Metal Uptake from Abandoned Mine Waste Materials Amended with Biosolids. ASA/CSA/SSSA International Annual Meetings, Phoenix, AZ. Nov. 6-9, 2016.


Basta, N.T. 2016. Tailoring Soil Blends for Chemical Restoration of Urban Soils. ASA/CSA/SSSA International Annual Meetings, Phoenix, AZ. Nov. 6-9, 2016.


Basta, N.T., S. D. Whitacre, B. Stevens, R. Anderson, P. Myers and V.L. Hanley. 2016. Predicting arsenic bioavailability in contaminated soils by using in vitro gastrointestinal bioaccessibility for site-specific risk assessment. 18th International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment, Ghent, Belgium Sept 12-15, 2016.


Basta, N.T. Using Bioavailability and Bioaccessibility for Risk Assessment and Remediation of Upland Soils. U.S. EPA Ecological Risk Assessment Forum Annual Meeting, Chicago IL, June 7 – 9, 2016


Basta, N.T. Restoring Ecosystem Services in Degraded Urban Soils Using Biosolids and Soil Amendment Blends, Illinois Water Environment Association Annual Conference Champaign, IL. February 29, 2016


Basta, N.T., S.D. Whitacre, V. Kecojevic, A. Lashgari, and B.T. Lusk. 2016. Dust Characterization and Source Apportionment at an Active Surface Mine in West Virginia. Annual Meeting of the Society for Mining, Metallurgy, and Exploration, Phoenix, AZ. Feb. 21-24, 2016.


Benson, Kaitlyn, and Nicholas T. Basta. Assessing Long-Term Soil Quality of a Restored Degraded Site in Illinois. ASA/CSA/SSSA International Annual Meetings, Phoenix, AZ. Nov. 6-9, 2016.


Brewer, C.E., Lyons, S., Bhakta, N., Payne, J., Carroll, K. C., Drying and Pyrolysis of Solid Waste on Spacecraft for Water Recovery and Biochar, 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Annual Meeting, San Francisco, CA, November 15, 2016.


Brewer, C.E., Idowu, O. J., Biochars in the Desert Southwest: Challenges and Opportunities, Biochar 2016: The Synergy of Science and Industry: Biochar's Connection to Ecology, Soil, Food, and Energy, US Biochar Initiative, Corvalis, OR, August 24, 2016.


Brewer, C. E., Lyons, S., Bhakta, N., Payne, J., Carroll, K. C., Pyrolysis of Solid Waste on Spacecraft for Water Recovery and Biochar, TCS 2016: Symposium on Thermal and Catalytic Sciences for Biofuels and Biobased Products, RTI International, Chapel Hill, NC, November 2, 2016.


Carrillo, B. C., Dominguez, M., Zhang, Y., Idowu, O. J., Brewer, C. E., Short-term impacts of biochar made from different feedstock on soil quality and water holding capacity of arid soils, ASA/CSA/SSSA International Annual Meetings, Phoenix, AZ. Nov. 6-9, 2016.


Hansen, A. M., and N.A. Jelinski. Household-Scale Spatial and Depth Distributions of Soil Lead in Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota. Soil Science Society of America International Annual Meetings. Phoenix, AZ, November 6-9, 2016.


Hsiao, C-J, G.F. Sassenrath, C. W. Rice, L.H. Zeglin and G. M. Hettiarachchi. 2016. Soil Microbial Communities in Claypan Soils. ASA/CSA/SSSA International Annual Meetings, Phoenix, AZ. Nov. 6-9, 2016.


Jelinski, N.A., M.M. Haller, J.K. Willenbring, A.M. Hansen, K. LaBine. Soil Kitchen: A mechanism for community engagement and citizen-science centered around the urban soil resource. Twin Cities Urban Agriculture Research Workshop, Minneapolis, MN, October 5th, 2016.


Obrycki, John F, and Nicholas T. Basta. 2016. Limitations for Contaminated Soil Management Implementation. ASA/CSA/SSSA International Annual Meetings, Phoenix, AZ. Nov. 6-9, 2016.


Obrycki, John F and Nicholas T. Basta. 2016.  Contextualizing Urban Soil Pb within a Public Health Framework. ASA/CSA/SSSA International Annual Meetings, Phoenix, AZ. Nov. 6-9, 2016.


Pepper, I.L. 2016. The University of Arizona Water & Energy Sustainable Technology (WEST) Center. 21st European Biosolids and Organic Resources Conference, Edinburgh, UK.


Sassi, H., Gerba, C.P., and Pepper, I.L. 2016. Ebola and Antibiotics: Are they a hazard in sewage and biosolids?  2016. 29th Annual Biofest, Blaine, WA.


Sarpong, K. A., Amiri, A., Idowu, O. J., Smith, M., Brewer, C. E., Evaluating salt sequestration in the biochar of halophytes, ASA-CSSA-SSSA 2016 Meeting, Phoenix, AZ, November 9, 2016.


Stevens, B., A. Betts, K. Scheckel , S. Whitacre, R. Anderson, K. Bradham, D. Thomas and N. Basta. Comprehensive evaluation of in vitro bioaccessibility methods to predict bioavailability of arsenic in contaminated soils. 2016. 18th International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment, Ghent, Belgium Sept 12-15, 2016.


Stevens, B., S. Whitacre, K. Bradham, D. Thomas, S. Casteel, R. Anderson, and N. Basta. 2016. Comparison of Bioavailability Measurements determined using Juvenile Swine and Adult Mouse Models for Arsenic Contaminated Soils. 18th International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment, Ghent, Belgium Sept 12-15, 2016.


Whitacre, Shane, B. Stevens, Valerie Hanley Perry Myers, Andrea Foster, and Nick Basta. 2016. Independent Measures for More Confident Selection and Application of Arsenic Bioaccessibility Methods to Predict Bioavailability. 18th International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment, Ghent, Belgium Sept 12-15, 2016.


Whitacre, S.W., B.N Stevens, V.L. Mitchell, P. Myers and N.T. Basta. 2016. Predicting Arsenic Bioavailability in Moderately Contaminated Soils. 18th International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment, Ghent, Belgium Sept 12-15, 2016.


Zearley, A., Nicholas T. Basta and Shane D. Whitacre. 2016. Impact of Diet on Pb Bioccessibility for Wildlife in Vitro Methods. 2016. Soil Science Society of America International Annual Meeting, Phoenix, AZ. Nov. 6-9, 2016.


Book Chapters


Brown, S.L., K. McIvor and E. Snyder (Eds). Sowing seeds in the city: Ecological and Municipal Considerations. Springer, NY.


Brown, S.L., K. McIvor and E. Snyder (Eds). Sowing seeds in the city: Human Dimensions. Springer, NY.


Brown, S. and C. Cogger. 2016. Soil formation and nutrient cycling. In Brown, S.L., K. McIvor and E. Snyder (Eds). Sowing seeds in the city: Ecological and Municipal Considerations. Springer, NY.


Brown, S. 2016. A Guide to Types of Non Potable Water and the Potential for Reuse in Urban Systems. In Brown, S.L., K. McIvor and E. Snyder (Eds). Sowing seeds in the city: Ecological and Municipal Considerations. Springer, NY.


Brown, S. and N. Goldstein. 2016. The Role of Organic Residuals in Urban Agriculture. In Brown, S.L., K. McIvor and E. Snyder (Eds). Sowing seeds in the city: Ecological and Municipal Considerations. Springer, NY.


Brown, S. 2016. Soils and Climate Change. In Brown, S.L., K. McIvor and E. Snyder (Eds). Sowing seeds in the city: Ecological and Municipal Considerations.  Springer, NY.


Emery, I. and S. Brown. 2016. Lettuce to Reduce Greenhouse Gases: A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Conventional and Community Agriculture. In Brown, S.L., K. McIvor and E. Snyder (Eds). Sowing seeds in the city: Ecological and Municipal Considerations.  Springer, NY.


Hettiarachchi, G.M., C. Attanayake, P. Defoe, and S. Martin. 2016. Mechanisms to Reduce Risk Potential (p. 155- 170). In E Hodges Snyder, K. McIvor, and S Brown (Eds.) Sowing Seeds in the City: Human Dimensions. Springer, NY.


Masiello, C.A., Dugan, B., Brewer, C.E., Spokas, K., Novak, J.M., Liu, Z., Sorrenti, G. (2015) Chapter 19. Biochar effects on soil hydrology. In: J. Lehmann, S. Joseph (Eds.), Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology, 2nd ed: Routledge, pp. 543-562.


Obrycki J.F., K.K. Minca, and N.T. Basta. 2016. Screening for Soil Lead Contamination Using a Common Soil Test Method. In S. Brown, K. McIvor and E. Snyder (eds.) Sowing Seeds in the City: Municipal and Ecological Considerations, Springer, NY.


Technical Reports


Barbarick, K.A., and J.M. McDaniel. 2016. Application of anaerobically digested biosolids to dryland sunflowers: 2014 results. Colorado Ag. Exp. Sta. TR16-4.


Barbarick, K.A., and J.M. McDaniel. 2016. Biosolids application to no-till dryland rotations: 2015 results. Colorado Ag. Exp. Sta. TR16-5.


Basta, Nicholas, Brooke Stevens, Shane Whitacre, Kirk Scheckel, Aaron Betts, Karen Bradham, David Thomas, and. Chris Schadt. 2016. Mechanisms and Permanence of Sequestered Pb and As in Soils: Impact on Human Bioavailability. 2016. SERDP Project ER-1742, Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, Alexandria, VA.


Graduate Theses and Dissertations


Freeh, J. 2016. Removing N-Nitrosodimethylamine from water using pecan shell biochar. M.S. Thesis, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM.


Dorothy Menefee. 2016. Anthropogenic influences on soil microbial properties. M.S. Thesis, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS.


Obrycki, John Francis. 2016.   Ph.D. Dissertation. Managing Soils for Environmental Science and Public Health Applications. The Ohio State University, Columbus. OH.


Sharp, L. 2016. A study of pelletized New Mexican feedstocks subjected to varying levels of torrefaction. M.S. Thesis, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM.


Stevens, Brooke Nan. 2016. Ph.D. Dissertation. Bioaccessibility, Bioavailability, and Chemical Speciation of Arsenic in Contaminated Soils and Solid Wastes. The Ohio State University, Columbus. OH.


Webinars


Basta, N.T. 2016. Mechanisms and Permanence of Sequestered Pb and As in Soils: Impact on Human Bioavailability, SERDP Project ER-1742. Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program Webinar, Nov. 3, 2016 (attendance est. 420)


Popular Press and Press Releases


Huntsman, B., NMSU professor works to remove water pollutants, Las Cruces Sun-News, December 4, 2016, http://www.lcsun-news.com/story/news/education/nmsu/2016/12/04/nmsu-professor-works-remove-water-pollutants/94963006/.


Public release 21 March 2016 by Eurekalert (AAAS). Recycling pecan wood for commercial substrates.  https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-03/asfh_rpw032116.php


University of Washington. "Risk of lead poisoning from urban gardening is low, new study finds." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 2 February 2016. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/02/160202144232.htm.


 


 

Impact Statements

  1. The two- volume set on urban agriculture is one of the first comprehensive sets on this increasingly important topic. Understanding alternative food systems and benefits associated with them is the focus of these volumes. The work of the W 3170 group is well represented in them. The general statement regarding research at UW is that our work focuses on identifying a wide range of end use options and associated benefits with those uses for municipal biosolids. [Brown]
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Date of Annual Report: 09/06/2018

Report Information

Annual Meeting Dates: 06/24/2018 - 06/26/2018
Period the Report Covers: 01/01/2017 - 12/31/2017

Participants

Carolyn Acheson, USEPA/ORD, Acheson.Carolyn@epa.gov
Nick Basta, Ohio State University, basta.4@osu.edu
Robert Bastian, USEPA/ORD, bastian.robert@epa.gov
Sally Brown, Univ. of Washington, slb@uw.edu
Andrew Carpenter, Northern Tilth representing NEBRA, andrew@northerntilth.com
Rufus Chaney, Chaney Environmental, Rufus.Chaney@verizon.net
Albert Cox, MWRDGC, coxa@mwrd.org
W. Lee Daniels, Virginia Tech, wdaniels@vt.edu
Jim Dunbar, Lystek Intl, jdunbar@lystek.com
Chip Elliott, Penn State, hae1@psu.edu
Greg Evanylo, Virginia Tech, gevanylo@vt.edu
Manon Fisher, SFPUC/CASA, mfisher@sfwater.org
Thomas Granato, MWRD-Chicago, thomas.granato@mwrd.org
Ron Herrmann, USEPA/ORD, Herrmann.Ronald@epa.gov
Jim Ippolito, Colorado State Univ., jim.ippolito@colostate.edu
Jonathan Judy, Univ. of Florida, jonathan.judy@ufl.edu
Greg Kester, CASA, gkester@casaweb.org
Kuldip Kumar, MWRDGC, kuldip.kumar@mwrd.org
Maile Lono-Batura, NW Biosolids, maile.lono@nwbiosolids.org
Rooney Kim Lezcano, Purdue Univ., jrkim@purdue.edu
Hui Li, Michgan State Univ., lihui@msu.edu
Persephone Ma, Univ. of Minnesota, phma@umn.edu
George O'Connor, Univ. of Florida, GAO@UFL.edu
Olawale Oladeji, MWRDGC, oladejio@mwrd.org
Guanglong Tian, MWRDGC, Tiang@wwrd.org
Bill Toffey, MABA, wtoffey@mabiosolids.org

Brief Summary of Minutes

Accomplishments

Objective 1: Evaluate the short- and long-term chemistry and bioavailability of nutrients, potentially toxic inorganic trace elements, and pharmaceuticals and personal care products (TOrCs) in residuals, reclaimed water, and amended soils in order to assess the environmental and health risk-based effects of their application at a watershed scale.


Specific tasks:



  • To develop and evaluate in vitro (including chemical speciation) and novel in vivo methods to correlate human and ecological health responses with risk-based bioavailability of trace elements and TOrCs in residuals and residual-treated soils.

  • Predict the long-term bioavailability and toxicity of trace elements and TOrCs in residual-amended urban, agricultural and contaminated soils.

  • Evaluate long-term effects of residuals application and reclaimed wastewater irrigation on fate and transport of nutrients, trace elements, TOrCs, and emergence/spread of antibiotic resistance in high application rate systems.


(iv)             Evaluate plant uptake and ecological effects of potentially toxic trace elements and TOrCs from soils amended with residuals and reclaimed wastewater.


Objectives 1 Accomplishments:


 


Arizona


Following wastewater treatment, dewatering of biosolids at Tres Rios WWTP in Tucson Arizona results in ≃ 0.5 mgd of effluent with high concentrations of NH4 (1000 ppm). This effluent is returned to the head works, and the high NH4 concentration results in a need for extra oxygen to be pumped into the effluent to enhance nitrification. This results in significantly enhanced energy costs (= 30% total energy costs). Therefore, there is a need to remove the NH4 prior to re-entry into the head works. A project started by Pepper et al. evaluates an alternative method of removing the NH4 from the effluent – namely anaerobic oxidation of ammonia or anammox. Anammox relies on a consortium of autotrophic bacteria to oxidize NH4 utilizing nitrite as a terminal electron acceptor. They are evaluating the efficacy of anammox as an alternative side stream treatment of effluent, and also determining the influence of anammox on human pathogenic virus inactivation.


The primary goal of the project is to develop a real-world anammox technology for sidestream treatment of effluent with high ammonia concentrations. This will involve scale-up of existing bacterial cultures.


 



  • 3L batch consortium ® C 120 L bioreactor ® full-scale-real-world treatment at Tres Rios


 


A secondary goal of the project is to evaluate the incidence of human pathogenic virus in the dewatered water, and potential inactivation by the anammox process and high ammonium concentrations. Specifically quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and cell culture (cc) will be utilized to detect the following viruses in food, water and effluent water:


 



  • Pepper mild mottle virus (qPCR)

  • Enterovirus (qPCR and cc)

  • Adenovirus (qPCR and cc)

  • Reovirus (qPCR and cc)


 


Data from this part of the study will quantify the viral load associated with the dewatering process.


 


Currently two 120L bioreactor have been constructed. This has entailed sophisticated technology to enable aerobic bacteria (Nitrosomonas) and anaerobic bacteria (anammox) to co-exist in close proximity. This is achieved through granular formation of bacteria or biofilm formation on plastic discs. Preliminary data has been obtained on key chemical and biological parameters. To date amonnium removal has varied between 35 and 85%.


 


Colorado


Ippolito et al. continued investigating the long-term benefits of biosolids land application to dryland winter wheat-fallow and a dryland winter wheat-corn-fallow agroecosystems under minimum tillage.  As with past reports, they observed that crop uptake coefficients for nutrients and trace metals in biosolids amended soils were much lower than those used for risk analysis by USEPA.  Biosolids apply metals to soils, with the largest metal concentrations being Cu and Zn.  Biosolids land application to dryland agroecosystems appears to concentrate Cu and Zn in the soil surface, however, little to no appreciable downward movement has occurred even after 20 years of biosolids land application.  They have found that Zn addition may be beneficial in semi-arid cropping systems, such as those found in eastern Colorado, as plant-available soil Zn soil concentrations may be borderline in terms of inducing Zn deficiency symptoms.


 


They completed several biochar soil-application projects pertaining to heavy metal sequestration and sorption/degradation of organic contaminants. Specifically, they focused attention on wheat straw biochar sorption of Cd in a Cd-contaminated soil from China, converting Cd to less bioavailable forms as noted via sorption, wet chemical sequential extraction, and XAS analyses.  They moved from a benchtop to a greenhouse study, using poultry litter biochar, beef cattle manure biochar, and cattle manure to reduce bioavailable Cd and Zn in a contaminated soil, enhancing switchgrass growth.  They moved from a greenhouse study to a field study, using gasified coniferous wood biochar to reduce Cd, Cu, and Zn bioavailability and allowing for coniferous tree growth on site.  They further investigated the utility of wheat straw biochar to capture and accelerate 2,4,6-TCP degradation, and wheat straw biochar to capture/accelerate organic halogen degradation and enhance reed growth.


 


Florida


Greenhouse studies were conducted by O’Connor et al. to assess plant uptake and phytotoxicity potentials of CIP and AZ. The plants studied represent a range of terrestrial crops with different morphologies and physiologies and different exposure scenarios to the target TOrCs; all of which could affect chemical uptake and toxicity. Plant uptake of, and toxicity from, biosolids-borne CIP and AZ were negligible even in a worst-case scenario (i.e., sand as a growth medium) and in the presence of uppermost end of environmentally relevant chemical concentrations. The findings are consistent with our hypothesis of limited compound bioavailability due to extensive retention and limited release from biosolids described in last year’s report. The study employed only one biosolids, and different biosolids could exhibit different retention/release (bioaccessibility) behaviors. However, a variety of plants (representing food-chain crops and pasture grass) showed negligible response to a wide range of concentrations of the biosolids-borne compounds. Thus, present data suggest that several years of land application of biosolids containing typical (~median concentrations, USEPA, 2009) concentrations of the target TOrCs, at 1% or greater agronomic rates, pose de minimis risks to plants; despite assuming no chemical attenuation. Even severely AZ- or CIP-contaminated biosolids pose insignificant risks to plants. Plant data are consistent with our hypothesis that compound retention (and severely limited release) limit biosolids-borne CIP and AZ bioaccessibility and bioavailability to plants and other terrestrial organisms.


Uptake and toxicity potentials of biosolids-borne CIP and AZ to earthworms were assessed primarily under laboratory conditions. Neither compound was toxic to earthworms exposed to environmentally relevant (and much greater) concentrations, but both compounds accumulated in the earthworms. Bioaccumulation factors (BAF values) were about 20 for either compound in non-depurated worms (and independent of three soils studied), but only ~4 (for CIP) and ~7 (for AZ) in depurated worms (again, independent of soils). Predators consume whole worms, which can include excreta. Thus, using BAF values for un-depurated worms, or an average of BAF values for depurated and un-depurated worms, likely represents a conservative 1st Tier assessment of risk. Paired soil and earthworms samples from a field study involving biosolids were graciously supplied by MWRDGC personnel and analyzed, but the data were too limited (by extremely low and highly variable concentrations) to support definitive conclusions.


Potential effects of biosolids-borne CIP and AZ on microbial activity (respiration and genes involved in N and P cycling) were evaluated in a 90 day laboratory incubation study (aerobic conditions). Environmentally relevant concentrations of biosolids-borne CIP and AZ are bioavailable and adversely affect (at least) a few microbes (but only initially) in biosolids and (to a much less extent) in biosolids-receiving soils. The adverse effects are muted from an agronomic viewpoint (e.g., minimal effects on microbial respiration and on genes involved in N and P cycling) and largely overshadowed by benefits from land application of biosolids. Adverse effects of CIP on microbes (although minimal) exceed those of AZ, likely because of greater CIP concentrations in biosolids, and greater potency in the environment. Minimal effects of either TOrC on overall soil/biosolids microbial activity is welcomed news. However, inhibition of bacterial amoA expression indicates that both TOrCs can stress microbes (at least initially). Also, minor chemical concentration-induced increases in antibiotic resistance gene expressions (qnrS, mefE, ermB), possible maintenance (ermB) of resistance genes, and possible antibiotic resistant bacterial enrichment occurred. Present data are insufficient to fully document, but qualitatively support, the notion of stress-induced antibiotic resistance development and spread facilitated by biosolids. Longer term (especially field) studies using various Class A and Class B biosolids and quantitative frameworks are needed to fully assess potential biosolids-borne TOrC impacts on microbial resistance genes.


A tiered integrated risk assessment for biosolids-borne CIP and AZ was conducted using the framework developed by WHO (2001). Similar models were parametrized and used to predict risks from biosolids-borne triclosan and triclocarban. Where applicable, data measured in environmentally relevant scenarios were employed. Limitations of missing data on target organism toxicity and uptake were minimized by using conservative reference doses derived by applying appropriate uncertainty factors. A highly conservative screening level risk assessment involved three biosolids application scenarios: a) BAR1: a single heavy (at the rate of 100 Mg/ha) application of biosolids containing 95th percentile concentrations of CIP or AZ, b) BAR2: 40 y of annual land application of biosolids containing average CIP or AZ concentrations, and c) a highly unlikely scenario: BAR3: 40 y of annual land application of biosolids containing 95th percentile concentrations found in USA biosolids (USEPA, 2009). The initial screening identified three pathways of concern: Biosolidsàsoilàplant; Biosolidsàsoilàsoil organism; and Biosolidsàsoilàsoil organismàpredator. Reasonable refinements of the screening level assumptions resulted in negligible estimates of risks in all pathways to both human and ecological health under real-world biosolids application scenarios, and calculation of preliminary pollutant limits. More data are needed to reduce uncertainty in the analysis, but the initial RA suggests that the majority of modern USA biosolids can be freely land applied without CIP and AZ load-tracking requirements. The analysis does not currently include a pathway to address antibiotic resistance development, and long-term field investigations (and more quantitative frameworks to assess associated risks) are needed to address concerns about the issue.


 


Kansas


Anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) are an emerging environmental biotechnology with the potential to enable municipal wastewater treatment to achieve simultaneous energy- positive treatment and resource recovery. Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor hold promise to effectively treat wastewater at low temperatures with low energy and nutrient requirements, low sludge production, while generating methane-rich biogas and other nutrient rich products. Together with collaborators from Civil, and Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Hettiarachchi et al. began working on investigating potential of using recovered nutrient products (RNPs) from municipal and agricultural wastewater using an AnMBR platform with minimal energy footprint. Hettiarachchi lab group is performing detailed chemical characterization of the RNPs, and identifying their reaction products and efficiency in different soil types through controlled laboratory and greenhouse experiments. The group is also anticipating to capture the nutrients in a variety of tailored forms by controlling the operating strategy of the nutrient capture system and further purify treated wastewaters and RNPs using additional technologies.


 


Kentucky


Tetracycline (TET) is commonly used to treat bacterial diseases in humans and chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus), is largely excreted, and is found at elevated concentrations in treated sewage sludge (biosolids) and poultry litter (excrement plus bedding materials). Routine application of these nutrient-and carbon-enriched materials to soils improves fertility and other characteristics, but the presence of antibiotics (and other pharmaceuticals) in amendments raises questions about potential adverse effects on biota and development of antibiotic resistance in the environment. Hazard risks are largely dictated by sorption-desorption and diffusion behavior in amendments.  D’Angelo (Univ. of Kentucky) evaluated these  processes from sorption-desorption equilibrium isotherm and diffusion cell experiments with four types common soil amendments (municipal biosolids, poultry manure, wood chip litter, and rice hull litter) at three temperatures (8 °C, 20 °C and 32 °C). Sorption-desorption equilibrium isotherm distribution constants (Kd) were higher in biosolids (1306-2418 mL g-1) than other amendments (176-347 mL g-1), with highest values observed at 20 °C.  Depending on amendment, TET sorption was increased 4-40 times by treatment with alum due to increasing surface bound Al3+ and metal bridging between TET and reactive functional groups of amendments. Differences in TET sorption by amendments was strongly explained by an exponential relationship to Mehlich 3 Al3+ in amendments (R2=0.94). Effective diffusion coefficients in amendments (Ds) were strongly related to Kd and temperature (R2=0.86). Treatment of organic amendments with alum greatly increased Kd, and would greatly reduce Ds and hazard risks of applying these organic amendments with this antibiotic to soils.


 


Minnesota


Researchers at University of Minnesota (Jelinski et al.) have been looking at the variability in soil lead bioaccessibility at the household scale in the twin cities.


2018-2019 - Funding Organization: University of Minnesota-Twin Cities Office of the Vice President for Research (OVPR) Grant-In-Aid Program


This project is leveraging an existing archive of physical samples (from total lead surveys across 58 Twin Cities owner-occupied homes in 2015 and 2016 completed by a recently graduated M.S. student) to answer the following scientific questions by analyzing 220 carefully selected samples from their archive:



  • How does lead bioaccessibility vary with space and depth across urban household properties in the Twin Cities?

  • What soil characteristics predict lead bioaccessibility at the household scale?


They will select a subset of physical samples from an existing 600+ sample household soils archive. This 220-sample subset will be assayed for soil lead bioaccessibility by the PBET, RBALP 1.5 and RBALP 2.5 methods as well as for ancillary soil characteristics such as organic matter, phosphorus, and pH. The subset from this archive will be chosen from 22 of 58 homes, which have moderate to high levels of total lead (200-1000 ppm), and stratified by land use, depth, and distance from buildings and roads. The result will be a novel dataset that will be enable us to constrain both the range in variability of soil lead bioaccessibility at the household scale as well as the soil characteristics, which can be utilized to predict bioaccessibility.  


 


Jelinski et al. has started a new project in 2017 entitled “Collaborative Evaluation of Ecosystem Services Provided by Urban Agricultural Best Management Practices in the Twin Cities Metropolitan Area.”


2017-2020 - Funding Organization: USDA NCR-SARE Research and Education Grant Project 00067679 


Some of this work will have some synergies with W3170 group focus.


 


New York


Over 90% of the general popoulation is allergic to urushoil (the compound that cause dermitis), those who compost or otherwise manage poison Ivy or poison oak, compost facility managers.


Extensive literatures searches were completed by Bonhotal et al. at Cornell University on all asects of urushiol, how the rash is contracted, and how the urushiol degrades and be transmitted to others.   Most of the research could not be started until poison ivy had fully emerged in late spring.


On June 12, 2017, they arrived at the Education Center and 4-H Park in Otisville at 8 am. Scouted the grounds for poison ivy, Harvested 3, 1-yard buckets of poison ivy. Leaf and yard waste (partially composted) was delivered to the site at 10 am and unloaded in 2 piles. One sample of poison ivy alone was taken in a glass jar and put on ice for Pile 2. Pile 2 was made at ~11:30 am: Approximately 1 bucket load of leaf and yard waste was laid as a base, 1 bucket load of PI was put on top; the pile was covered with woodchips and more leaf and yard waste to equal 2 bucket. The rest of the PI (about 1 bucket load) was left in a circle for Pile 3. Triplicate samples of each mix (pile 1, 2 and 3) were taken and put on ice for day 0. Temperatures were taken at 2 depths on all 4 sides of each pile. Put a fence around pile 3 and hung signage about the study and cautioning not to touch. Triplicate samples were taken from each pile and put on ice. Temperatures were taken at 2 depths on all sides of each pile


On June 14-15, triplicate samples were taken from each pile and put on ice. Temperatures were taken at 2 depths on all sides of each pile.



  • Data loggers were placed in each pile.


    • Logger 912861 will be used in Pile 3 - the only probe is in channel 3 - there is 70% battery. It has been set to start recording on 6/20/17 at noon and every 6 hours after that.

    • Logger 912856 will be used in Piles 1 and 2 - Probe 4 should go in pile 2 and probe 1 should go in pile 1. There is 63% battery. It has been set to start recording on 6/20/17 at noon and every 6 hours after that.



June 21 through Oct 10, triplicate samples were taken from each pile and put on ice. Temperatures were taken at 2 depths on all sides of each pile. Temperatures were taken at 2 depths on all sides of each pile. Samples were sent to Fatih Buyuksonmez, 6259 Progressive Ave Suite 300, San Diego, CA 92154.


Ohio


Arsenic is one of the most common contaminants of concern exceeding risk criteria because soil ingestion is the primary human health risk driver at many urban, military, U.S. Brownfields and CERCLA sites with As-soil contaminated .  Use of contaminant total content instead of bioavailability is often overly conservative and can result in costly and unnecessary soil remedial action. We completed the following two large research projects that determined the ability of in vitro bioaccessible methods to predict relative bioavailable As in contaminated soils. 


 


Mechanisms and Permanence of Sequestered Pb and As in Soils: Impact on Human Bioavailability. N.T. Basta (PI), Dr. Kirk G. Scheckel, USEPA NRMRL; Dr. Philip M. Jardine, Dr. Chris W. Schadt, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Dr. Karen Bradham, USEPA NERL; Dr. David J. Thomas, USEPA NHREEL; Dr. Brooke Stevens, OSU; Dr. Richard Hunter Anderson, USAF; Dr. Rufus L. Chaney, USDA ARS.  Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP)


 


Relative Bioavailability of arsenic in soils from mine scarred lands. V.L. Hanley, P. Meyers, California Dept. of Toxic Substances Control (PI); N.T.Basta; S. Casteel, Univ. of Missouri; C. Kim, Chapman Univ., A. Foster, USGS Menlo Park, CA; Dr. Charles Alpers, USGS. U.S. EPA Brownfields Training, Research and Technical Assistance Grant.


 


Both of these studies were comprehensive evaluations of the ability of different in vitro bioaccessibility (IVBA) methods to predict RBA As. The following conclusions are:



  • Total soil As concentration was not correlated with RBA As determined by the adult mouse (r2 = 0.24) or the juvenile swine (r2 = 0.09) bioassays.

  • In general, all of the IVBA methods were predictive of RBA for both the mice and swine bioassays.

  • IVBA As from the gastric extraction is a better predictor than IVBA As from the intestinal extraction. Using the GE may also provide more conservative RBA As because the IVBA values are greater for the GE than for the IE (i.e. the As is more soluble) representation a worst case scenario for the estimating As RBA for soil ingestion.

  • Recently concluded research has shown California Bioaccessibility (CAB) method is an accurate predictor of swine RBA As for soils with high oxide content and soil As concentrations <1,200 mg As/kg, including soils 1 and 2 for which USEPA Method 1340 and OSU IVG under predicted RBA As.


 


Our research team developed a new method, the California Bioaccessibility (CAB) method to provide a conservative estimate of RBA As on mining sites soils in California.


Virginia


Xia et al. compared the effects of crop (lettuce or radish), soil amendment type (inorganic fertilizer, raw dairy manure, composted dairy manure, or no amendment), and prior antibiotic use history of manure-derived amendments on the incidence of culturable antibiotic-resistant fecal coliforms in agricultural soils through a controlled field-plot experiment. Antibiotic-resistant culturable fecal coliforms were recoverable from soils across all treatments immediately after application, although persistence throughout the experiment varied by antibiotic class and time. Compost-amended soils had the highest levels of cephalosporin resistant fecal coliforms, regardless of whether the cows from which the manure was derived were administered antibiotics. No statistical differences were observed between soils that grew leafy (lettuce) versus rooted (radish) crops. Only pirlimycin was detectable past amendment application in raw manure amended soils, dissipating 12 to 25% by Day 28. Consequently, no quantifiable correlations between coliform count and antibiotic magnitude could be identified. This study demonstrates that antibiotic-resistant fecal coliforms can become elevated in soils receiving manure-derived amendments.


 


Xia et al. analyzed antibiotics and abundances of 16S rRNA, sul1, ermB, tet(W) and intI1 genes in the rhizosphere and bulk soils of greenhouse-grown mature lettuce, radish, and broccoli to which raw or composted manure from cattle consuming feed with and without sulfamethazine, chlortetracycline, and tylosin was amended. Loamy sand and silty clay loam soils were used. There was no apparent effect of soil or vegetable type on bulk or rhizosphere antibiotic concentrations. Relative abundances of tet(W) and intI1 in the soils amended with control fertilizer were lower than in those amended with manure or compost (p<0.05), while ermB was not detected in any soils. Composting can reduce initial antibiotic inputs, while the rhizosphere can enhance further dissipation of some antibiotics. Gene markers for antibiotic resistance and mobility remained higher in the compost-amended soils than in chemically-fertilized soils at harvest time.


 


Xia et al. conducted rainfall simulation to test the surface runoff of four dairy production antibiotics of plots receiving manure via surface application and subsurface injection at different time gaps (day 0, 3, and 7) between manure application and a subsequent rain event. Liquid dairy manure spiked with pirlimycin, tylosin, chlortetracycline, and sulfamerazine was applied to 1.5x2 m test-plots at an agronomic N rate via surface application and subsurface injection. Runoff was a significant route for transporting antibiotics from manure-applied fields, amounting to 0.45-2.62% of their initial input with manure. Subsurface injection reduced sulfamerazine, chlortetracycline, pirlimycin, and tylosin losses in runoff by at least 47, 50, 57, and 88%, respectively. Antibiotic distribution between aqueous and solid phases of runoff was determined by water solubility and partition capacity of antibiotics to soil particles. Manure application three days or longer before a subsequent rain event reduced antibiotic runoff by 9-45 times. Subsurface injection and avoiding manure application within 3 days of rain is recommended.


 


Xia et al. investigated antibacterial activity of Fe3+-saturated montmorillonite using municipal wastewater effluents. Microbial deactivation efficiency was 92±0.64% when a secondary wastewater effluent was mixed with Fe3+-saturated montmorillonite for 30 min, and further enhanced to 97±0.61% after 4 hours. This deactivation efficiency was similar to that when the same effluent was UV-disinfected before it exited a wastewater treatment plant. Furthermore, 99.6-99.9% of total coliforms, E. coli, and enterococci in a secondary wastewater effluent was deactivated when the water was exposed to Fe3+-saturated montmorillonite for 1 h. Microbial cultural results coupled with the live/dead fluorescent staining assay observation suggested that Fe3+-saturated montmorillonite deactivated microorganisms in wastewater through two stages: electrostatic sorption of negatively charged microbial cells to the surfaces of Fe3+-saturated montmorillonite, followed by microbial deactivation due to mineral surface-catalyzed microbial cell membrane disruption by the surface sorbed Fe3+. Freeze-drying the recycled Fe3+-saturated montmorillonite after each usage resulted in 82±0.51% microbial deactivation efficiency even after its fourth consecutive use. This study demonstrated the promising potential of Fe3+-saturated montmorillonite to be used in applications from small scale point-of-use drinking water treatment devices to large scale drinking and wastewater treatment facilities.


 


Xia et al. investigated the transport and distribution of a neonicotinoid (thiamethoxam, TMX) were investigated by growing TMX-coated corn seeds to the V5 growth stage in coarse-textured and fine-textured soil columns (20 and 60 cm lengths). All 20 cm columns leached TMX at levels exceeding the United States Environmental Protection Agency benchmark for aquatic invertebrates (17.5 µg/L). TMX migrated from seeds to adjacent bulk soil by the eighth day and reached deeper soil sections in later growth stages (e.g., 30-45 cm depth by Day 33). Fine-textured soils transported greater than two orders of magnitude more TMX than coarse-textured soils (e.g., 29.9 µg vs 0.17 µg, respectively), which was attributed to elevated evapotranspiration (ET) rates in the sandy soil driving greater net retention of the pesticide and to structural flow occurring in the fine-textured soil. Living plants increased TMX concentrations at depth (i.e., 30-60 cm) compared to the no plant treatment, suggesting that corn growth may drive preferential transport of TMX from coated seeds. Altogether, this study showed that neonicotinoid seed coatings can be mobilized through soil leachate in concentrations considered acutely toxic to aquatic life.


 


Xia et al. demonstrated that extracellular double-stranded DNA substantially increased the sorption of phenanthrene and pyrene to Na-, Ca-, and Fe-modified montmorillonites. Spectroscopic and computational chemistry analyses confirmed that PAHs were first inserted into DNA by binding with the nucleobases via van der Waals and π−π electron donor−acceptor interactions. Compared to PAHs, the DNA−PAH complex can be more easily sorbed to cation-modified montmorillonites by complexation between DNA phosphate and exchangeable cations in addition to intercalation into clay interlayers. This work highlights the importance of understanding contaminant sorption by many organic compounds that are ubiquitous in soils but not represented by humic and fulvic acids.


 


Xia et al. investigated the potential for wastewater reuse to disseminate antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Samples were collected seasonally in 2014−2015 from four U.S. utilities’ reclaimed and potable water distribution systems before treatment, after treatment, and at five points of use (POU). Shotgun metagenomic sequencing was used to profile the resistome (i.e., full contingent of ARGs) of a subset (n = 38) of samples. Four ARGs (qnrA, blaTEM, vanA, sul1) were quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Bacterial community composition (via 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing), horizontal gene transfer (via quantification of intI1 integrase and plasmid genes), and selection pressure (via detection of metals and antibiotics) were investigated as potential factors governing the presence of ARGs. Certain ARGs were elevated in all (sul1; p ≤ 0.0011) or some (blaTEM, qnrA; p ≤ 0.0145) reclaimed POU samples compared to corresponding potable samples. Bacterial community composition was weakly correlated with ARGs (Adonis, R2 = 0.1424−0.1734) and associations were noted between 193 ARGs and plasmid-associated genes. This study establishes that reclaimed water could convey greater abundances of certain ARGs than potable waters and provides observations regarding factors that likely control ARG occurrence in reclaimed water systems.


 


Xia et al. tested MetaCompare, a publicly available tool for ranking ‘resistome risk’, which is defined as the potential for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) to be associated with mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and mobilize to pathogens. A computational pipeline was developed in which each ARG is evaluated based on relative abundance, mobility, and presence within a pathogen. Previously published metagenomic data derived from distinct aquatic environments were tested. Based on unsupervised machine learning, the test samples clustered in the hazard space in a manner consistent with their origin. The derived scores produced a well-resolved ascending resistome risk ranking of: waste water treatment plant effluent, dairy lagoon and hospital sewage.


 


Objective 2: Evaluate the range of uses and associated agronomic and environmental benefits/advantages for residuals in agricultural and urban systems.


 


Specific tasks:



  • Evaluate the ability of in situ treatment of contaminated soil with residuals to reduce chemical contaminant bioavailability and toxicity.

  • Determine the climate change impacts of organic residuals end use options (i.e., C sequestration, N2O emissions).

  • Quantify sustainability impacts such as water quality (reduced N impairment) and quantity benefits (increased plant available water, increased drought tolerance) and soil quality improvements associated with a range of organic residuals end uses.

  • Explore the potential for waste by-products to be used in urban areas including urban agriculture, stormwater infrastructure, green roofs, and in urban green space.

  • Evaluate ecosystem services of degraded urban soils amended with residuals.

  • Use tools such as life cycle assessment to understand and compare the impacts of a range of residuals end use/disposal options.


 


Objective 2 Accomplishments:


 


Arizona


Dr. Ian Pepper and his team are evaluating potential for using Class B biosolids as a cost effective solution for pecan tree deficiencies. Pecan trees are an important specialty crop in Arizona. However, pecan trees are commonly subject to zinc (Zn) deficiencies because of the relatively large demand of the orchards for the micronutrient Zn. One of the major ways to alleviate Zn deficiencies in pecans is foliar application onto the tree canopy. Such foliar applications need to be frequently applied during the growing season. This is particularly true in Arizona where high soil pH values decrease the availability of Zn to the trees since Zn solubility decreases as soil pH increases. A threshold level of leaf Zn of ≃50 µg/g is desirable which can be attained via foliar applications, but there are several problems related to foliar applications. Specifically foliar applications are labor intensive, time consuming, and require purchase of fuel and capital equipment. In addition, they can cause soil compaction due to repeated traffic through the orchard, and can interfere with orchard management such as irrigation.


 


A second method to eliminate Zn deficiency is soil application of Zn. But in alkaline and calcareous soils, Zn applied to soil reacts with hydroxyl and carbonates resulting in insoluble compounds. Zinc fertilizers such as Zn SO4 can be applied at 35 kg Zn/Ha, but tend to be ineffective in high pH soils. In contrast, chelated Zn such as Zn-EDTA have been found to elevate leaf Zn levels, but not nut yield or quantity. Additionally, response of pecan to soil Zn application can take several years depending on application rate, form of fertilizer, and method of application. Thus overall, to date, there is no consensus on how to cost-effectively remedy Zn-deficient trees.


 


In this project we will evaluate a novel potentially cost-effective approach to solving the problem of pecan tree Zn-deficiency; namely the application of Class B biosolids. We believe that biosolids will act as a slow release fertilizer supplying Zn and nitrogen to pecan trees. The solution of a one-time annual application of biosolids eliminates all of the issues associated with foliar Zn applications and traditional inorganic soil fertilizers. An added benefit of the biosolid application is that all essential micronutrients will be more available to pecan trees. Moreover, land application of biosolids is an organic solution to the problem, and the one-time annual application via subsurface soil injection eliminates the issue of any microbial pathogens associated with Class B biosolids. Any pathogen issue is further negated by the fact that pecan harvesting occurs 7-8 months after the springtime annual application, during which any pathogens introduced into the soil would no longer be viable.


 


In this study, an existing pecan orchard would be utilized such that real-world field data would be collected that would be applicable to all pecan orchards in Arizona. Such quality and quantity increases are likely because biosolid applications could potentially alleviate any micronutrient deficiency that may be unseen and unknown in orchards receiving inorganic fertilizers.


 


Trees within the pecan orchard have been identified as specific plots. The experiment will consist of three treatments: i) Control plots: no amendment; ii) Plots amended with chelated Zn fertilizer; and iii) Plots amended with Class B biosolids. All treatments are replicated (4 replicates).


 


Leaf tissue composition will be used to determine the impacts of biosolids application on nutrient uptake. Pecan leaf sample collection protocol requires leaf samples to be collected from the middle of compound leaves in late August. At that time samples will be collected from all plots and analyzed for nutrient content. At harvest time, nut yield will be determined by mechanically harvesting 8 trees/plot. Nut quality will be determined by analysis of a subsample of ≃5 kg of harvested nuts to determine meat yield, percent of good nuts and stick-tight nuts (fruit with shuck remaining stuck to the shell after harvest).


 


Colorado


Ippolito et al. continued investigating the use of the Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF) to ascertain difference in soil quality between biosolids and inorganic N fertilizer applications.  At our North Bennett long-term (20 year) biosolids application site, soils received 0, 2.2, 4.4, 6.7, 9, or 11.2 Mg biosolids ha-1, or 0, 22, 44, 67, 90, and 112 kg inorganic N ha-1 in an RCB design with four replicates.  Following wheat harvest in 2016, we analyzed soil from the 0-20cm depth (e.g., zone of incorporation) for the following SMAF indicators:  % clay, % OC, wet aggregate stability, microbial biomass C, potentially mineralizable N, pH, EC, Bd, Olsen-extractable P and K, and beta-glucosidase activity.  All data was entered into the SMAF, with output focused on changes in soil physical, chemical, biological, nutrient, and overall soil quality.  Increasing inorganic N fertilizer rates only improved the nutrient soil quality index.  Increasing biosolids rates improved soil chemical, biological, and overall soil quality indices.  Overall, as compared to N fertilizer, biosolids only improved the biological soil quality index; all other indices were statistically equal.


 


They began a study focused on aluminum-based water treatment residuals ability to sorb organic P from swine wastewater (containing ~ 7000 mg organic P L-1), with the hope that organic P sorption is weaker than inorganic P sorption.  This would allow the final product to be potentially used as a P fertilizer source.  They found that 99.9% of organic P was sorbed within 1 day, and that the Al-WTR composite can potentially release 380 to 485 mg total P kg-1.


 


Florida


An intended, long-term, well-instrumented field study was established by Silveira et al. to evaluate various agronomic and environmental impacts of biosolids applied to pastures in south Florida. Land application of Class B biosolids to pasture land is common in Florida and well received by ranchers, but remains a practice that concerns some. Environmental concerns and the need (or lack thereof) for legislation to protect against environmental impacts with respect to water quality are the major focus of the project. The experiment is designed to evaluate the effects of various locally available biosolids alone, and in combination with a locally available biochar, on forage, soil, and water quality, and on greenhouse emissions. Efforts to attract continuing research funds to support the field effort for a minimum of 3 more years have been frustrating. Support to date has been from special, annual legislative allotments to the Florida Cattlemen’s Association and “fiscal year-end” funding from the FL AES. Funding has been modest and frequently delayed and often no-congruent with needs. Continued and adequate future support is tenuous, but work continues, including rainfall simulations to assess biosolids properties on P losses to water bodies.


 


Hawaii


Biochar, a product of biomass that is heated in an oxygen limited environment (pyrolysis), has been reported to improve soil quality and increase plant growth. To quantify and further characterize such effects of biochar, three experiments were conducted by Hue et al.: (1) a greenhouse trial on an acidic tropical Ultisol, which evaluated the aluminum (Al) detoxifying potential of biochar, using Desmodium intortum, an Al sensitive forage legume as the test plant; (2) a greenhouse trial using nitrogen (N) fertilizer sources, both organic and synthetic, with and without biochar, which measured the capacity of biochar to regulate/release N to Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa Chinenesis group) growth; and (3) a field trial on a highly weathered Oxisol, which documented the long-term, field-condition effects of biochar on a variety of crops [sweet corn (Zea mays), okra (Abelmoschus esculentus), and soybean (Glycine max)]. Our results show: (1) At an application rate of 2.5% (approximately 25 tons/ha), a kiawe-wood biochar could reduce Al toxicity and increase D. intortum growth as much as lime (CaCO3) applied at 3 cmolc/kg (1.5 tons/ha). CaCO3 equivalent (represented by ash content) and COOH, OH functional groups on the biochar surface were likely responsible for these effects. (2) At a same total N rate of 200 mg/kg, cabbage yield was much higher in the presence of a wood-based biochar (at 2%) than when urea or organic N fertilizer was applied alone, and yield increased became even more pronounced in the second harvest than in the first. This increased N use efficiency could be attributed to biochar properties, such as large surface area and numerous tiny pores. (3)  Under field conditions, corn yield ( first season) was nearly doubled in the presence of 2% biochar (derived from macadamia shells) when N was applied as urea or blood meal (10% total N) at 150 or 300 kg N/ha rate. Interestingly, the effect of biochar on plant growth seemed to extend beyond N nutrition because the treatments receiving biochar but no N input also out-yielded those having N input but no biochar. The prolonged/aging effect of biochar will be further studied in future time.


 


Kansas


A new field study, to investigate potential for using residual (class B biosloids) amendment at contaminated military sites, was initiated in summer 2016 by Kansas State University researchers (Hettiarachchi et al.). This will be continued at least for three years and the main objective is to find ways to utilize unused land/sites to grow second generation biofuel crops while maintaining or improving soil quality, and keeping soil contaminants in place. Results so far shows that tilling and soil treatment additions have increased the dry matter yield. Soil analysis for various parameters including bioaccessible lead and plant tissue analysis for lead and nutrients are underway.


 


Plant systems have a significant capacity to remediate marginal waters through several phytoremediation processes including uptake (e.g., nutrients, trace elements), accumulation (e.g. salts), and assist with biotransformation of inorganic compounds (e.g., nutrients, trace elements). Salicornia could be a suitable halophilic plant to capitalize on its salt-tolerance potential for treating marginal waters. A greenhouse study was initiated to determine ability of Salicornia europaea to grow in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater, which is high in salts and selenium (Se); or brackish waters. We continued this work in 2017.


 


Minnesota


The Metropolitan Council in the Twin Cities have funded Rosen et al. to conduct an incubation and three-year field study of sewage sludge incinerator ash as a phosphorus fertilizer.  The study will compare this ash to conventional P fertilizer, biosolids, and struvite.  They will be looking at the soil chemical characteristics with respect to phosphorus release and metals concentrations, plant yield and chemical composition (P and metals), and potential changes in microbial community diversity and abundance.  The first year of the field study is underway in Rosemount, MN where 160 plots of corn are set up with the 4 fertilizers at 5 rates (0x, 0.5x, 1x, 1.5x).  The incubation is intended to describe phosphorus release and microbial changes from the ash in a controlled setting and will be done in summer 2018.


 


In 2017, Rosen et al. began the first year of a three-year field study to study the effects of phosphorus-based sewage sludge byproducts on soil, microbial, and plant analyses. Plant grain and biomass results at harvest showed a very successful grain yield overall. All plots had high grain yields with no significant response due to source or rate. Similarly, end-of-season stover (biomass and husk) did not show a significant response to source or rate. Anecdotally, phosphorus studies often take a year or two to deplete existing soil phosphorus and thus, see the full effects of treatment. Chemical analysis of plant material (grain, stover, and husk) are still being run.


 


Soil analysis results overall showed minimal differences between fertilizer types as most differences were due to application rates. Olsen-P and Bray-P concentrations increased with increasing application rate for all sources but not there were no significant differences between fertilizer types. DTPA-zinc, DTPA-copper, and exchangeable sodium also increased significantly with application rate and had highly significant effects in biosolids and ash applications. Otherwise, neither source nor rate had significant impacts on other available or total elements. Due to the higher concentrations of certain elements in biosolids and ash and the resulting effects seen in the 2017 field season, they will continue to closely monitor these concentrations in coming field seasons.


 


In-situ Plant Root Simulator ® (PRS) probes showed a significant response in phosphorus levels based on source and rate. Specifically, late season phosphorus increases with increasing rate and is highest in struvite- and biosolids-treated plots. PRS probes were buried for 3-4 weeks and used to estimate the plant available phosphorus levels in the soil. PRS probes are anion and cation resins, which after burial, come into equilibrium with water in the soil and represent the phosphorus available for immediate uptake.


 


Rosen et al. evaluated potential benefits of an organic fertilizer containing coffee chaff for greenhouse and garden plants.


 


JavaCycle (4-4-4) is a coffee-chaff-based organic fertilizer with potential for use in gardens and potted plants. A previous comparison of JavaCycle with the established organic fertilizer Garden-tone (Espoma; 3-4-4) did not utilize similar application rates of the two products, and a more systematic comparison was therefore desirable. They evaluated two JavaCycle formulations, Java 10 (10% chaff) and Java 40 (40% chaff), in comparison to Plant-tone (Espoma; 5-3-3) as nutrient sources for Valmaine lettuce and Celebrity tomatoes grown in the greenhouse in one-gallon and three-gallon containers, respectively. Ten treatments were applied, including an unfertilized control and each of the three fertilizers applied at 0.5 1.0, and 1.5 times the recommended application rate of Plant-tone. An experiment was conducted with Valmaine lettuce with the application rates of the JavaCycle products set to match the application rate of N provided by Plant-tone at each of the three fertilizer application rates. The 1.0X and 1.5X rates of both JavaCycle products were found to be detrimental to seed germination and plant yield and health. Therefore, a second lettuce experiment, as well as the tomato experiment, were conducted with the fertilizer application rates matched volume-for-volume.


 


The responses of lettuce plants to treatment, fertilizer type, application rate, and the interaction between fertilizer type and application rate were measured in terms of germination, yield, leaves produced over time, soil pH and salt and nutrient concentrations, and leaf nutrient concentrations. The responses of tomato plants were measured in terms of fruit yield and quality, plant height over time, total shoot dry biomass (minus fruits) produced over the season, soil pH and salt and nutrient concentrations, and leaf nutrient concentrations. Lettuce yield was highest at the 1.0X application rate and was not affected by the fertilizer source applied. Lettuce leaf count at harvest was lower at the 1.5X rate than at the two lower rates and was not affected by the fertilizer applied. Soil pH was lower at the 0.5X rate than at the higher two rates, and the ratio of soil NH4-N to NO3-N was high in all treatments, suggesting that the soil nitrification rate was low. Lettuce plants grown with Plant-tone had higher soil and tissue concentrations of Zn, Mn, Cu, and B than those grown with either JavaCycle product. Tomato yield was higher, while the prevalence of blossom end rot and yellow shoulders were lower, at higher application rates. Tomato sugar content was not affected by application rate, and no measure of tomato yield or quality was related to the fertilizer used. Tomato plant height was lower in treatments receiving the 0.5X rate than in those receiving the higher two rates, and shoot biomass was higher at higher fertilizer application rates, but neither variable was related to the fertilizer applied. Tomato plants grown with Plant-tone had higher soil and tissue concentrations of N, P, Zn, Cu, and B than those grown with either JavaCycle product.


 


Overall, they found that JavaCycle was an effective fertilizer for container-grown lettuce and tomatoes, similar to Plant-tone. Even though the potting mix contained dolomitic lime, we noted that lettuce plants grown with any of the three fertilizers tested often exhibited tip burn, while many tomato fruits had blossom end rot or yellow shoulders. All of these syndromes are consistent with calcium deficiency, and it may be advisable for growers to apply a more soluble calcium fertilizer such as gypsum in addition to JavaCycle when growing plants in a peat-based potting medium.


 


New Mexico


Alfalfa (cv. 6829R) was planted August 18, 2017, by researchers at Agricultural Science Center at Tucumcari, New Mexico State University, in an area of Redona fine sandy loam, which was conventionally tilled and formed into a flat seedbed for sprinkler irrigation with canal water on the southeast side and treated municipal wastewater on the southwest side. Plots (5 ft x 20 ft) were sown using a disk drill fitted with a seed-metering cone at 20 lb inoculated seed/A in a strip-plot design with 4 replications within each irrigation source area. The effective planting width was 4 ft (8, 6-inch rows). In 2017, irrigations totaling 1.5 inches were applied in August and September to supplement 12.8 inches of growing season precipitation (August through October 2017). In early October, the irrigation system failed and no further irrigation was applied in 2017, while after the first week in October, precipitation totaled 0.04 inches for the remainder of the year. No fertilizers or pesticides were applied in 2017.


Soil samples had been collected immediately pre-planting from each strip test for fertility and soil microbial community by phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analyses. On August 29 and September 6, 2017, plant counts were taken and averaged. On October 25, 2017, all plants in 1 ft of all rows (4 ft2) from the east end of each plot were hand-clipped to ground level, weighed, dried at 140°F for 48 hours, and reweighed for calculation of dry matter percentage and dry weight prior to being delivered to the lab for NIRS analysis of nutritive value. There were 6-22 leaves on harvested plants suggesting a degree of variation over time in germination and/or emergence of the alfalfa in this study.


Plant count, seedling dry wt., and selected nutritive value and selected PLFA data were analyzed using SAS PROC MIXED procedures to determine where differences (P < 0.05) existed between water sources. Replicate within water source was considered random.


There was no difference due to irrigation source in the number of plants/m2; however, dry weight/m2 and dry matter percentage were both higher for alfalfa irrigated for establishment using canal water compared to treated wastewater. Greater dry weight may have been due to more rapid germination allowing for more mature plants at the time of sampling. This also would explain the greater acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and NDF digestibility (NDFD) for alfalfa irrigated with canal water compared to alfalfa irrigated with wastewater as more mature plants will have greater fiber accumulation and a decrease in the digestibility of the fiber.


Preplant soil analysis revealed no apparent issues in regard to fertility (including toxicities) or potential salt problems. Total microbial biomass and diversity index in the soil were not different between water sources after establishment; however, there was a difference in the proportion of total microbial biomass being arbuscular mycorrhizae. The total biomass was poor and slightly below average for canal water irrigated soil and wastewater irrigated soil, respectively, and the diversity index was average and slightly below average for the canal water irrigated soil and the wastewater irrigated soil, respectively. The lack of arbuscular mycorrhizae in the wastewater area may indicate that compounds of concern in the wastewater have an impact on these soil microbes. Lack of precipitation or irrigation from early October until sampling time also may have been a factor.


Rhizobia were not detected in the PLFA samples, although, the alfalfa roots included in the soil sample were nodulated. Perhaps the lack of detectable Rhizobium was because nodules had not been shed to release nitrogen into the soil, which also would have released the Rhizobium.


In 2018, the center 5 ft x 15 ft of each plot will be harvested 6 times for yield using a self-propelled forage plot harvester equipped with a weighing system. For each harvest, a subsample of harvested material from each plot will be collected and dried to determine dry matter concentration and yield as well as for nutritive value analysis by near-infrared spectroscopy. Samples for PLFA analysis also may be collected in spring and fall. A second study also will be planted either in spring or late summer.


Municipalities are seeking uses for treated wastewater to minimize the release of potential pollutants into surface and ground water bodies. Because the soil can be a natural filtering agent, agricultural irrigation is being considered. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) are producing water that is generally safe to apply to animal feed and fiber crops. Alfalfa is the most important forage crop worldwide because it is adapted to a wide range of soil and climatic factors and has been successfully established and grown New Mexico State University’s Agricultural Science Center using recycled Class 1B treated municipal wastewater from the City of Tucumcari WWTP. However, yield reductions have been observed compared to previous years when only canal water was available. The Agricultural Science Center has the capability to apply both treated wastewater and canal water through the same irrigation system in the same field, which has a fairly uniform soil type. Determination of the potential impact of using treated municipal wastewater for irrigating alfalfa could assist producers with deciding whether or not to use the water source to irrigate alfalfa.


Pennsylvania


A study was conducted by researchers at Pennsylvania State University to identify the source of anomalously high copper (Cu) in Penn State’s biosolids. All other regulated trace elements are low, but the Cu level sometimes exceeds 1500 mg/kg, precluding land based recycling as an exceptional quality (EQ) material according to federal regulations. The source of Cu was determined to be heat exchangers where steam impacts Cu tube bundles. The condensate is softened prior to reuse and Cu-rich reject stream is sewer disposed. A process was designed to remove Cu via precipitation and settling prior to discharge.


 


Assessing stress in plants directly, rather than estimating stress conditions based on soil data, is an ongoing challenge and one that is important to meet as land-based recycling of effluent increases in both humid and arid regions. Both leaf capacitance and leaf thickness measurements were determined using sensors developed. Results were published in appropriate engineering journals. A patent was applied for and discussions were held with potential patent purchasers.


 


Additional collection of soil samples occurred in this past year. Extractions were completed and analyses are being conducted. Soil samples were also prepared for analysis for antibiotic resistance development. Initial data indicates an enhancement in antibiotic resistance in soils irrigated with effluent, when compared with non-irrigated soils.


Miscanthus biomass production on mined land and response to nutrient application as inorganic fertilizer or as spent mushroom compost (SMC) is being investigated in a multi-year experiment. Biomass production has increased in each of the first three years since establishment and yield was increased by nutrient addition. In year three the yield response to nutrient addition as SMC was greater than to comparable amounts inorganic fertilizer. While there were some periods when soil N availability was greater with SMC addition than with fertilizer, the difference was not consistent through the growing season and miscanthus N uptake did not differ between nutrient sources.


 


Virginia


Badgley et al. found that increased amounts of organic carbon and inorganic nitrogen in experimental bioretention systems amended with compost increased denitrification and increase the proportion of nitrogen that could be removed from artificial stormwater bioretention mesocosms. Further research is necessary to determine the balance between increased performance and increased leaching of nutrients from bioretention cell components. Preliminary results from field measurements of bioretention systems suggest that increased amounts of organic residuals in soil media can favor complete denitrification and reduce the amount of nitrous oxide emissions.


 


Daniels et al. Long-term effects (30+ years) of biosolids application (0, 56, 112 and 224 Mg/ha; n = 4 each) on reclaimed Appalachian hard rock coal mine spoils were evaluated by Daniels et al. via observation of changes in morphology and chemical/physical properties. Analysis of field morphological results indicates that application of the higher rates of biosolids (112 and 224 Mg/ha) were still apparent after 24 years by surface horizons having darker, thicker, and better aggregated characteristics. Physical and chemical analyses showed higher total C, N and P levels in the 112 and 224 Mg biosolids/ha than in the inorganically fertilized only and 56 Mg biosolids/ha treatments.


 


Long-term (10 to 15 year) effects of woody waste compost additions on soil and vegetation properties in created forested wetlands continued to be evaluated in 2017 by Daniels et al. in two replicated (n = 4) experiments in eastern Virginia. Loading rates at one experiment varied from 56 to 330 Mg/ha (dry) and were incorporated into truncated plastic and clayey subsoil materials. The loading rate at the second site was 75 Mg/ha and the compost was incorporated into coarse sandy dredge materials and compared with local topsoil return (15 cm) vs. no amendment. Combined results from the two experiments indicate that optimal compost addition rates are approximately 75 to 224 Mg/ha, depending on long-term management goals. If the goal is development of appropriate (low) soil redox conditions, then lower rates are adequate. However, meeting certain regulatory goals (e.g., 5% organic matter in surface A horizons) may require the higher loading rates, and the users must understand the difficulty of incorporating compost additions at those higher rates. Compost additions clearly aided initial establishment and long-term growth of herbaceous and woody vegetation (Betula nigra and Quercus palustris) at the loading rate experimental site, but had no net effect at the second experiment when compared with topsoil return. However, installation of microtopographic variability (e.g. pits and mounds) had very strong effects on tree growth (Taxodium distichum) at this sandy site.


 


Ervin and Evanylo continued to compare the effects of annual exceptional quality (EQ) biosolids products and inorganic fertilizer on rehabilitation of disturbed urban soil for the establishment and production of cool season turfgrass. Biosolids products performed better than the inorganic fertilizer during the trial period. Clipping yield, normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI), turfgrass quality rating and soil bulk density, were significantly improved by biosolids products applied at the agronomic nitrogen rate than the biosolids applied at the phosphorus rate and the inorganic fertilizer (p-value <0.05). Turfgrass growth and quality and soil bulk density were improved with Biosolids products that supplied the most carbon regardless of total plant available N rate.


 


Evanylo et al. compared the effects of exceptional quality (EQ) biosolids products at varying rates and inorganic fertilizer applied to a manufactured urban soil comprised of clayey subsoil fill from two construction sites on vegetable crop yields, soil properties and leachate quality. Fall vegetable crop yields were higher with 5x than 1x plant available N (PAN) application rates, but summer vegetable yields were higher with 1x PAN applied in the spring than (following a fall 1xPAN rate) than only a fall 5x PAN rate. Leachate nitrate mass loss to lysimeters was not significantly different among seasonal (fall and spring) 1x PAN amendment application and fall 5x PAN amendment application. Soil test phosphorus was only slightly increased despite amendment P rate that supplied 10x P needs due to high P binding capacity of the calcareous subsoil clay and the high concentrations of P-binding Fe in the biosolids amendments. Little difference in crop yield, soil properties, or leachate quality occurred among the EQ biosolids products, i.e., biosolids+shredded woody mulch, composted Biosolids, and air-dried biosolids.


 


Washington


Dr Brown has continued work on use of soil based methods to predict phosphorus availability for storm water bioretention systems. An MS student, Julia Jay, tested a wide range of bioretention soil mixtures including mixes with different rates of biosolids compost, different types of compost and different additives (WTRs, oyster shells, sawdust) for efficacy at controlling P release from storm water.  Both synthetic and actual storm water were including in this study.  Phosphorus release was best predicted using the phosphorus saturation ratio.  In addition to P movement, nitrogen, metals and PAHs were also measured.


 


Dr. Brow

Publications

Journal Articles


Afzal, A., S. Duiker, and J. Watson. 2017. Leaf thickness to predict plant water status. Biosystems Engineering 156:148-156.


Afzal, A., S. Duiker, S., J. Watson, J. and D. Luthe. 2017. Leaf thickness and electrical capacitance as measures of plant water status. Transactions of the ASABE 60 (40), 1063 – 1074.


Attanayake, C.P., G.M. Hettiarachchi, Q. Ma, G.M. Pierzynski, M.D. Ransom. 2017. Lead speciation and in vitro bioaccessibility of compost-amended urban garden soils. J. Environ. Qual. 46:1215-1224 doi:10.2134/jeq2017.02.0065


Barbarick, K.A., J.A. Ippolito, and J. McDaniel. 2017. Meta-analysis of biosolids effect in dryland wheat agroecosystems. J. Environ. Qual. 46:452-460.


Chen, C. Q., and K. Xia. 2017. Fate of Land Applied Emerging Organic Contaminants in Waste Materials. Curr. Pollution Rep. 3:38-54.


Cimo, G., A. Haller, K. Spokas, J. Novak, J. Ippolito, and C. Kammann. 2017. Mechanisms of nitrate capture in biochar: Are they related to biochar properties, post-treatment and soil environment? European Geosciences Union. April 22-29. Vienna, Austria.


Clark, E. V., C. Zipper, W. L. Daniels, Z. W. Orndorff, and M. J. Keefe. 2017. Modeling Patterns of Total Dissolved Solids Release from Central Appalachia, USA Mine Spoils. Journal of Environmental Quality, 2017(46), 55-63. doi:10.2134/jeq2016.04.0149


 


D’Angelo, E. M. 2017. Sorption-desorption equilibrium and diffusion of tetracycline in poultry litters and municipal biosolid soil amendments. Chemosphere 188:494-501.


Ippolito, J.A., C.M. Berry, D.G. Strawn, J.M. Novak, J. Levine, and A. Harley. 2017. Biochars reduce mine land soil bioavailable metals. J. Environ. Qual. 46:411-419.


Fiedler, S., T. Fuertes-Mendizábal, J.M. Estavillo, J.A. Ippolito, N. Borchard, M.L. Cayuela, K. Spokas, J. Novak, C. Kammann, and N. Wrage-Mönnig. 2017. Influence of 13 different biochars on N2O production and its sources during rewetting-drying cycles. European Geosciences Union. April 22-29. Vienna, Austria.


Galkaduwa, M.B., G.M. Hettiarachchi, G.J. Kluitenberg, S.L. Hutchinson, L. Erickson, L. Davis. 2017. Transport and transformation of selenium and other constituents of flue-gas desulfurization wastewater in water-saturated soil materials. J Environ Qual. 46(2):384-392. doi: 10.2134/jeq2016.09.0335.


Gangaiah C., Ahmad A., Hue N., Wang K, Radovich T. 2017. Evaluating three invasive algal species as local organic source of potassium for pak choi (Brassica rapa, Chinensis group) growth. HortScience 52(3):436-440.


Ippolito, J.A., C. Kammann, M. Schirrmann, N. Wrage-Mönnig, T. Estavillo, T. Fuertes, M. Cayuela, N. Borchard, J. Novak, K. Spokas, and G. Sigua. 2017. Biochar mediated mechanisms for reducing N2O emissions: An overview. European Geosciences Union. April 22-29. Vienna, Austria.


Jay, J.G., S.L. Brown, K. Kurtz and F. Grothkopp. 2017.  Predictors of phosphorus leaching from bioretention soil media.  J. Environ. Qual. 46:1098-1105


Kammann, C., N. Borchard, M. Cayuela, N. Hagemann, J. Ippolito, S. Jeffery, J. Kern, D. Rasse, S. Sanna, H-P. Schmidt, K. Spokas, and N. Wrage-Mönnig. 2017. Biochar as a tool to reduce the agricultural greenhouse burden – Knowns, unknowns and future research needs. J. Environ. Engineer. Landscape Management. 25:114-139.


Laidlaw, M.A.S., G.M. Filippelli, S. Brown, J. Paz-Ferreiro, S.M. Reichman, P. Netherway, A. Truskewzcz, A.S. Ball, H.W. Mielke.  2017.  Case studies and evidence-based approaches to addressing urban soil lead contamination.  Applied Geochemistry http://doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2017.02.015


Laird, D.A., J.M. Novak, H.P. Collins, J.A. Ippolito, D.L. Karlen, R.D. Lentz, K.R. Sistani, K. Spokas, and R.S. Van Pelt. 2017. Multi-year and multi-location soil quality and crop biomass yield responses to hardwood fast pyrolysis biochar. Geoderma. 289:46-53.


Mehmood, K., E. Chávez Garcia, M. Schirrmann, B. Ladd, C. Kammann, N. Wrage-Mönnig, C. Siebe, J.M. Estavillo, T. Fuertes, M. Cayuela, G. Sigua, K. Spokas, A.L. Cowie, J. Novak, J.A. Ippolito, and N. Borchard. 2017. Biochar research activities and their relation to development and environmental quality. A meta-analysis. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 37:22.


Morris, J., S.L. Brown, M. Cotton and H. Scott Matthews. 2017. LCA harmonization and soil science rankings results on food waste management methods.  Environ. Sci. Tech. 10.1021/acs.est.6b06115


Obrycki, John F., Darryl B. Hood, Tyler Serafini, Chris Alexander, Pam Blais, Nicholas T. Basta. Public health data contextualizes soil Pb hazard management in Ohio. 2017. Journal of Public Health Management and Practice. doi: 10.1097/PHH.0000000000000488


Obrycki, John F, Nicholas T. Basta, Robyn S. Wilson. 2017. Evaluating public and regulatory acceptance for urban soil management approaches. J. Environ. Qual. 46: 20-26. doi:10.2134/jeq2016.06.0230.


Obrycki, John F, Kirk G. Scheckel, and Nicholas T. Basta. 2017. Soil solution interactions may limit Pb remediation using P amendments in an urban soil. Environ Pollut. 220:549-556.


Paredez, J. M, N. Mladenov, M. B. Galkaduwa, G.M. Hettiarachchi, G.J. Kluitenberg, S.L. Hutchinson. 2017. A soil column study to evaluate treatment of trace elements from saline industrial wastewater. Journal of Water Science and Technology. Available Online 31 July 2017, wst2017413; doi: 10.2166/wst.2017.413


Pepper, I.L., Brooks, J.P. and Gerba, C.P. Antibiotic resistant bacteria in municipal wastes: is there reason for concern? Environ. Sci. & Technol. 52:3949-3959.


Pepper, I.L., and Gerba, C.P. 2018. Risk of infection from Legionella associated with spray irrigation of reclaimed water. Wat. Res. 139:101-107.


Qin, C., C. Q., Chen, C. Shang, and K. Xia. 2017. Fe3+-Saturated Montmorillonite Effectively Deactivates Microorganisms in Wastewater. Sci. Total Environ. 622-623:88-95.


Radolinski, J., J. X. Wu, K. Xia, and R. Stewart. 2017. Transport of a Neonicotinoid Pesticide, Thiamethoxam, from Artificial Seed Coatings. Sci. Total Environ. 618:561-568.


Ray, P, C.Q. Chen, K. F. Knowlton, A. Pruden, and K. Xia. 2017. Fate and effect of antibiotics in beef and dairy manure during static and turned composting. J. Environ. Qual. 46:45-54.


Sassi, H.P., Ikner,L.A., Abd-Elmaksoud, S., et al. 2018. Comparative survival of viruses during thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digestion. Sci. Tot. Environ. 615:15-19.


Sassi, H.P., Reynolds, K.A., Pepper, I.L., et. al. 2018. Evaluation of hospital-grade disinfectants on viral deposition on surfaces after toilet flushing. Am. J. Infect. Cont. 46:507-511.


Schmitz, B.W., Morizama, H., Eliji, H., et. al. 2018. Reduction of Cryptosporidium, Giardia, and fecal indicators by Bardenpho wastewater treatment. Environ. Sci. & Technol. 52:7015-7023.


Sendagi, S.M. and H.A. Elliott. 2017. Atmospheric nitrogen loss factor (f) used in determining nitrogen-based municipal wastewater effluent irrigation rates: Design and nitrogen-balance estimated F values. Nutr. Cycl. Agroecosyst. 109:181-191.


Spokas, K.A, R. Weis, G. Feyereisen, D.W. Watts, J.M. Novak, T.J. Lee, and J.A. Ippolito. 2017. Biomass or biochar – Which is better at improving soil hydraulic properties? Acta Horticulturae. 1146.31:235-242.


Vega, M. A., H. V. Kulkarni, N. Mladenov, K. Johannesson, G. M. Hettiarachchi, P. Bhattacharya, N. Kumar, J. Weeks, M. Galkaduwa and S. Datta. 2017. Biogeochemical Controls on the Release and Accumulation of Mn and As in Shallow Aquifers, West Bengal, India. Front. Environ. Sci., 23 June 2017. doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2017.00029.


Whitacre, Shane D., Nicholas T. Basta, Brooke N.  Stevens, Valerie Hanley, Richard H.  Anderson, and Kirk G. Scheckel. 2017. Modification of an Existing In vitro Method to Predict Relative Bioavailable Arsenic in Soils. Chemosphere 180:545-552.


Zohar, I., Litaor, M.I., J.A. Ippolito, and M. Massey. 2017. Innovative approach for agro-wastewater phosphorus removal using water treatment residuals. Chemosphere. 168:234-243.


Presentations/Abstracts


Ayers, B., K. Elkin, F. Kibuye, H.E. Gall. 2017. Pharmaceuticals at Penn State’s Living Filter: from wastewater to groundwater. ASABE Paper No. 1700255. St. Joseph, MI.: ASABE.


Badgley B. D., Waller L. J., Evanylo G., Krometis L. A. H., Strickland M. S., and Wynn-Thompson T. (2017). Comparing engineered and environmental controls of microbial denitrification in mature bioretention cells. UNC Water Microbiology Conference, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. May 15-17.


Bordi, K., J. Ippolito, J McDaniel, and K. Barbarick. 2017. Biosolids Land Application and Phosphorus: A Simple Runoff Study. American Society of Agronomy Meetings. October 22-25. Tampa. FL.


Chen, C. Q., G. Guron, K. Xia, A. Pruden, M. Ponder, and P. Du. Antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant genes in bulk and rhizosphere soils: A greenhouse study of vegetables grown in soils amended with antibiotic-containing manure. 254th American Chemical Society National Meeting. Washington D.C., August 20-24, 2017.


Chen, C. Q., and K. Xia. Effect of earthworm activity on the fate of antibiotics and abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance genes in a compost amended silt loam soil. 254th American Chemical Society National Meeting. Washington D.C., August 20-24, 2017


Daniels, W. L., Whittecar, G. R., Thompson, T., Agioutantis, Z., & Stone, S. (2017). Mine Reclamation Applications of a New Water Budget Model: Wetbud. In J. G. Skousen, & L. M. McDonald (Eds.), Abstracts, 34th Annual Meeting of the ASMR, April 9-13, 2017, Morgantown, West Virginia. Morgantantown, WV. Retrieved from http://www.asmr.us/Meetings/Past-Meetings?y=2017#Content


Daniels, W. L., & S. Carpenter. 2017. Development of International Standards for Mine Reclamation. In J. G. Skousen, & L. M. McDonald (Eds.), Abstracts, 34th Annual Meeting of the ASMR, April 9-13, 2017, Morgantown, West Virginia. Morgantown, WV: ASMR. Retrieved from http://www.asmr.us/Meetings/Past-Meetings?y=2017#Content


Davis L. C., Alasmary Z., Erickson L. E., Hettiarachchi G., Nurzanova A., Pidlisnyuk V., Roozeboom K., Stefanovska T., Trogl J. Using a second generation biofuel crop for phytostabilization of contaminated military lands. 17 Annual Meeting of the American Ecological Engineering Society, "Ecological engineering for adaptation in the Anthropocene", May 23-25, 2017, UGA, Athens, Georgia.


Erickson L., Pidlisnyuk V., Trögl J., Shapoval P., Popelka J., Davis L., Stefanovska T., Hettiarachchi G. Perennial phytotechnology with biomass production for abandoned military site in Sliač, Slovakia. International conference on Chemical technology and engineering, Lviv, Ukraine, June 26-30, 2017.


Fuertes-Mendizábal, T., X. Huérfano, S. Menéndez, C. González-Murua, M.B. González-Moro, J.A. Ippolito, C. Kammann, N. Wrage-Mönnig, N. Borchard, M.L. Cayuela, K. Spokas, J. Novak, and J.M. Estavillo. 2017. Biochar reduces the efficiency of the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dymethylpyrazole phospate (DMPP) mitigating N2O emissions. European Geosciences Union. April 22-29. Vienna, Austria.


Hettiarachchi, G.M. Z. Almasary, K. L. Roozeboom, L.C. Davis,  L.E. Erickson, V. Pidlisnyuk, T. Stefanovska, A. Nurzanova, and J. Trogl. 2017. Field-based investigations on phytostabilization of a contaminated military site using biofuel crop growth assisted with soil amendments. International Phytotechnolgy Conference, Sep. 2017, Montreal, Canada.


Hettiarachchi, G.M., M.B. Galkaduwa, G. Kluitenberg, and S. Hutchinson. 2017. Poorly crystalline iron oxide minimize arsenic mobility in a water-saturated soil column system designed for FGD wastewater treatment. International Conference on Biogeochemistry of Trace elements. July 2017, Zurich, Switzerland.


Hue N. 2017. Arsenic reactions and remediation in tropical soils. 2017. The 3rd. Intern. Conf. on Environmental Pollution, Restoration, and Management. Quy Nhon, Vietnam. March 5-9, 2017.


Ippolito, J.A., C.M. Berry, D.G. Strawn, J.M. Novak, J. Levine, and A. Harley. 2017. Heavy metal sorption mechanisms in biochar amended mine tailings. 14th International Conference on the Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements. Zurich,        Switzerland. July 16-20.


Ippolito, J.A., and K.A. Barbarick. Measuring and predicting trace element speciation in long-term biosolids-amended soils. 14th International Conference on the Biogeochemistry of Trace Elements. Zurich, Switzerland. July 16-20.


Ippolito, J.A. 2017. Soil nutrients and cycling: The big 3 and availability issues in calcareous soils. Urban and Small Farms Conference. February 22-23. Salt Lake City, Utah.


Johnson, D. K., Daniels, W. L., & Zipper, C. E. (2017). Field Predictors for TDS Generation Potential from Appalachian Mine Spoils. In J. G. Skousen, & L. M. McDonald (Eds.), Abstracts, 34th Annual Meeting of the ASMR, April 9-13, 2017, Morgantown, West Virginia. Morgantown, WV. Retrieved from http://www.asmr.us/Meetings/Past-Meetings?y=2017#Content


Kammann, C., A. Haller, H-P. Schmidt, N. Wrage-Moennig, J.A. Ippolito, T. Fuertes-Mendizabal, J.M. Estavillo, N. Borchard, M. Cayuela, K.A. Spokas, J.M. Novak. 2017. Biochar as a tool for nitrogen management: Increasing benefits while reducing environmental burdens. American Society of Agronomy Meetings. October 22-25. Tampa. FL.


Le, H., R. O. Maguire, and K. Xia. 2016. Effects of manure land application technologies and timing on environmental fate of four antibiotics commonly used in dairy production. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings, Phoenix, AZ, Nov. 6-9.


Ma, P. and C. J. Rosen. 2017. Phosphorus Release from Sewage Sludge Incinerator Ash. Soil Science Society of America annual meeting, Tampa, FL. https://scisoc.confex.com/crops/2017am/webprogram/Paper108966.html


Novak, J.M., J. Ippolito, K. Spokas, G. Sigua, C. Kammann, N. Wrage-Mönnig, N. Borchard, M. Schirrmann, J.M. Estavillo, T. Fuertes, S. Menendez, and M.L. Cayuela. 2017. Crafting biochars to reduce N2O and CO2 emissions while also improving soil quality. European Geosciences Union. April 22-29. Vienna, Austria.


Novak, J.M., M.G. Johnson, J.A. Ippolito, G.C. Sigua, K.A. Spokas, K.M. Trippe, and T.F. Ducey. 2017. Biochars ability to sequester metals in contaminated mine spoils: A greenhouse study. European Geosciences Union. April 22-29. Vienna, Austria.


Novak, J.M., M.G. Johnson, J.A. Ippolito, T.F. Ducey, G.C. Sigua, D.W. Watts, and K.A. Sigua, G.C., J.M. Novak, M.G. Johnson, K. Spokas, J.A. Ippolito, T. Ducey, and K. Trippe. 2017. Efficacy of designer biochars with or without lime application for remediating heavy metals in mine spoil soils. European Geosciences Union. April 22-29. Vienna, Austria.


Pepper, I.L. 2017. Anammox for sidestream treatment of wastewater effluent. 22nd European Biosolids and Organic Resources Conference, Leeds UK.


Pepper, I.L. 2017. Fundamentals of perfluorinated compounds. Northwest Biosolids Annual Meeting - Biofest, Portland, OR.


Pidlisnyuk V., Stefanovska T., Erickson L., Hettiarachichi G., Davis L., Shapoval P., Nurzhanova A. Using Miscantus x giganteus for restoration of former military sites.14th International Phytotehnologies Conference. Phytotechnologies: new sustainable solution for environmental challenges, IPC 2017, September 25-29, 2017, Montreal, Canada.


Pidlisnyuk V. ,Trogl J., Stefanovska T., Shapoval P., Nurzhanova A., Erickson L., Davis L., Hettiarachchi G. Phytotechnology with Miscanthus x giganteus biomass production for sustainable management of military sites. RemTech Europe conference on remediation market and technologies, Ferrara, Italy, September 20-22, 2017


Radovich T, Ahmad A., Hue N., Wang K., Silvasy T., Uyeda J., Sugano J., Gurr I., Gangaiah, Paull R. 2017. Optimizing local, organic compliant fertilizers for vegetable production in a crowded island environment. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Conf., Waikoloa, Hawaii. Sept. 20, 2017.


Radolinski, J., J. X. Wu, K. Xia, and R. Stewart. 2016. Transport and fate of a neonicotinoid pesticide from corn seed coatings. ASA-CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meetings, Phoenix, AZ, Nov. 6-9.


Spokas. 2017. Biochars ability to sequester heavy metals in a mine impacted soil. American Society of Agronomy Meetings. October 22-25. Tampa. FL.


Spokas, K.A., and J.A. Ippolito. 2017. Biochar magic: The smoke and mirrors behind biochar use for improving soils. American Society of Agronomy Meetings. October 22-25. Tampa. FL.


Stone, S., Agioutantis, Z., Whittecar, G. R., Daniels, W. L., Thompson, T., & Dobbs, K. (2017). Wetbud – A Free Water Budget Modeling Tool for Created Wetland Design. In Z. Li, Z. Agioutantis, & H. Zou (Eds.), Proceedings, 8th International Conference on Sustainable Development in the Minerals Industry (pp. 182-188). Canada: Camdemia. Retrieved from http://www.camdemia.ca/publications


Willard L. L., Wynn-Thompson T., Krometis L. A. H., Neher T. P., and Badgley B. D. (2017). Does it pay to be mature? Evaluation of bioretention cell performance seven years post construction. J. Env. Eng. 143: 04017041.


Wind, L., L. H. Krometis, W. C. Hession, C. Q. Chen, P. Du, K. Jacobs, K. Xia, and Amy Pruden. 2018. Fate of Pirlimycin and Antibiotic-Resistant Fecal Coliforms in Field Plots Amended with Dairy Manure or Compost during Vegetable Cultivation. J. Environ. Qual. 47:436–444.


Wrage-Moennig, N., S. Fiedler, T. Fuertes-Mendizabal, J.M. Estavillo, J.A. Ippolito, N. Borchard, M. Cayuela, K.A. Spokas, J.M. Novak, and C. Kammann. 2017. Influence of 13 biochars on N2O sources during rewetting-drying cycles. American Society of Agronomy Meetings. October 22-25. Tampa. FL.


 


Extension publications


Silveira, M.L., G.A. O’Connor, and J. Vendramini. Utilization of biosolids in forage production systems in Florida. SL444 (EDIS # SS658).


 


Book Chapters


Brown, S.L. Making Soils from Urban Wastes.  2017. In Advances in Soil Science: Urban Soils R. Lal and B.A. Stewart (Ed) Taylor and Francis Publishers


Brown, S.L., A. Trlica, J. Lavery, and M. Teshima. 2017. Carbon sequestration potential on mined lands.  In Mine Site Rehabilitation and Restoration.  N. Bolan, M.B. Kirkham and Y. Ok (eds.)  Taylor and Francis Publishers


Daniels, W. L., Orndorff, Z. W., Stilson, C., Zimmerman, C., & Haywood, A. (2017). Development of Effective Rehabilitation Protocols for Mineral Sands Mining in Virginia USA. In Mined Land Reclamation: From Start to Finish. Carlton, VIC, Australia: Australia Institute for Mining and Minerals. Retrieved from http://www.ausimm.com/


 


Howard, J. L., & Daniels, W. L. (2017). Soils of urban and human-impacted landscapes. In D. Richardson, N. Castree, M. Goodchild, A. Kobayashi, W. Liu, & R. Marston (Eds.), The International Encyclopedia of Geography (pp. 1-9). Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley and Sons.


 


Trade Journals


Brown, S. 2017. Connections- monthly column Biocycle magazine.


Hacheney, N. and S. Brown. 2017. Correctional facility adopts multiple food scrap practices.  Biocycle 58:9:34


 


Graduate Theses and Dissertations


 


Shultz, K. (12/2016) Effects of bioretention cell factors affecting the removal of stormwater N and P. Non-thesis M.S. Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg.


 


Sosienski, T. (7/2017) The Occurrence and Fate of Steroid Hormones from Manure Amended Agriculture Fields. Ph.D. dissertation. Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg.


 


Qin, C. (12/2016) Mineral Surface Catalyzed Polymerization of Estrogen and Microbial Deactivation by Fe3+-Saturated Montmorillonite: A Potentially Low Cost material for Water Decontamination. Ph.D. dissertation. Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg.


 


 

Impact Statements

  1. The importance of soils in urban areas is increasingly recognized. Soils have the potential to function as alternatives to engineered or grey infrastructure. Use of storm water bioretention systems creates green space in urban areas, can return water to natural hydraulic flows and can reduce pressure on engineered systems. Using residuals from water treatment as a component of these systems has enormous potential for creating successful and sustainable alternatives to engineered storm water management. [Brown]
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