NC_OLD140: Improving Economic and Environmental Sustainability in Tree-Fruit Production Through Changes in Rootstock Use

(Multistate Research Project)

Status: Inactive/Terminating

SAES-422 Reports

Annual/Termination Reports:

[11/21/2012] [01/08/2014] [01/06/2015] [01/19/2016] [01/04/2017]

Date of Annual Report: 11/21/2012

Report Information

Annual Meeting Dates: 11/08/2012 - 11/09/2012
Period the Report Covers: 10/01/2011 - 09/01/2012

Participants

Autio, Wesley (autio@umass.edu)-University of Massachusetts;
Black, Brent (brent.black@usu.edu)-Utah State University;
Blatt, Suzanne (suzanne.blatt@agr.gc.ca)-AgCanada;
Clements, Jon (jon.clements@umass.edu)-University of Massachusetts;
Cline, John (jcline@uoguelph.ca)-University of Guelph;
Coneva, Elina (edc0001@auburn.edu)-Auburn University;
Cowgill, Winfred (cowgill@njaes.rutgers.edu)-Rutgers University;
Crassweller, Rob (rmc7@psu.edu)-Penn. State University;
Dominguez, Leo (lid6@cornell.edu)-Cornell University;
Domoto, Paul (domoto@iastate.edu)-Iowa State University;
Einhorn, Todd (todd.einhorn@oregonstate.edu)-Oregon State University;
Elkins, Rachel (rbelkins@ucanr.edu)-University of California;
Embree, Charles (embreec@agr.gc.ca)-AgCanada;
Evans, Kate (kate_evans@wsu.edu)-Washington State University;
Fallahi, Esmaeil (efallahi@uidaho.edu)-University of Idaho;
Fazio, Gennaro (Gennaro.Fazio@ars.usda.gov)-USDA ARS/Cornell University;
Hampson, Cheryl (CHERYL.HAMPSON@AGR.GC.CA)-PACIFIC AGRI-FOOD RESEARCH CENTRE;
Hirst, Peter (hirst@purdue.edu)-Purdue University;
Hoover, Emily (hoove001@umn.edu)-University of Minnesota;
Hoying, Stephen (sah19@cornell.edu)-Cornell University;
Lang, Greg (langg@msu.edu)-Michigan State University;
Marini, Richard (rpm12@psu.edu)-Penn. State University;
Moran, Renae (rmoran@maine.edu)-University of Maine;
Parker, Michael (mike_parker@ncsu.edu)-North Carolina State University;
Peck, Greg (greg.peck@vt.edu)-Virginia Tech;
Perry, Ron (perryr@msu.edu)-Michigan State University;
Pokharel, Ramesh (ramesh.pokharel@colostate.edu)-Colorado State University;
Reighard, Greg (grghrd@clemson.edu)-Clemson University;
Robinson, Terence (tlr1@cornell.edu)-Cornell University;
Romero, Leticia (lettyrom_8305@hotmail.com)-Cornell University;
Stasiak, Matt (mstasiak@wisc.edu)-University of Wisconsin;
Vaughan, Doug (suzanne.blatt@agr.gc.ca)-AgCanada;
Warmund, Michele (warmundm@missouri.edu)-Missouri State University;
Wolfe, Dwight (dwolfe@uky.edu)-University of Kentucky;
Yoder, Keith (ksyoder@vt.edu)-Virginia Tech;

Brief Summary of Minutes

A report on each cooperative trial was given by planting coordinators. Current status of seven existing or recently terminated plantings and four future plantings were shared with the group. Sites for future meetings were confirmed. Next years meeting will be coordinated by Essie Fallahi and will be located in Boise, ID. The following years meeting will be in South Carolina, organized by Greg Reighard, and in 2015 in California by Rachel Elkins. Washington States membership was confirmed with Kate Evans as the voting member.

Accomplishments

Objective 1. To evaluate the influence of rootstocks on temperate-zone fruit tree characteristics grown under varying environments using sustainable management systems.

Apple Sub-Committee (T. Robinson, Chair). John Cline reviewed plans for a trial to be planted in 2014 and a list of cooperators committed to planting it. Terence Robinson proposed a new planting for 2016 with new genotypes from the UK, New Zealand and including some Geneva selections. Plans for an organic rootstock trial were also discussed. Manuscripts have been prepared for the 2002 trial and 2003 physiology trials.

Cherry Sub-Committee (G. Lang, Chair). 2010 sweet cherry systems trial is still in progress with 9 sites. A tart cherry trial is planned for 2015 to be coordinated by Matt Stasiak with MSU selections in 6 locations. A sweet cherry trial is planned for establishment in 2015 to be coordinated by Greg Lang with 7 other cooperators. A new trial to test training systems designed for platforms and mechanization was proposed.

Peach Sub-Committee (G. Reighard, Chair). Greg Reighard is preparing a paper on the 2009 trial. An apricot rootstock trial was proposed with four cooperators.

Pear Sub-Committee (T. Einhorn, Chair). 2013 is the anticipated date for the next planting with collaborators in NY, CA and OR. Propagation was delayed by cold temperature injury. There are plans for a future quince trial with 22 genotypes selected for hardiness. A manuscript for the 2002 trial is completed and ready for review.


Projects which are in various stages of data collection and evaluation include the following in association with years of plot establishment:


2004 Pear rootstock trial compares 3 rootstocks at 3 locations in North America.
2004 Apple dwarf and semidwarf rootstock trials in MI.
2005 Pear rootstock trial at 6 locations in North America.
2005 Cherry high tunnel systems in MI.
2006 Cherry physiology trial compares the yield and fruit size of a dwarfing cherry rootstock at 4 locations in North America.
2009 Peach rootstock and physiology trials at 13 sites.
2009 St. Jean apple rootstock trial to compare 6 rootstocks in 1 site.
2010 Apple rootstock trial.
2010 Cherry rootstock and training systems.
2011 Apple rootstock trial in VA with 10 rootstocks and 3 cultivars.

The following projects are in their final stage of conclusion and wrap-up. The 2002 Pear rootstock trial has concluded with a paper ready for review. The 2003 Apple Physiology study was completed with one paper published, one in press and two potential papers to be prepared. The 2003 Apple rootstock trial data collection is in its final year. Data will be summarized for writing and submitting a paper.


Objective 2. To develop and improve rootstocks for temperate-zone fruit trees with breeding and genetic engineering, to improve propagation techniques for rootstocks, and to acquire new rootstocks from worldwide sources.
Rootstocks from the California peach breeding program have been patented and released with an additional rootstocks to be released at a future date. Quince selections in OR are being screened as potential size-controlling pear rootstocks. Pyrus germplasm was established in a collection in WA to evaluate for size control, disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerances of pear trees. Germplasm will also be used for future pear breeding. Efforts to transform Gisela cherry rootstocks with genetic resistance to Prunus necrotic ringspot virus were successful. Field testing of elite cherry genotypes continued in WA and MI. Tissue culture propagation has enhanced rooting of Geneva apple rootstocks and increased the number of stock plants. Efficient methods for existing pear, cherry and apple rootstock micropropagation have been developed in WA for rapid multiplication of new rootstocks.

Objective 3. To study the genetics and developmental physiology of rootstock/scion interactions in temperate-zone fruit trees.
In WA, genomics and transcriptomics approaches are being tested to understand rootstock/scion interactions to ensure the compatibility of new rootstocks.

Objective 4. To better understand the response to and impacts of biotic and abiotic stresses on scion/rootstock combinations in temperate-zone fruit trees.
Biotic stresses. Apple rootstock tolerance to replant disease continues in NY to categorize 36 genotypes as resistant, intermediate or susceptible. The 2006 apple replant trial continued in some sites. A 2006 apple fumigation trial in NJ and MA continued. A 2009 peach replant study continued in NC. Russian and Geneva apple rootstocks were evaluated for fireblight tolerance in NY. In VA, 10 rootstocks showed differing susceptibility when inoculated with fireblight bacteria.
Abiotic stresses. Evaluation of peach rootstock tolerance to soil alkalinity continued in Utah. Apple rootstock tolerance to soil pH is also being evaluated in NY. Cold hardiness evaluation of new apple rootstocks continues in ME with 3 Vineland and 12 Geneva genotypes. Cold hardiness of quince selections for pear continued in OR. In MO, a study to determine the relationship of blackheart and tree performance continued. Rootstock treatments had little effect on bud survival in the 2009 peach rootstock trial in SC, MO and UT despite warm winter temperatures.

Publications

Collaborative research directed by members of this group led to 17 peer-reviewed publications, 43 non peer-reviewed publications, and numerous Extension articles and presentations that reached fruit growers throughout North America. Seven articles in trade journals highlighted the impact of rootstock research on tree fruit production.


Peer-reviewed Publications


Autio, W., T.L. Robinson, J. Cline, R.M. Crassweller, C.G. Embree, E. Hoover, G. Lang, J. Masabni, M.L. Parker, R. Perry, G.L. Reighard and M. Warmund. 2011. Performance of several semidwarfing rootstocks with Fuji and McIntosh as scion cultivars in the 1999 NC-140 semidwarf apple rootstock trials. Acta Hort. 903:327-334.


Autio, W., T.L. Robinson, T. Bradshaw, J. Cline, R.M. Crassweller, C.G. Embree, E. Hoover, G. Lang, J. Masabni, M.L. Parker, R. Perry, G.L. Reighard, J. Schupp, and M. Warmund. 2011. Performance of several dwarfing rootstocks with Fuji and McIntosh as scion cultivars in the 1999 NC-140 dwarf apple rootstock trials. Acta Hort. 903:319-326.


Autio, W., T.L. Robinson, W. Cowgill, C. Hampson, M. Kushad, G. Lang, J. Masabni, D.D. Miller, R.A. Parra Quezada, R. Perry, and C. Rom. 2011. Performance of Gala apple trees on Supporter 4 and different strains of B.9, M.9, and M.26 rootstocks as part of the 2002 NC-140 apple rootstock trial. Acta Hort. 903:311-318.


Autio, W.R., T.L. Robinson, B. Black, T. Bradshaw, J.A. Cline, R.M. Crassweller, C.G. Embree, E.E. Hoover, S.A. Hoying, K.A. Iungerman, R.S. Johnson, G. Lang, M.L. Parker, R.L. Perry, G.L. Reighard, J.R. Schupp, M. Stasiak, M. Warmund, and D. Wolfe. 2011. Performance of Fuji and McIntosh apple trees after 10 years as affected by several dwarf rootstocks in the 1999 NC-140 apple rootstock trial. J. Amer. Pom. Soc. 5(2):2-20.


Autio, W.R., T.L. Robinson, B. Black, T. Bradshaw, J.A. Cline, R.M. Crassweller, C.G. Embree, E.E. Hoover, S.A. Hoying, K.A. Iungerman, R.S. Johnson, G. Lang, M.L. Parker, R.L. Perry, G.L. Reighard, M. Stasiak, M. Warmund, and D. Wolfe. 2011. Performance of Fuji and McIntosh apple trees after 10 years as affected by several semidwarf rootstocks in the 1999 NC-140 apple rootstock trial. J. Amer. Pom. Soc. 5(2):21-38.


Elkins, R., R. Bell, and T. Einhorn. 2012. Needs assessment for future US pear rootstock research directives based on the current state of pear production and rootstock research. Journal of the American Pomological Society 66(3):153-163.


Elkins, R.B., S. Castagnoli, C. Embree, R. Parra-Quezada, T.L. Robinson, T.J. Smith and C.A. Ingels. 2011. Evaluation of potential rootstocks to improve pear tree precocity and productivity. Acta Hort. 909 (1): 183-194.


Hampson, C. R. 2012. The performance of four Vineland apple rootstocks in British Columbia, Canada. J. Amer. Pomol. Soc. 66(1):23-27.


Hampson, C.R., P. Randall and P. Sholberg. 2012. Tolerance of Vineland apple rootstocks to waterlogging and Phytophthora infestation. Can. J. Plant Sci. 92(2):267-269.


Hoover, E.E., R.P. Marini, E. Tepe, W.R. Autio, A.R. Biggs, J.M. Clements, R.M. Crassweller, D.Foster, M.Foster, D. Doud Miller, M.L. Parker, G.M. Peck, J. Racsko, T.L. Robinson, M.R. Warmund. 2012. eApples: A case study in using eXtension to increase access to research-based information. HortTechnology 22:576-579.


Lang, G., T. Valentino, H. Demirsoy, and L. Demirsoy. 2011. High tunnel sweet cherry studies: innovative integration of precision canopies, precocious rootstocks, and environmental physiology. Acta Hort. 903:717-723.


Lang, G., T. Valentino, T. Robinson, J. Freer, H. Larsen, and R. Pokharel. 2011. Differences in mineral nutrient concentration of dormant cherry spurs as affected by rootstock, scion, and orchard site. Acta Hort. 903:93-971.


Marini, R.P., Autio, W.R., Black, B., Cline, J.A., Crassweller, R., Domoto, P., Hampson, C., Moran, R., Quezada, R.A., Robinson, T., Stasiak, M. and Wolfe, D. 2012. The influence of crop density on annual trunk growth of Golden Delicious apple trees on three rootstocks at 11 locations. J. Amer. Pomol. Soc. 66(4):183-195.


Marini, R.P., W.R. Autio, B. Black, J.A. Cline, W. Cowgill Jr., R. Crassweller, P. Domoto, C. Hampson, R. Moran, R.A Parra-Quezada, T. Robinson, M. Stasiak, D.L. Ward, D. Wolfe. 2012. Summary of the NC-140 apple physiology trial: The relationship between Golden Delicious fruit weight and crop density at 12 locations as influenced by tree dwarfing rootstocks. Journal of the American Pomological Society 66:78-90.


Olmstead, J.S., M.D. Whiting, D. Ophardt, N.C. Oraguzie, and G.A. Lang. 2011. PC7064-3 (Selah") sweet cherry. HortSci. 46:123-124.


Ouzounis, T. and G.A. Lang. 2011. Foliar applications of urea affect nitrogen reserves and cold acclimation of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) on dwarfing rootstocks. HortScience 46:1015-1021.


Robinson, T.L., Lakso, A.N. and Hoying, S.A. 2012. Advances in predicting chemical thinner response of apple using a Malusim carbon balance model. Acta Hort. 932:223-229.


Other Publications (Abstracts, Fact Sheets, newsletters, reports)


Autio, W. 2012. NC-140 Trial Coordination. Compact Fruit Tree 44(2):9-10.


Autio, W., J. Clements, and J. Krupa. 2012. Results from the first year of fruiting in the 2009 NC-140 Peach Rootstock Trial in Massachusetts. Fruit Notes 77(1):9-10; Horticultural News 92(1):9-10.


Autio, W., J. Krupa, J. Clements, W. Cowgill, and R. Magron. 2012. Final report of the 2002 NC-140 Apple Rootstock Trial in Massachusetts and New Jersey. Fruit Notes 77(2): 7-10; Horticultural News 92(2): 7-10.


Bell, R. L., R. B. Elkins, and T. Einhorn. 2012. Current state of pear rootstock research progress and priorities (abstract). HortScience 47(9) Supplement: S100.


Clements, J., W. Autio, J. Krupa, W. Cowgill, R. Magron, and S. Sollner-Figler. 2012. 2002 Massachusetts/New Jersey Cameo Dwarf Rootstock Trial. Fruit Notes 77(1):4-6; Horticultural News 92(1): 4-6.


Domoto, P. and L. Schroeder. 2012. Performance of Gibson Golden Delicious on dwarfing rootstocks. Ann. Prog. Rept.  2011 for Hort. Res. Sta., ISRF11-36:46-47. http://www.ag.iastate.edu/farms/11reports/Horticulture/PerformanceGibsonGolden.pdf


Domoto, P. and L. Schroeder. 2012. Second year performance of Honeycrisp on 31 dwarfing rootstocks in the Iowa planting of the NC-140 2010 regional rootstock trial. Ann. Prog. Rept.  2011 for Hort. Res. Sta., ISRF11-36:44-45. http://www.ag.iastate.edu/farms/11reports/Horticulture/SecondYearHoneycrisp.pdf


Elkins, R. 2011. Evaluation of potential new size controlling rootstocks for European pear. 2011 California Pear Research Report, California Pear Advisory Board, Sacramento, California, p. 104-113.


Fazio, G., D. Kviklys, M. Grusak and T.L. Robinson. 2012. Elucidating the Genetics of Absorption and Translocation of Macro- and Micronutrients by Apple Rootstocks in the Context of Breeding Populations. HortScience 47(9):S101 (Abstr.)


Fazio, G., D. Kviklys, M.A. Grusak and T. Robinson. 2012. Soil pH, soil type and replant disease affect growth and nutrient absorption of apple rootstocks. NY Fruit Quarterly 20(1):22-28.


Hoover, E., R. Marini, E. Tepe, W. Autio, A. Biggs, J. Clements, R. Crassweller, D. Foster, M. Foster, D. Miller, M. Parker, J. Racsko, T. Robinson, and M. Warmund. 2011. Apple rootstocks and cultivars: A case study using eXtension to increase access to research-based information. Compact Fruit Tree 44(3): 9-12.


Huffman, L., M. Miranda-Saso, and T.L. Robinson. 2012. Is fall planting for apples a good idea? Lake Ontario Fruit Newsletter 2012(20):2-3.


Lang, G. 2012. Integrating new technologies, germplasm, and physiology into innovative strategies for producing high quality sweet cherries. OPGMA Today (Summer issue).


Lang, G., E. Hanson, and B. Gluck. 2012. Organic production of cherries and raspberries in high tunnels. Organic Broadcaster 20(5):7, 14.


Lang, G.A. 2011. Producing first-class sweet cherries: integrating new technologies, germplasm, and physiology into innovative orchard management strategies. Proc. 3rd Serbian Conference Innovations in Fruit Growing: Modern Production of Sweet and Sour Cherry pp. 59-74.


Lang, G.A. 2011. Strategie di conduzione per lalta qualità. Rivista di Frutticoltura October (10) Suppl.:16-17.


Lang, G.A. 2012. Strategie e techniche innovative per produzioni di alta qualità. Rivista di Frutticoltura April (4):24-28.


Lang. 2011. Proizvodne prakse za stone treanje sadaanjost I budunost proizvodnje za izvoz. USAID Serbia Agrobiznis Projekat, 31 pp.


Miranda-Sazo, M. and T. Robinson. 2012. Strategies to control vegetative growth. Lake Ontario Fruit Newsletter 2012(4):1-2.


Miranda-Sazo, M. and T.L. Robinson. 2012. 2012 Studies using Retain and NAA for pre-harvest drop control of Linda Mac and Honeycrisp in New York State. Proceedings Great Lakes Fruit Workers Annual Meeting 2012:20-21 (Abstr.)


Miranda-Sazo, M. and T.L. Robinson. 2012. Working Efficiently in Apple Orchards. Proceedings Great Lakes Fruit Workers Annual Meeting 2012:44 (Abstr.)


Miranda-Sazo, M. and T.L. Robinson. 2012. Assessment of Bud Damage and Bloom Prediction Lake Ontario Fruit Newsletter 2012(6):1-2.


Miranda-Sazo, M. and T.L. Robinson. 2012. Branch management is critical for moderate and highly vigorous apple trees. Lake Ontario Fruit Newsletter 2012(15):2-3.


Miranda-Sazo, M. and T.L. Robinson. 2012. Current Apple Bloom Prediction (April 9, 2012). Lake Ontario Fruit Newsletter 2012(7):1-2.


Miranda-Sazo, M. and T.L. Robinson. 2012. Strong leader growth is critical when growing a weak apple cultivar in years 1-3. Lake Ontario Fruit Newsletter 2012(14):6-7.


Miranda-Sazo, M. and T.L. Robinson. 2012. The Horticultural Benefits of an Early Start. Lake Ontario Fruit Newsletter 2012(4):6-7.


Miranda-Sazo, M. and T.L. Robinson. 2012. The Orchard Planted Today Will Be Your Orchard in 2027. Lake Ontario Fruit Newsletter 2012(5):5-6.


Robinson, T, B. Bujdoso and B. Reginato. 2012. Using Pruning to Improve the Fruit Size of Sweetheart, Lapins and Hedelfingen Sweet Cherry Grown on Gisela Rootstocks. NY Fruit Quarterly 20(3):12-16.


Robinson, T. and K. Iungerman. 2012. Thinning Heavy Blooming Honeycrisp in 2012. Northern NY Fruit Newsletter 2012(1): 1.


Robinson, T., M. Miranda-Sazo, and C. Kahlke. 2012. The Use of Retain and NAA for Commercial Drop Control of Apples. Lake Ontario Fruit Newsletter 2012(17):2-3.


Robinson, T.L. 2012. Congrés IFTA  Chili/Argneine/Brésil. Zoom Abre Fruitier. Edition 2012:26-29.


Robinson, T.L. 2012. IFTA Conference  Chile/Argentina/Brazil. AGYours- Tree Fruit. 2012 Edition :24-27.


Robinson, T.L. 2012. The Physiology of Trees during Dormancy. Lake Ontario Fruit Newsletter 2012(3):2-3.


Robinson, T.L. and A.N. Lakso. 2012. Precision Thinning and Precision Irrigation. Proceedings Great Lakes Fruit Workers Annual Meeting 2012:40 (Abstr.)


Robinson, T.L. and M. Miranda-Sazo. 2012. Forecasting Apple Bloom in the Spring of 2012 Lake Ontario Fruit Newsletter 2012(5):1-2.


Robinson, T.L. and M. Miranda-Sazo. 2012. Irrigation: An Increasingly Essential Practice for New Tall Spindle Plantings. Lake Ontario Fruit Newsletter 2012(8):1-2.


Robinson, T.L. and M. Miranda-Sazo. 2012. Western NY Crop Situation as of May 15th, 2012. Lake Ontario Fruit Newsletter 2012(12):5-8.


Robinson, T.L. M. Fargione and M. Miranda-Sazo. 2012. The Benefits of Boron and Zinc to Overcome the Effects of Early Spring Frosts. Lake Ontario Fruit Newsletter 2012(7):5.



Robinson, T.L., S.A. Hoying, M. Miranda and K. Iungerman. 2012. AVG Combined with NAA Control Preharvest Drop of McIntosh Apples Better than Either Chemical Alone. HortScience 47(9):S164 (Abstr.)


Rothwell, N. and G. Lang. 2012. Fall foliar nitrogen applications should be applied now. MSUE News (also NW FruitNet), September.


Ward, W.P. Cowgill Jr., J.L. Frecon, G.C. Hamilton, J.R. Heckman, L.S. Katz, N. Lalancette, B.A. Majek, D. Polk. 2012. "New Jersey Commercial Tree Fruit Production Guide." Rutgers Cooperative Extension Bulletin E002 total pages (229). New Jersey Plant and Pest Fruit Newsletter, 309 articles written. http://njaes.rutgers.edu/pubs/plantandpestadvisory/


Wolfe, D., D. Archbold, J. Johnston, and G. Travis. 2011. Rootstock effects on apple and peach growth and yield. 2011 Fruit and Vegetable Crops Research Report. University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station publication. PR-626:11-14. http://www.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/pr/pr626/pr626.pdf


Wolfe, Dwight. 2012. Apple Tree Training. Kentucky Fruit Facts (3/2012):3. http://www.ca.uky.edu/fruitfacts/ffMar12.pdf



Articles in Trade Journals



Lehnert, R. 2011. Resistant Rootstocks Key to Surviving Fireblight. Good Fruit Grower Feb. 11, 2011.


Lehnert, R. 2012. Choosing a Peach Rootstock. Good Fruit Grower, July 2012.


Moser, M. 2012. Geneva Rootstocks are Exciting, Frustrating. Fruit Grower News, November 2012, p. 54.


Rothwell, N. 2011. MSU Studying High-Density Tart Cherries. Fruit Grower News, Nov. 2011.


Sigler, D. Achieve the Right Ratio of Wood and Buds in Cherry. Fruit Grower News, May 2012.

Sigler, D. Apples: How to Know What to Plant. Fruit Grower News, April 2012.
Warner, G. 2012. Cherry Tours Highlight Innovations. Good Fruit Grower website, 2012. http://www.goodfruit.com/Good-Fruit-Grower/Web-2012/Cherry-tours-highlight-innovations/.



Presentations and Field Days



Domoto. Jan. 27, Iowa Fruit and Vegetable Growers Conference, Ankeny, IA, 150 attendees


Domoto. 2011 Performance of Gibson Golden Delicious on 23 rootstocks in the Iowa planting of NC-140 2003 apple rootstock trial, Second year performance of Honeycrisp on 31 dwarfing rootstocks in the Iowa planting of the NC-140 2010 regional apple rootstock trial. July 23, Fruit and Vegetable Field Day, ISU Horticulture Research Station, Ames, IA, 90 attendees


Coneva. Peach Rootstock Cultivar Evaluations, Regional Bulletin. 2012. http://www.aaes.auburn.edu/comm/pubs/pubsbytype/rebull2125.php


Coneva. Peach Rootstock Trial in Alabama. Poster presentation at the Annual Meeting of the Alabama Fruit and Vegetable Growers Association, Auburn, AL, February 10-11, 2012.


Coneva. Peach Rootstock Trial Demonstration. 2012 Home and Wildlife Expo, Chilton REC, AL, August 4, 2012. (Attendance 750+).


Bell, R. and R. Elkins. Current state of pear rootstock research: progress and priorities. American Society for Horticultural Science Pomology Working Group Workshop, Rootstocks: Challenges and Progress, August 2, 2012, Miami, Florida.


Elkins, R. Evaluation of potential new size controlling rootstocks for European pear (two presentations). 2012 Sacramento River District Pear Research Meeting, February 2, 2012, Walnut Grove, California and 2012 North Coast Pear Research Meeting, February 16, 2012, Lakeport, California.


Elkins, R. Spring Irrigation and Field Meeting. May 20, 2012, Talmage, Mendocino County, California.


Fallahi. Idaho State Horticultural Society Summer Tour, July 18, 2012 (110 attended)


Fallahi. Idaho and Washington Fruit Growers March Field Day , March 14, 2012 (65 attended)


Fallahi. University of Idaho Pomology Program Fruit Field Day, September 14, 2012 (900 attended)


Cowgill. North Jersey Fruit Meeting, March 2012; Broadway, NJ, 62 attendees, growers



Cowgill. North Jersey Twilight Fruit Meeting, April, 11; Rutgers Snyder Farm, Pittstown, NJ 44 attendees, growers


Cowgill. North Jersey Twilight Fruit Meeting, May 3; Phillips Farm, Milford, NJ 66 attendees, growers


Cowgill. North Jersey Twilight Horticultural Research Meeting, Rutgers Snyder Farm, September, 2012; sponsored by RCE and NJ NOFA  48 growers participating


Coneva. NC-140 2009 Peach Rootstock Trial. Chilton County Regional Peach Production Meeting, February 2, 2012, Clanton, AL. (Attendance 89).


Coneva. Peach rootstock evaluations in Alabama. Poster presentation at the SR ASHS Annual Meeting, Birmingham, AL, February 3-5, 2012.


Strang. Jan. 5, 2012, Apple Rootstocks. Kentucky Fruit and Vegetable Growers Conference, Lexington, KY, attendance 50.





Impact Statements

  1. The NC-140 plantings are regularly used as demonstration plots of new rootstocks for growers, nurserymen, visiting scientists, and graduate students. Rootstock trials have also been conducted on growers farms, which has yielded invaluable information on adaptability that was not known from experiment station trials. Over the last 15 years, there has been a large change in rootstock use in the United States and Canada.
  2. Results from NC-140 research continue to accelerate the process of identifying superior performing tree rootstocks and of their propagation and commercialization. Growers in various regions of the North America have benefited by having these rootstocks made available earlier by nursery companies. The NC-140 cooperative plantings have identified the benefits of the disease resistant CG rootstocks for North American sites.
  3. Apple and peach rootstocks with tolerance to replant disease are being identified to improve survival and productivity without the use of fumigants in NY, NJ, NC and MA.
  4. Apple and pear (quince) rootstocks with superior cold temperature tolerance are being identified to improve survival and productivity.
  5. High density apple, pear and sweet cherry orchards that employ several dwarfing rootstocks have stimulated growers to expand commercial acreage.
  6. Changes in rootstock use were documented in Indiana. Previously, approximately 80% of apple orchards in the state were planted on more vigorous rootstocks. In plantings made in the last 15 years, use of the superior performing rootstocks in NC-140 trials in this state has increased 660%. The use of recommended rootstocks can increase crop value by more than $12,000 per acre. On a state-wide basis, this is an increase of $8.8 m per year.
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Date of Annual Report: 01/08/2014

Report Information

Annual Meeting Dates: 11/06/2013 - 11/09/2013
Period the Report Covers: 10/01/2012 - 09/01/2013

Participants

Clements, Jon (jon.clements@umass.edu) - Univ. of Massachusetts;
Cowgill, Win (cowgill@NJAES.Rutgers.edu)  Rutgers;
Rom, Curt (crom@uark.edu) -Univ. of Arkansas;
Yoder, Keith (ksyoder@vt.edu) - Virginia Tech;
Musacchi, Stefano (stefano.musacchi@wsu.edu) - Washington State Univ;
Butler, Brian (bbutlers@umd.edu) - Univ. of Maryland;
Parker, Michael (mike_parker@ncsu.edu) - North Carolina State Univ;
Marini, Richard (rpm12@psu.edu) - Pennsylvania State Univ;
Perry, Ron (perryr@anr.msu.edu) - Michigan State Univ;
Crassweller, Rob (rmc7@psu.edu) - Pennsylvania State Univ;
Autio, Wesley (autio@umass.edu) - Univ. of Massachusetts;
Lindstrom, Thor (thor.lindstrom@usu.edu) - Utah State Univ;
Cline, John (jcline@uoguelph.ca) - Univ. of Guelph;
Peck, Greg (greg.peck@vt.edu) - Virginia Tech;
Wolfe, Dwight (dwolf0@uky.edu) - Univ. of Kentucky;
Yao, Shengrui (yaos@nmsu.edu) - New Mexico State Univ;
Domoto, Paul (domoto@iastate.edu) - Iowa State Univ;
Moran, Renae (rmoran@maine.edu) - Univ. of Maine;
Hirst, Peter (hirst@purdue.edu) - Purdue Univ;
Black, Brent (brent.black@usu.edu) - Utah State Univ;
Warmund, Michele (warmundm@missouri.edu) - Univ. of Missouri;
Atucha, Amaya (amaya.atucha@colostate.edu) - Colorado State Univ;
Hoover, Emily (hoove001@umn.edu) - Univ. of Minnesota;
Blatt, Suzanne (Suzanne.Blatt@AGR.GC.CA) - Agr.Agri.Food Canada (AAFC);
Neilsen, Denise (Denise.Neilsen@agr.gc.ca) - Agr.Agri.Food Canada (AAFC);
Elkins, Rachel (rbelkins@ucanr.edu) - Univ. of California;
Fallahi, Eshmaeil (efallahi@uidaho.edu) - Univ. of Idaho;
Robinson, Terence (tlr1@cornell.edu) - Conell Univ.;
Rufato, Andrea (derossiandrea@yahoo.com.br) - Cornell Univ.;
Ahmed, Rania (raaniaahmed@yahoo.com) - Michigan State Univ.;
Kushad, Mosbah (kushad@illinois.edu) - Univ. Illinois at Urbana-Champaign;

Brief Summary of Minutes

The 2013 meeting was coordinated, hosted and chaired by Dr. Essie Fallahi, University of Idaho, Meridian (Boise), ID November 6-9, 2013. The meeting included a conference day long tour of commercial orchards and research plots at the Parma, ID research station. A report on each cooperative trial was given by planting coordinators. Current status of eight existing or recently terminated plantings and four future plantings were shared with the group. Sites for future meetings were confirmed. Next years meeting will be coordinated by Greg Reighard and will be located in Clemson, SC. The following years meeting will be in Northern California, organized by Rachel Elkins and in 2016 by Greg Peck, Virginia. Accomplishments report and minutes prepared by Essie Fallahi, ID and Rachel Elkins, CA.

Accomplishments

Objective 1. To evaluate the influence of rootstocks on temperate-zone fruit tree characteristics grown under varying environments using sustainable management systems.

Projects which are in various stages of data collection and evaluation include the following in association with years of plot establishment:

2003 Dwarf Apple Rootstock trial completed with publications forthcoming.
2004 Pear rootstock trial compares 3 rootstocks at 3 locations in North America.
2005 Pear rootstock trial at 6 locations in North America.
2005 Cherry high tunnel systems in MI.
2006 Cherry physiology trial compares the yield and fruit size of a dwarfing cherry rootstock at 4 locations in North America.
2009 Peach rootstock and physiology trials at 13 sites.
2009 Peach physiology study led by Johnson transferred to Marini following Johnson retirement.
2010 Apple rootstock trial.
2010 Cherry rootstock and training systems.
2014 Apple rootstock trial coordinated by Cline
2014 Apple organic rootstock trial coordinated by Robinson
2015 Sweet Cherry rootstock trial coordinated by Lang


The following projects are in their final stage of conclusion and wrap-up. The 2003 Apple Physiology study was completed with one paper published, one in press and two potential papers to be prepared. The 2003 Apple rootstock trial data collection is in its final year. Data will be summarized for writing and submitting a paper.

Apple Sub-Committee (Chair, Robinson, NY)
The 2014 Apple planting will be coordinated by John Cline who has also agreed to analyze the data. This trial has two semi dwarfing rootstocks that may be too large for a 3-foot spacing. The group voted in favor of extending this to 4 feet in the row and 12 feet between rows with the cultivar Honeycrisp, but keeping the tall spindle system. For Fuji, it was agreed to extend the spacing to 5 feet in the row, 13 feet between rows and a vertical axe training system. Each site will select a pollinizer variety since some sites are very limited in adapted varieties. Another trial is being organized by Robinson for expected planting of 2019. Potential rootstocks are from the East Malling series and New Zealand selections.
Cherry Sub-Committee (Chair, Lang, MI)

The 2010 Sweet Cherry Rootstock x Canopy Training System Coordinated Trial began with 13 sites; these have dwindled to 5-6 due to diseases, cooperator retirements or transitions, deer damage, etc. Work has begun on the first trial paper (Training Systems Establishment, Years 1-3) with adequate data expected from CA, MI, NY-Geneva, NY-New Paltz, NS, and BC. Of this group, CA likely will drop out for the next phase (Initial-Maturation Yields  Years 4-6) due to excessive mortality from Armillaria. Greg Lang will send out a call for missing data sets, as well as a draft of 2014 training and data protocols for subcommittee input, during January. Results from the project thus far have been presented at several international scientific conferences (ISHS-Canopy Physiology, Rootstocks, and Training Systems 2012; ISHS-Cherry 2013) and regional/international grower meetings (MI, MO, PA, WA, IFTA, Chile, New Zealand). The initial fruiting results from 2013 are limited, but interesting in that certain canopy architectures appear to have a potential influence on fruit quality traits such as soluble solids and firmness.

Two 2010 Tart Cherry Rootstock x Canopy Training System Independent Trials were established in UT (Brent Black) and MI-Traverse City (Greg Lang/Nikki Rothwell/Ron Perry). The focus is on examining rootstock x canopy training interactions to develop hedgerow-type trees for over-the-row mechanical harvest. Both sites remain on track; an initial paper on establishment has yet to be discussed.

Three new rootstock genotype evaluation trials are being discussed (Matt Stasiak and Greg Lang, organizers), probably for 2017 planting. Rootstocks up for testing are from MSU, several from Krymsk, several from Gisela, and perhaps one or more MxM stocks. Greg Lang initiated discussion of a new potential (2015) trial focused on trellised sweet cherry systems, i.e., single and dual (V) fruiting wall canopy architectures, if there is interest from other subcommittee members.

Pear Sub-Committee (Chair, Einhorn, OR)

The 2002 trial was published in JAPS. The 2004 trial is completed and Terence Robinson and Suzanne Blatt will collaborate on writing this up and presenting at the ISHS Pear Symposium in Belgium in July 2014. The 2005 trial will finish after the 2014 season; data to date will be presented in Belgium, but the final harvest data will not be available until Fall 2014. Rachel will prepare the JAPS article. The 2013 training/rootstock/spacing trial just completed its first season. Cooperators are OR (2 sites; Bartlett and Anjou), NY (Bosc), and CA (Bartlett). Trees were grown by Willow Drive Nursery in WA.

Einhorn had suggested a new trial of quince selections from the ones he had tested for freezing tolerance. In addition to OR, there was interest from: CA (not for cold hardiness; Bartlett, Bosc), CO (Bartlett), NY (Bartlett, Bosc), Nova Scotia (Bartlett, Bosc), and WA (Bartlett, Anjou). The group suggested: a Beurre Hardy interstem done in the nursery to ensure compatibility for Bartlett; Terence described an apple example: Golden Delicious is budded onto the rootstock, then when the trees were knipped (i.e. the 1-year-old stem headed after the first growing season), the desired scion bud was inserted. Suggested spacing was 1-1.5 m x 3.5 - 4 m. Standards would be all commercially available Quince (A, C, BA29, another) and OHF87. Projected planting is for 2016 or 2017, presuming material is available (tissue culture plants of the quince selections are being grown by North American Plant in Oregon).

Peach Sub-Committee (Chair, Reighard, SC)

A five year paper will be prepared for ISHS presentation. Johnson (CA) has retired and coordination will be assumed by Marini (PA). There will be a change in focus to fruit size measurements across climates with early/mid/late season; high to low crop load in 2014. Cooperators will collect temperature data during the growing season up to harvest date using an onsite data logger.


Objective 2. To develop improved rootstocks for temperate-zone fruit trees using state-of-the-art genomic tools in breeding programs.

Rootstocks from the California peach breeding program have been patented and released with an additional rootstocks to be released at a future date. Quince selections in OR are being screened as potential size-controlling pear rootstocks. Pyrus germplasm was established in a collection in WA to evaluate for size control, disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerances of pear trees. Germplasm will also be used for future pear breeding. Efforts to transform Gisela cherry rootstocks with genetic resistance to Prunus necrotic ringspot virus were successful. Field testing of elite cherry genotypes continued in WA and MI. Tissue culture propagation has enhanced rooting of Geneva apple rootstocks and increased the number of stock plants. Efficient methods for existing pear, cherry and apple rootstock micropropagation have been developed in WA for rapid multiplication of new rootstocks. A series of micropropagation experiments were conducted to test different methods to promote shoot proliferation of G.30, B.9 and G.41 apple rootstocks in ME. Peach rootstocks are being developed to reduce impact of Peach Tree Short Life decline for the South Eastern U.S. (GA).


Objective 3. To accelerate adoption of new rootstocks (a) by improving propagation techniques and (b) by acquiring new rootstocks from worldwide sources.

In WA, genomics and transcriptomics approaches are being tested to understand rootstock/scion interactions to ensure the compatibility of new rootstocks. The propagation of several Geneva rootstocks has been improved significantly by the use of tissue culture plants as mother plants for stoolbeds, especially with G.41 in NY. This has resulted in a mini-boom of planting of Geneva 41 stoolbeds. NY found that this research accelerated production in stool beds and resulted in a production of 800,000 liners of G.11 in 2012 and 600,000 liners of G.41. This process boosted availability of rootstock liners to 1.2milllion liners of G.41, 800,000 liners of G.11 and 300,000 liners of G.935, which will be harvested fall 2013. Mussachi (WA) offered that he was introducing 13 out of 32 dwarfing pear genotypes from the breeding program at the University of Bologna, IT. They are being processed in vitro through the National Clean Plant Network at Prosser. They would be released after 2 years (2016).

Objective 4. To better understand the impacts of biotic and abiotic stresses on scion/rootstock combinations in temperate-zone fruit trees.

Biotic stresses. Apple rootstock tolerance to replant disease continues in NY to categorize 36 genotypes as resistant, intermediate or susceptible. The 2006 apple replant trial continued in some sites. A 2006 apple fumigation trial in NJ and MA continued. A 2009 peach replant study continued in NC. Russian and Geneva apple rootstocks were evaluated for fireblight tolerance in NY. In VA, 10 rootstocks showed differing susceptibility when inoculated with fireblight bacteria. Studies to determine the performance of Fire blight resistance in Asian pears AL. Colonization with root lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus penetrans) was much higher for G13 than for Gi5 and Gi6 cherry rootstocks with no effects of training system on root health and no bacterial canker in BC. CA will begin studies in cherry rootstock resistance to Armillaria mellea. Studies are being conducted to determine incidence and interaction of Bacterial canker and metal wire trellising and rootstocks and varieties in MI. Research is being conducted on regional and rootstock differences in apple cultivar volatiles and their impact on apple maggot and apple sawfly host selection at NS, CAN. Studies are beginning in WV to plant a test of rootstock susceptibility to Tomato Ring Spot Virus. Peach Tree Short Life decline can be attenuated using rootstocks which can prolong tree and orchard life in GA.

Abiotic stresses. Evaluation of peach rootstock tolerance to soil alkalinity continued in Utah. Apple rootstock tolerance to soil pH is also being evaluated in NY. Cold Hardiness Testing of Apple Rootstock Cultivars and Selections (Collaboration with USDA ARS Geneva and the Univ. of Guelph) is continuing in ME. Cold hardiness of quince selections for pear continued in OR. In IA and MO, a study to determine the relationship of blackheart and tree performance continued. Rootstock treatments had little effect on bud survival in the 2009 peach rootstock trial in SC, MO and UT despite warm winter temperatures. Nutritional studies are finding differences among cherry rootstocks in BC. Mineral nutrient absorption is being studied in ID among apple rootstocks. Studies being conducted on UT on iron deficiency in peaches utilizing the 2009 NC 140 peach rootstock trial to see if rootstocks influence iron levels in plant tissue of Redhaven scion.

Objective 5. To enhance the sustainability of temperate fruit farming through development and distribution of research-based information utilizing eXtension. Members of our research group have been working on making research-based information available to any one who would like to use it through eXtension (MN, PA, MA, NY, NC, MO, OH, WV, IN, VA). In 2013, we completed our databases for apple rootstocks and cultivars and can be viewed at at http://www.extension.org/apples. This project was funded through the USDA-SCRI program and will be completed in August 2014. We have linked to the primary website for the research group, www.nc140.org. This site continues to be our primary outreach component serving as an important collaboration tool for cooperators. Members of the research group communicate through a list serve, and upload/download project files to password-protected directories (NJ, MA). We have used the site to allow for easier collaboration and comparison of replicated rootstock trials.


Impacts

The NC-140 plantings are regularly used as demonstration plots of new rootstocks for growers, nurserymen, visiting scientists, and graduate students. Rootstock trials have also been conducted on growers farms, which has yielded invaluable information on adaptability that was not known from experiment station trials. Over the last 16 years, there has been a large change in rootstock use in the United States and Canada.

Results from NC-140 research continue to accelerate the process of identifying superior performing tree rootstocks and of their propagation and commercialization. Growers in various regions of the North America have benefited by having these rootstocks made available earlier by nursery companies. The NC-140 cooperative plantings have identified the benefits of the disease resistant CG rootstocks for North American sites.

Documents have been uploaded in eXtension associated with rootstocks and apple varieties have become a very popular resource for information for growers throughout the eastern United States (MN, NC) found at www.extension.org/apples.

Apple and peach rootstocks with tolerance to replant disease are being identified to improve survival and productivity without the use of fumigants in CA, SC, NC, ID, WA, MI, PA, IN, WI, MN, IA, OR, CO, NY, NJ, NC and MA.

Given the increasing labor costs and emphasis on labor safety, some Californian peach growers are very interested in shifting to pedestrian orchard systems. The peach rootstock research associated with this cooperative research project are providing growers with options for reducing peach tree vigor that are required to meet their objectives.

Dwarfing apple rootstocks are critical to growers transitioning to training systems which accommodate the use of labor saving automation, such as mobile platforms and overhead water and chemical delivery regarding pruning, training, harvesting and pest control.

Apple and pear (quince) rootstocks with superior cold temperature tolerance are being identified to improve survival and productivity.

High density apple, pear and sweet cherry orchards that employ several dwarfing rootstocks have stimulated growers to expand commercial acreage. New peach rootstocks are motivating growers to transition to rootstocks tolerant of high pH calcareous soils which avoids use of chelating compounds to correct iron deficiency.

Yields, fruit quality, and labor efficiencies realized with the intensive high density cherry canopy architectures on dwarfing rootstocks are already stimulating grower experimentation with these new training and production concepts.

Changes in rootstock use were documented in Indiana. Previously, approximately 80% of apple orchards in the state were planted on more vigorous rootstocks. In plantings made in the last 15 years, use of the superior performing rootstocks in NC-140 trials in this state has increased 660%. The use of recommended rootstocks can increase crop value by more than $12,000 per acre. On a state-wide basis, this is an increase of $8.8 m per year.

The NC-140 web site, www.nc140.org continues to be an important outreach component satisfying the needs of growers. In 2012 we began using Google Analytics to track our web traffic. We had 2,064 visits with 5,551 page views The NC-140 web site also serves as an important collaboration tool for cooperators who can communicate via an e-mail list, and upload/download project files to password-protected directories.

Grants

NC140 members have written research proposals and attracted extramural funding associated or directly related to the five objectives of this project from local, regional, national and international funding sources. For fiscal year 2012/2013, funding reported by members amounted to $1,182, 250 from primarily commodity groups and state sources. Additionally, funding from competitive grants associated with this project amounted to $3.2 million.


Publications

Collaborative research directed by members of this group led to 28 peer-reviewed publications, 41 non peer-reviewed publications, and numerous Extension articles and presentations that reached fruit growers throughout North America. Two articles in trade journals highlighted the impact of rootstock research on tree fruit production.


Peer Reviewed
Autio, W., J. Krupa, J. Clements, W. Cowgill, R. Magron, and S. Sollner-Figler. 2013. Third-leaf results from the 2010 NC-140 Apple Rootstock Trial in Massachusetts and New Jersey. Fruit Notes 78(3):7-8.


Autio, W., T. Robinson, D. Archbold, W. Cowgill, C. Hampson, R. Parra-Quezada and D. Wolfe. 2013. Gala apple trees on Supporter 4, P.14, and different strains of B.9, M.9, and M.26 rootstocks: A final 10-year report on the 2002 NC-140 Apple Rootstock Trial. Journal of the American Pomological Society 67:62-71.


Beckman, T.G., J.X. Chaparro and W.B. Sherman. 2012. MP-29, a clonal interspecific hybrid rootstock for peach. HortScience 47(1):128-131.


Clements, Jon M., W.P. Cowgill, R. Magron, and W.R. Autio. 2013. Ten-year Performance of Cameo® Apple Trees on Three Dwarf Rootstocks in Massachusetts and New Jersey as Part of the NC-140 Regional Rootstock Research Project. (Abstract.) HortScience, 48(9) (Supplement): S4.http://ashs.org/downloads/supplement/2013NE-ASHS_AnnualMtg.pdf


DeJong, T. M. , S. Tombesi, B. Basile and D. Da Silva. 2013. Beakbane and Thompson (1939, East Malling) Had It Right: Scion Vigour is Physiologically Linked to the Xylem Anatomy of the Rootstock. Aspects of Applied Biology 119: 51-58.


Einhorn, T., Castagnoli, S., Smith, T., Turner, J., and Mielke, E. 2013. Summary of the 2002 Pacific Northwest Pear Rootstock Trials: Performance of dAnjou and Golden Russet Bosc pear on eight Pyrus rootstocks. Journal of the American Pomological Society 67 (2): 80-88.


Fallahi, E. 2012. Influence of Rootstock and Irrigation Methods on Water Use, Mineral Nutrition, Growth, Fruit Yield and Quality in Gala Apple. HortTechnology. 22 (6): 731-737.


Fallahi, E. and T. Eichert. 2013. Principles and Practices of Foliar Nutrients with Emphasis on Nitrogen and Calcium Sprays in Apple. HortTechnology. 23(5): 542-547.


Fallahi, E., B. Fallahi, and B. Shafii. 2013. Irrigation and Rootstock Influence on Water Use, Tree Growth, Yield, and Fruit Quality at Harvest at Different Ages of Trees in Pacific Gala Apple. HortScience. 48:588-593.


Fallahi, E., B. Fallahi, and B. Shafii. 2013. Water Use, Mineral Nutrition, Tree Growth, Yield, and Fruit Quality of Fuji and Gala Apples under Various Irrigation Systems and Rootstocks. Acta Horticulturae. 984:57-68.


Fallahi, E., D. Bakhshi, and B. Fallahi. 2013. Postharvest Fruit Quality and Growth of Pacific Gala Apple Trees at Different Ages as Influenced by Irrigation and Rootstock. International Journal of Fruit Science. 13 (4): 478-491.


Fallahi, E., K. Arzani, and B. Fallahi. 2013. Long-term leaf mineral nutrition in Pacific Gala apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) as affected by rootstock type and irrigation system during six stages of tree development. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 88 (6) 685692.


Greene, D.W., A.N. Lakso, T.L. Robinson and P. Schwallier. 2013. Development of a fruitlet growth model to predict thinner response on apples. HortScience 48:584587.


Harshman, JM and CS Walsh. 2013. Effects of the phenotype and seed parent on the size, productivity and fruit quality in second-generation seedling apple trees. J. Amer. Pomological Soc. 67(3):168-174.


Hoover, E., R. Marini, E. Tepe, W. Autio, W., A. Biggs, J. Clements, R. Crassweller, D. Foster, M. Foster, P. Hirst, D. Miller, M. Parker, G. Peck, J. Racsko, T. Robinson, and M. Warmund. 2012. eApples: A case study using eXtension to increase access to research-based information HortTechnology 22:576-579.


Lang, G., E. Hanson, J. Biernbaum, D. Brainard, M. Grieshop, R. Isaacs, A. Montri, V. Morrone, and A. Schilder, D. Conner, and J. Koan. 2013. Holistic integration of organic strategies and high tunnels for Midwest/Great Lakes fruit production. Acta Hort. 1001:47-55.


Lang, G.A. 2013. Tree fruit production in high tunnels: current status and case study of sweet cherries. Acta Hort. 987:73-81.


Marini, R., W. Autio, B. Black, J. Cline, W. Cowgill, Jr., R. Crassweller, P. Domoto, C. Hampson, R. Moran, R. Parra-Quezada, T. Robinson, M. Stasiak, D. Ward and D. Wolfe, 2012. The Relationship Between Golden Delicious Fruit Weight and Crop Density at 12 Locations as Influenced by Three Dwarfing Rootstocks. Journal of the American Pomological Society, Vol 66:4


Marini, R., W. Autio, B. Black, J. Cline, R. Crassweller, P. Domoto, C. Hampson, R. Moran, R. Quezada, T. Robinson, M. Stasiak, and D. Wolfe. 2012. The influence of crop density on annual trunk growth of 'Golden Delicious' apple trees on three rootstocks at 11 locations. J. Amer. Pomol. Soc. 66:183-195.


Marini, R., W. Autio, B. Black, J. Cline, W. Cowgill, R. Crassweller, P. Domoto, C. Hampson, R. Moran, R.A Parra-Quezada, T. Robinson, M. Stasiak, D. Ward, and D. Wolfe. 2012. Summary of the NC140 Apple Physiology Trial: the Relationship Between Golden Delicious Fruit Weight and Crop Density at 12 Locations as Influenced by Three Dwarfing Rootstocks. J. Amer. Pomological Society 66:78-90.


Marini, R., W. Autio, W., B. Black, J. Cline, W. Cowgill, R. Crassweller, P. Domoto, C. Hampson, R. Moran, R. Quezada, T. Robinson, D. Ward, and D. Wolfe. 2013. Return bloom on 'Golden Delicious' apple trees as affected by previous season's crop density on three rootstocks at 11 locations. J. Amer. Pomol. Soc. 67:73-79.


Marini, R.P., W.R. Autio, B. Black, J. Cline, R.M. Crassweller, P.A. Domoto, C. Hampson, R. Moran, R.A. Quezada, T. Robinson, and D. Wolfe. 2013. Return bloom on Golden Delicious apple trees as affected by previous seasons crop density on three rootstocks at 10 locations. Journal of the American Pomological Society 67:73-79.


Marini, R.P., W.R. Autio, B. Black, J. Cline, R.M. Crassweller, P.A. Domoto, C. Hampson, R. Moran, R.A. Quezada, T. Robinson, D. Wolfe. 2013. Return bloom on Golden Delicious apple trees as affected by previous seasons crop density on three rootstocks at 11 locations. Journal of the American Pomological Society 67(2):72-79.


Marini, R.P., W.R. Autio, B. Black, J. Cline, W.R. Cowgill, Jr., R.M. Crassweller, P.A. Domoto, C. Hampson, R. Moran, R.A. Quezada, T. Robinson, D.L. Ward, and D. Wolfe. 2013. Return Bloom on 'Golden Delicious' Apple Trees as affected by Previous Season's Crop Density on Three Rootstocks at 11 Locations. J Am Pom Soc. (APS) 67:72-79, http://www.pubhort.org/aps/67/v67_n2_a2.htm


Marini, R.P., W.R. Autio, B. Black, J. Cline, W.R. Cowgill, R.M. Crassweller, P.A. Domoto, C. Hampson, R. Moran, R.A. Quezada, T. Robinson, D. Ward, and D. Wolfe. 2013. Return bloom on Golden Delicious apple trees as affected by previous seasons crop density on three rootstocks at 11 locations. J. Amer. Pomological Society. 67:72-79.


Parker, M. revised chapter by R.L. Perry and J.N. Cummins. 2013. Burrknot. In: Sutton, T.B., H.S. Aldwinckle, A.M. Agnello and J.F. Wallenbach (eds.) Compendium of Apple and Pear Diseases and Pests, Second Edition. APS Press. pp. 125-126.


Reighard, G.L. 2013. Peach, Plum and Apricot Rootstocks for the 21st Century. Aspects of Applied Biology 119:59-66.


Reighard, G.L., W. Bridges, B. Rauh and N.A. Mayer. 2013. Prunus rootstocks influence peach leaf and fruit nutrient content. Acta Hort 984:117-124.


Song, G.-Q., K.C. Sink, A.E. Walworth, M.A. Cook, R.F. Allison, and G.A. Lang. 2013. Engineering cherry rootstocks with resistance to Prunus necrotic ring spot virus through RNAi-mediated silencing. Plant Biotechnology Journal doi: 10.1111 / pbi.12060.



Other Publications (Abstracts, Fact Sheets, Newsletters, Reports)


Autio, W., T. Robinson, D. Archbold, W. Cowgill, C. Hampson, R. Parra Quezada and D. Wolfe. 2013. 2002 NC-140 Apple Rootstock Trial: Gala apple trees on Supporter 4, P.14 and different strains of B.9, M.9 and M.26 rootstock: Final Progress Report. Compact Fruit Tree 46(1):23-28.


Autio, W., T. Robinson, D. Archbold, W. Cowgill, C. Hampson, R. Quezada, and D. Wolfe. 2013. 2002 NC-140 Apple Rootstock Trial: Gala apple trees on Supporter 4, P.14, and different strains of B.9, M.9, and M.26 rootstocks, final progress report. Compact Fruit Tree 46 (1):23-28.


Coneva, E., Edgar Vinson, and Jim Pitts. 2013. Peach Rootstock Cultivar Evaluation, 2012. Spring 2012 Commercial Fruit and Vegetable Variety Trials Regional Bulletin 26.


Cowgill, W and J. Clement.2013. The NC-140 web site, www.nc140.org.


Davis, A.L. 2013. Low Temperature survival of Redhaven peach floral buds on selected rootstocks.University of Missouri,Columbia. M.S. thesis.


Day, K, S. Johnson and T. M. DeJong. 2013. Evaluating Potential Peach Rootstocks in the NC-140 Trial, California Cling Peach Research Report 2013. 2 pages.


DeJong, T., S. Johnson, K. Day, R. Phene, and S. Castro. 2012. Improved rootstocks for peach and nectarine. California Cling Peach Research Report 2012. 3 pages.


Domoto, P. and Schroeder, L. 2013. Performance of Gibson Golden Delicious on Dwarfing Rootstocks. Ann. Prog. Rept.  2012 for Hort. Res. Sta., ISRF12-36:45-46 http://www.ag.iastate.edu/farms/2012%20Farm%20Reports/Hort/GibsonGoldenDelicious.pdf


Domoto, P. and Schroeder, L. 2013. Third year performance of Honeycrisp on dwarfing rootstocks. Ann. Prog. Rept.  2012 for Hort. Res. Sta., ISRF12-36:47-48 http://www.ag.iastate.edu/farms/2012%20Farm%20Reports/Hort/ThirdYearPerformanceHoneycrisp.pdf


Elkins, R. 2012 California Pear Research Report, California Pear Advisory Board, Sacramento, California, p. 57-58.


Elkins, R. 2013. Evaluation of potential new size controlling rootstocks for European pear. 2012 California Pear Research Report, California Pear Advisory Board, Sacramento, California, p. 57-58.


Fazio, G., H. Aldwinckle and T. Robinson. 2013. Unique characteristics of Geneva® apple rootstocks. NY Fruit Quarterly 21(3):25-28.


Geng, F., R. Moran and D. Zhang. 2013. Light quality affects microshoot growth of apple rootstocks: B.9 & G.30. HortScience 48(9):S246 (Abstr.).


Gregory Reighard, W. Bridges, Jr., D. Archbold, A. Atucha, W. Autio, T. Beckman, B. Black, E. Coneva, K. Day, M. Kushad, R. Pokharel, R.S. Johnson, T. Lindstrom, M. Parker T. Robinson, J. Schupp, M. Warmund, and D. Wolfe. 2013. NC-140 Peach Rootstock Testing in 13 U.S. States. Acta Horticulturae Book of Abstracts.


Johnson, R.S., G.L. Reighard, T.G. Beckman, E.D. Coneva, K.R. Day, J. Fachinello, E. Fallahi, M.J. Newell, D. Ouellette, T.L. Robinson and D. Wolfe. 2013. Environmental effects on fruit ripening and average fruit weight for three peach cultivars. VIII Int. Peach Symposium: Program and Abstracts p. 125.


Johnson, R.S., T.G. Beckman, E.D. Coneva, K.R. Day, E. Fallahi, M.J. Newell, G.L. Reighard, T.L. Robinson and D. Wolfe. 2013. Environmental Effects on Fruit Ripening and Average Fruit Weight for Three Peach Cultivars. Acta Horticulturae Book of Abstracts.


Johnson, S., K. Day and T. M. DeJong, 2012. Evaluating Potential Peach Rootstocks in the NC-140 Trial, California Cling Peach Research Report 2012. 2 pages.


Lang, G.A., S. Blatt, J. Grant, C. Ingels, S. Hoying, D. Neilsen, G. Neilsen and T. Robinson. 2013. The NC140 Regional Research trial: Evaluation of four innovative orchard systems x three Gisela rootstocks x multiple sites across North America. VII Int. Cherry Symposium: Program and Abstracts p. 62.


Miranda Sazo, M. and T.L. Robinson. 2013. The split application strategy for pre-harvest fruit drop control in a super spindle apple orchard in Western NY. NY Fruit Quarterly 21(2):21-24.


Miranda-Sazo, M. and T. Robinson. 2013. Recent advances of mechanization for the Tall Spindle orchard system in New York State  Part 1. NY Fruit Quarterly 21(1):15-20.


Moran, R.E., F. Geng, G. Fazio and J. Cline. 2013. Genotypic variation in apple rootstock cold temperature tolerance. HortScience 48(9):S187 (Abstr.).


Reighard, G., W. Bridges, Jr., D. Archbold, A. Atucha, W. Autio, T. Beckman, B. Black, E. Coneva, K. Day, M. Kushad, R. Pokharel, R.S. Johnson, T. Lindstrom, M. Parker, T. Robinson, J. Schupp, M. Warmund, and D. Wolfe. 2013. NC-140 peach rootstock testing in 13 U.S. states. VIII Int. Peach Symposium: Program and Abstracts p. 18.


Reighard, G.L. and and NC-140 Cooperators. 2013. NC-140 Peach Rootstock Testing in 13 U.S. States. VIII th International Peach Symposium, Matera, Italy. June 17-20, 2013.


Robinson, T. (Ed). 2013. Precision Orchard Management. Cornell University . 146pp.


Robinson, T. 2013. High-density pear plantings for high early yields. Compact Fruit Tree 46(2):11-16.


Robinson, T. and M. Miranda Sazo. 2013. Advances in Mechanization of the Tall Spindle apple orchard system: Part 2 Harvest Mechanization Prospects. NY Fruit Quarterly 21(3):3-7.


Robinson, T., A. Lakso, and L. Dominguez. 2013. Precision irrigation management. NY Fruit Quarterly 21(2):17-19.


Robinson, T., A. Lakso, D. Greene and S. Hoying. 2013. Precision crop load management. NY Fruit Quarterly 21(2):3-9.


Robinson, T., and L. Dominguez. 2013. Production of sweet cherries under high tunnels in either the modified Spanish Bush or the Tall Spindle Systems. NY Fruit Quarterly 21(2):25-28.


Robinson, T., S. Hoying, M. Miranda Sazo, A. DeMaree and L. Dominguez. 2013. A vision for apple orchards systems of the future. NY Fruit Quarterly 21(3):11-16.


Robinson, T.L, S.K. Brown, G. Fazio and H.S. Aldwinckle. 2013. Introduction. In: Sutton, T.B., H.S. Aldwinckle, A.M. Agnello and J.F. Wallenbach (eds.) Compendium of Apple and Pear Diseases and Pests, Second Edition. APS Press. p1-10.


Robinson, T.L. S.A. Hoying and L.I. Dominguez. 2013. Interaction of training system and rootstock on yield, fruit size, fruit quality and crop value of three sweet cherry cultivars. VII Int. Cherry Symposium: Program and Abstracts p. 98.


Robinson, T.L. 2012. High-density planting systems and rootstocks for sweet cherries in the Northeast  2012 Progress Report. Compact Fruit Tree 46(1):17-22.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Preparing fresh apple, peach and pear orchards for mechanical harvesting. HortScience 48(9)Supplement:S79 (Abstr.)


Robinson, T.L. 2013. The effect of summer hedging of Tall Spindle apple trees on growth, fruit quality and flowering. HortScience 48(9)Supplement:S185 (Abstr.)


Robinson, T.L. and L.I. Dominguez. 2013. Effect of timing of caustic bloom thinning sprays during bloom on yield, fruit size and fruit quality of peach. VIII Int. Peach Symposium: Program and Abstracts p. 123.


Robinson, T.L., M. Miranda Sazo and C. Kahlke. 2013. Control of internal flesh pigmentation of apples with Retain. Int. PGR Symposium: Program and Abstracts p. 24.


Robinson, T.L., M. Miranda Sazo, W. Cowgill and L. Huffman. 2013. Effect of Promalin, Benzyl Adenine and Cyclanalide on lateral branching of apple trees in the nursery and the orchard. Int. PGR Symposium: Program and Abstracts p. 20.


Ward, D., W.P. Cowgill Jr., J.L. Frecon, G.C. Hamilton, J.R. Heckman, L.S. Katz, N. Lalancette, B.A. Majek, D. Polk. 2012. "New Jersey Commercial Tree Fruit Production Guide." Cooperative Extension Bulletin E002 total pages (229).


Wolfe, D. D. Archbold, J. Johnston, and G. Travis. 2012. Rootstock Effects on Apple and Peach Tree Growth and Yield. 2012 Fruit and Vegetable Crops Research Report. University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station publication. PR-656:13-15. http://www2.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/pr/pr656/pr656.pdf


Yoder K. and G. Peck. 2012. 2011 Progress Report to Virginia Apple Research Program; Rootstock effects on growth and yield of Gala, Fuji, and York apples. (Apr. 2012) Virginia Fruit Vol. 1, No. 76:13-14.


Articles in Trade Publications

Lang, G. 2013. Pruning for large cherries. Good Fruit Grower 64(12):14-15.


Lang, G. 2013. Consistent production with covered systems. American/Western Fruit Grower (Sept/Oct):26-27.


Presentations:

Autio, W.R. February 2013. NC-140 Regional Rootstock Research Project: Past, Present, Future. International Fruit Tree Association 56th Annual Conference. Boston, MA. Grower, professional, research, Extension, industry audience. Attendance 450.


Autio, W.R., J. Clements, and J. Krupa. February 2013. NC-140 Peach and Apple Rootstock Plantings at the University of Massachusetts Cold Spring Orchard. International Fruit Tree Association 56th Annual Conference Post-Conference Tour. Belchertown, MA. Grower, professional, research, Extension, industry audience. Attendance 100.


Beckman, T.G. and Schnabel, G. January, 2012. Update on efforts to develop an oak root rot management program . Southeastern Fruit and Vegetable Conference. Grower and research community audience. Attendance ca. 75.


Blatt, SE. 2013. Post-harvest disorders and insect damage influenced by rootstock for Honeycrisp. Nova Scotia Fruit Growers Annual Convention. Greenwich, Nova Scotia. Grower and industry audience. Attendance: 240.


Blatt, SE. 2013. Rootstock performance in Honeycrisp. Nova Scotia Institute of Agrologists Field Tour. October. Attendance: 36.


Clements, Jon M., W.P. Cowgill, R. Magron, and W.R. Autio. January 2013. Ten-year Performance of Cameo® Apple Trees on Three Dwarf Rootstocks in Massachusetts and New Jersey as Part of the NC-140 Regional Rootstock Research Project. (Poster.) Annual Meeting of the American Society for Horticultural Science Northeast Region, New Brunswick, NJ. Professional audience. Attendance 65.


Coneva E. Field Performance of Redhaven Peach on 14 Newly Introduced Rootstocks. Chilton Area Peach Production Annual Meeting, Clanton, AL, February 2013. Attendance 87.

Cowgill, W.P.,Jr. 2013. North Jersey Fruit Meeting, March 2012; Broadway, NJ, 62 attendees, growers


Cowgill, W.P.,Jr. 2013. North Jersey Twilight Fruit Meeting, April, 11; Rutgers Snyder Farm, Pittstown, NJ 44 attendees, growers


Cowgill, W.P.,Jr. 2013. North Jersey Twilight Fruit Meeting, May 3; Phillips Farm, Milford, NJ 66 attendees, growers


Cowgill, W.P.,Jr. 2013. North Jersey Twilight Horticultural Research Meeting, Rutgers Snyder Farm, September, 2012; sponsored by RCE and NJ NOFA  48 growers participating


Cowgill, W.P.,Jr. 2013. Performance of NC-140 apple rootstocks and recommendations for planting. IFTA, NY.


Einhorn, T. August 8, 2013. An update on pear horticultural research at MCAREC. 2013 MCAREC Annual Field day, Hood River, OR. Members of the Oregon tree fruit industry. Estimated attendance 70.


Einhorn, T. February 6, 2013. New and continuing research on improving pear production efficiency. 2013 Hood River Winter Horticulture Meeting, Hood River, OR. Members of the regional fruit industry. Estimated attendance 85.


Einhorn, T. January 23, 2013. The search for cold hardy, dwarfing, precocious, productive, pear decline resistant, fire blight tolerant, large fruit promoting, easily rooting pear rootstocks: An update. 2013 North Central Washington Pear Day, Wenatchee, WA. Members of the North Central Washington and greater regional fruit industry. Estimated attendance 200.


Einhorn, T. July 11, 2013. The Mid-Columbia pear horticulture research program. 2013 SOREC annual field day, Medford, OR. Members of the Rogue Valley tree fruit industry. Estimated attendance 25.


Einhorn, T. March 20, 2013. Improving production practices of pear and sweet cherry. Yakima Pom Club, Yakima, WA. Members of the Washington State tree fruit industry. Estimated attendance 40.


Elkins, R. Evaluation of potential new size controlling rootstocks for European pear (two presentations). 2013 Sacramento River District Pear Research Meeting, February 6, 2013; Walnut Grove, California and 2013 North Coast Pear Research Meeting, February 13, 2013, Ukiah, California. Total of attendees.


Elkins, R., Einhorn, T and Musacchi, S. October 22, 2013. The NC-140 2013 pear rootstock trials: a new approach for evaluation of rootstock performance. UCANR- Pear Orchard Systems Field Meeting, Hopland, CA. Members of the North Coast California tree fruit industry. Estimated attendance 30.


Elkins, R., T. Einhorn, S. Musacchi, B. Lampinen and T. DeJong. Pear Orchard Systems Field Meeting. October 22, 2013, Hopland, Mendocino County. 35 attendees.


Fallahi, E. and B. Shafii. March 8, 2013. Training and Growing Habit of Fuji Apple on Different Rootstocks. Idaho and Washington Fruit Grower audience. Attendance: 79.


Fallahi, E. November 2012. NC-140 Fuji/Rootstock Progress Report. Annual Conference of NC-140, Portland, Maine, Attendance 42.


Fallahi, E., B. Fallahi, and B. Shafii. July 18, 2013. Research Update on Apple Rootstock. Idaho State Horticultural Society Summer Tour, Parma, ID. Grower audience. Attendance 107.


Fallahi, E., B. Fallahi, B. Shafii. September 6, 2013. Performance of Apple Rootstocks under Intermountain West Conditions. University of Idaho Pomology Program Fruit Field Day, Growers and public audience. Attendance 980.


Grant, J. G. Lang, and C. Ingels. Chilean agricultural scientist delegation. July 15, 2013, 9 attendees.


Hoying. S.A. and T.L. Robinson. 2013. Hand Thinning for Precision Crop Load Management. Cornell Fruit In-depth School 2013, Geneva, NY. Mar. 15, 2013. 220 people.


Hoying. S.A. and T.L. Robinson. 2013. Pruning for Precision Crop Load Management. Cornell Fruit In-depth School 2013, Geneva, NY. Mar. 15, 2013. 220 people.


Ingels, C. and B. Kirkpatrick. Visit by UC Davis Fruit Pathology Class to discuss training systems, rootstocks, and oak root fungus. April 18, 2013, 16 attendees.


Ingels, C. and R. Elkins. UC European Pear Workgroup and pear & cherry tour, including cherry trial site. June 27, 13 attendees.


Ingels, C. US EPA and Calif. Dept. of Pesticide Regulation farm tour stop at cherry trial and pear orchard. July 11, 2013, 46 attendees.


ISU Fruit & Vegetable Field Day, Hort Res. Sta., Ames, IA NC-140 dwarf apple rootstock trial, 90 attendees.


Johnson, R.S., G.L. Reighard and NC-140 Cooperators. 2013. Environmental Effects on Fruit Ripening and Average Fruit Weight for Three Peach Cultivars. VIIIth International Peach Symposium, Matera, Italy. June 17-20, 2013.


Johnson, R.S., G.L. Reighard, T.G. Beckman, E.D. Coneva, K.R. Day, J. Fachinello, E. Fallahi, M.J. Newell, D. Ouellette, T.L. Robinson and D. Wolfe. 2013. Environmental Effects on Fruit Ripening and Average Fruit Weight for Three Peach Cultivars. VIII International Peach Symposium. Matera (Italy). June 17- 20, 2013.


Kahlke, C. and T.L. Robinson. 2013. Internal Bleeding of Idared Apples. Orleans County Fruit School. Feb. 4, 2013. 150 people.


Kahlke, C. and T.L. Robinson. 2013. Internal Bleeding of Idared Apples. Wayne County Fruit School. Feb. 5, 2013. 200 people.


Lang, G.A. 10 Jan 2013. Fundamentals of Sweet Cherry Production. Great Plains Growers Conference. St. Joseph, MO. Grower audience. Attendance 38.


Lang, G.A. 10 Jan 2013. Growing Fruit Trees in High Tunnels. Great Plains Growers Conference. St. Joseph, MO. Grower audience. Attendance 53.


Lang, G.A. 11 Dec 2013. Innovative and Labor Efficient Cherry Training Systems: Results So Far Across North America. Great Lakes Fruit, Vegetable, & Farm Market Expo. Grand Rapids, MI. Grower audience. Attendance 148.


Lang, G.A. 11 Jan 2013. Fundamentals of Tart Cherry Production. Great Plains Growers Conference. St. Joseph, MO. Grower audience. Attendance 48.


Lang, G.A. 11 Nov 2013. Recent Developments Sweet Cherry Training Systems, Rootstocks, and Orchard Management. SummerGreen Seminar/Workshop. Roxburgh, New Zealand. Grower audience. Attendance 31.


Lang, G.A. 12 Nov 2013. Recent Developments Sweet Cherry Training Systems, Rootstocks, and Orchard Management. SummerGreen Seminar/Workshop. Cromwell, New Zealand. Grower audience. Attendance 43.


Lang, G.A. 14 Nov 2013. Recent Developments Sweet Cherry Training Systems, Rootstocks, and Orchard Management. SummerGreen Seminar/Workshop. Blenheim, New Zealand. Grower audience. Attendance 37.


Lang, G.A. 15 Nov 2013. Recent Developments Sweet Cherry Training Systems, Rootstocks, and Orchard Management. SummerGreen Seminar/Workshop. Hawkes Bay, New Zealand. Grower audience. Attendance 52.


Lang, G.A. 17 Apr 2013. Optimizing Cherry Production: Physiology-Based Management. Haygrove Growers Conference. Canterbury, United Kingdom. Grower audience. Attendance 89.


Lang, G.A. 22 Oct 2013. Comparing the TSA, KGB, UFO, and SSA Sweet Cherry Training Systems. 2nd International Seminario on Updates and Advances in the Development of New Training Systems and Pedestrian Orchards in Chile. Curico, Chile. Grower audience. Attendance 130.


Lang, G.A. 24 Jun 2013. The NC140 Regional Research Trial: Evaluation of Four Innovative Orchards Systems x Three Gisela Rootstocks x Multiple Sites Across North America. 7th International Cherry Symposium (International Society for Horticultural Sscience). Plascencia, Spain. Scientific audience. Attendance 225.


Lang, G.A. 24 Jun 2013. Trends and Characteristics of Current, New, and Future Cherry Cultivars Around the World (Keynote Address). 7th International Cherry Sysmposium (International Society for Horticultural Sscience). Plascencia, Spain. Scientific audience. Attendance 225.


Lang, G.A. 29 Jan 2013. Current Status and Future Outlook for Growing Tart Cherries. Oregon Horticultural Society. Grower audience. Portland, OR. Attendance 39.


Lang, G.A. 29 Jan 2013. Research Results from the North American Sweet Cherry Training Systems Trial. Oregon Horticultural Society. Portland, OR. Grower audience. Attendance 33.


Lang, G.A. 3 Dec 2013. The NC140 Cherry Training System Story: A Continent-wide Trial Comparing UFO, KGB, SSA, and Tall Spindle Axe (TSA). Washington State Horticultural Association. Wenatchee, WA. Grower audience. Attendance 265.


Lang, G.A. 31 Jan 2013. Tree Fruit Crops in High Tunnels. Mid-Atlantic Fruit & Vegetable Convention. Hershey, PA. Grower audience. Attendance 177.


Lang, G.A. 6 Feb 2013. Innovations in Cherry Production Around the World. Southwest Hort Days. Benton Harbor, MI. Grower audience. Attendance 31.


Lang, G.A. and C. Kaiser. 3 Dec 2013. Managing Soil Moisture to Minimize Rain Cracking. Washington State Horticultural Association. Wenatchee, WA. Grower audience. Attendance 265.


Lang, G.A., L.E. Long, and J. Schupp. 24 Feb 2013. Cherry & Peach Pruning Demonstration. International Fruit Tree Association. Boston, MA. Grower audience. Attendance 91.


Mayer, N.A., B. Ueno and G. L. Reighard . 2013. Selection of Prunus mume as rootstocks for peaches on PTSL site. VIIIth International Peach Symposium, Matera, Italy. June 17-20, 2013.


Mayer, N.A., G. L. Reighard and W. Bridges.. 2013. Peach rootstock propagation under intermittent mist system. VIIIth International Peach Symposium, Matera, Italy. June 17-20, 2013.


Meeting. Kelowna, BC grower audience.


Miranda Sazo, M. and T.L. Robinson. 2013. Frost Protection Methods. Cornell Fruit In-depth School 2013, Geneva, NY. Mar. 15, 2013. 220 people.


Miranda Sazo, M. and T.L. Robinson. 2013. Working Efficiently in the Orchard of the Future. Cornell Fruit In-depth School 2013, Geneva, NY. Mar. 15, 2013. 220 people.


Moran,R. 2013. Tree Fruit Research at Highmoor Farm, Maine State Pomological Society Summer Tour, Monmouth, ME, July 31, 2013. Attended by 35 growers.


Moran, R. 2013. Update on Research at the Experiment Station, Maine Agricultural Trades Show, Augusta, ME, January 9, 2013. Attended by 60 growers.


Neilsen, D. and Neilsen, G. 7th March, 2013. OKCFGA Report - NC140 trials and Crop Load Management.


Parker, M.L. February 2013. Mikes Crystal Ball for Apple Varieties and Rootstocks for Western NC. Western District Apple School, Hendersonville, NC. Commercial grower audience. Attendance 100.


Parker, M.L. February 2013. Apple Varieties and Rootstocks for NC. Brushy Mountain Fruit School, Wilkesboro, NC. Commercial grower audience. Attendance 40.


Parker, M.L. January 2013. Maximizing Orchard Productivity -- The Bearing Years. Southeastern Apple Growers Meeting, Asheville, NC. Commercial grower audience. Attendance 120.


Parker, M.L. January 2013. Maximizing Peach Production - Rootstock Selection. Peach Production Workshop. Sandhills Research Station, Jackson Springs, NC. Commercial grower audience. Attendance 40.


Peck, G. and K. Yoder. 16 May 2013. Breakfast Meeting for Commercial Growers. Winchester, VA. Grower audience. Attendance: 15.


Peck, G. and K. Yoder. 19 Jul 2013. Alson H. Smith, Jr. AREC Field Day for Commercial Growers. Winchester, VA. Grower audience. Attendance: 55.


Pokharel, R. R., and G. L. Reighard. 2013. Evaluation of biofumigation and soil solarization on peach replant disease. VIIIth International Peach Symposium, Matera, Italy. June 17-20, 2013.


Pokharel, R. R., and G. L. Reighard. 2013. Evaluation of Rootstock Effect on Tolerance to Iron Chlorosis and Cytospora Canker in Peaches. VIIIth International Peach Symposium, Matera, Italy. June 17-20, 2013.


Pokharel, R. R., G. L. Reighard and D. Reich. 2013. Deficit irrigation for iron chlorosis did not affect fruit production and quality in peach. VIIIth International Peach Symposium, Matera, Italy. June 17-20, 2013.


Reighard, G.L. 2013. Peach rootstock cultivars and genetics. Michigan Spring Peach Update Meeting. Benton Harbor, MI. March 5, 2013.


Reighard, G.L. 2013. Technology choices for a profitable 21st Century peach farm. IFTA 56th Annual Conference. Boston,, MA. Feb. 23 to March 2, 2013.


Reighard, G.L. 2013. Emerging technologies in U.S. peach production. WCHS & VinCO Conference. Grand Junction, CO. Jan. 15-17, 2013.


Reighard, G.L. 2013. New apple rootstocks from Vineland and Geneva. Illinois Specialty Crops, Agritourism and Organic Conference. Springfield, IL. Jan. 9-11, 2013.


Reighard, G.L. 2013. New peach and apple rootstocks for the grower. WCHS & VinCO Conference. Grand Junction, CO. Jan. 15-17, 2013.


Reighard, G.L. 2013. Peach culture in the 21st century. Illinois Specialty Crops, Agritourism and Organic Conference. Springfield, IL. Jan. 9-11, 2013.


Reighard, G.L. 2013. Peach, Plum and Apricot Rootstocks for the 21st Century. East Malling Centenary Conference, Fruits and Roots: A Celebration and Forward Look. East Malling, UK. November 6-7, 2013.


Reighard, G.L. and NC-140 Cooperators. 2013. NC-140 Peach Rootstock Testing in 13 U.S. States. VIIIth International Peach Symposium, Matera, Italy. June 17-20, 2013.


Reighard, G.L., W. Bridges, Jr., D. Archbold, A. Atucha, W. Autio, T. Beckman, B. Black, E. Coneva, K. Day, M. Kushad, R. Pokharel, R.S. Johnson, T. Lindstrom, M. Parker, T. Robinson, J. Schupp, M. Warmund, and D. Wolfe. 2013. NC-140 Peach Rootstock Testing in 13 U.S. States. VIII International Peach Symposium. Matera (Italy). June 17- 20, 2013.


Robinson, T.L. S.A. Hoying and L.I. Dominguez. 2013. Interaction of training system and rootstock on yield, fruit size, fruit quality and crop value of three sweet cherry cultivars. VII Int. Cherry Symposium, Placencia, Spain, June, 25, 2013. 150 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Outdoor Pruning Workshop in Orleans County NY. Feb. 19, 2013. 100 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Crop Load Management of Apples. Xian, China, Extension Agents Training Meeting. Mar. 9, 2013. 400 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Crop Load Management of Apples. Yantai, China, Extension Agents Training Meeting. Mar. 5, 2013. 400 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. High Density Delicious Orchards with Geneva Rootstocks. Field Workshop during IFTA Spring Tour-Hudson NY. Feb. 28, 2013. 100 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. High Density Pear Orchards. IFTA Annual Meeting-Boston, MA. Feb. 25, 2013. 300 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Management of Modern High Density Apple Orchards. Xian, China, Extension Agents Training Meeting. Mar. 9, 2013. 400 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Management of Modern High Density Apple Orchards. Yantai, China, Extension Agents Training Meeting. Mar. 5, 2013. 400 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Management Strategies for 2013 after the Small Crop of 2012. Hudson Valley Fruit School. Feb. 12, 2013. 250 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Management Strategies for 2013 after the Small Crop of 2012. Orleans County Fruit School. Feb. 4, 2013. 150 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Management Strategies for 2013 after the Small Crop of 2012. Wayne County Fruit School. Feb. 5, 2013. 200 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Maximizing Crop Value by Thinning. IFTA In-depth Workshop on Crop Load Management-Boston, MA. Feb. 23, 2013. 150 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Mechanization of High Density Apple Orchards. Xian, China, Extension Agents Training Meeting. Nov. 23, 2013. 200 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Mechanization of High Density Apple Orchards. Yantai, China, Extension Agents Training Meeting. Nov. 19, 2013. 200 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Precision Crop Load Management. IFTA In-depth Workshop on Crop Load Management-Boston, MA. Feb. 23, 2013. 150 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Pruning and Training Apple Trees. Orleans County Fruit School. Feb. 4, 2013. 50 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Pruning and Training Apple Trees. Outdoor Pruning Workshop in Wayne County NY. Feb. 18, 2013. 100 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Pruning and Training Apple Trees. Wayne County Fruit School. Feb. 5, 2013. 20 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. The Evolution Towards More Competitive Apple Orchard Systems in the USA. NC Fruit School. Feb. 6, 2013. 100 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. The Fruiting Wall with Tall Spindle Trees. IFTA Annual Meeting-Boston, MA. Feb. 27, 2013. 300 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. A Vision for Orchards of the Future. Great Lakes Fruit Workers Meeting, Bowmanville, Ontario, Canada,. Nov. 13, 2013. 50 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. A Vision for Orchards of the Future. Idaho Horticulture Society, Nampa ID,. Nov. 3, 2013. 100 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. A Vision for Orchards of the Future. Washington State Horticulture Association, Wenatchee WA,. Dec. 2, 2013. 400 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Controlling Biennial Bearing of Apple. Idaho Horticulture Society, Nampa ID,. Nov. 3, 2013. 100 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Crop Load Management Strategies for 2013. Champlain Valley Spring Field Workshop. May 28, 2013. 40 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Crop Load Management Strategies for 2013. Hudson Valley Spring Field Workshop. May 21, 2013. 100 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Crop Load Management Strategies for 2013. Niagara/Orleans County Spring Field Workshop. May 22, 2013. 100 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Crop Load Management Strategies for 2013. Saratoga County Spring Field Workshop. May 24, 2013. 40 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Crop Load Management Strategies for 2013. Wayne County Spring Field Workshop. May 23, 2013. 100 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Geneva rootstocks for Organic Apple Production. Stuttgart, Germany Organic Apple Conference. April. 26, 2013. 100 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Hand Thinning of Apples with Platforms. Champlain Valley Field Workshop. July 1, 2013. 30 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Hand Thinning of Apples with Platforms. Wayne County Field Workshop. June 15, 2013. 80 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. High Density Apple Orchards of the Future. Chihuahua International Apple Symposium for Fruit Growers Conference. Nov. 15, 2013. 200 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. High Density Apple Orchards. Beijing, China, Extension Leaders Meeting. Nov. 25, 2013. 30 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. High Density Apple Orchards. Xian, China, University Seminar at Northwest A&F University. Nov. 22, 2013. 100 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. High Density Apples and Cherries and Rootstocks. Geneva Fruit Field Day. Aug. 1, 2013. 200 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. High Density Apples. Michigan Fruit Field Day. Aug. 8, 2013. 200 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Management of High Density Apple Orchards. Chilean Valent Fruit Growers Conference. Sept. 10, 2013. 100 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Management of High Density Apple Orchards. INIA Uruguay Fruit Growers Conference. Sept. 26, 2013. 200 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Managing Honeycrisp Apples. Washington State University Honeycrisp In-depth School, Wenatchee WA,. Dec. 5, 2013. 300 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Managing the Risk of Hail and Sunburn. Cornell Fruit In-depth School 2013, Geneva, NY. Mar. 15, 2013. 220 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Mechanization of Apple Orchards. ASOEX Chile Exporters Conference. Aug. 5, 2013. 400 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Mechanization of Pear Orchards. International Pear Symposium (Interpera), General Roca, Argentina, June 6, 2013. 250 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Precision Chemical Thinning. Geneva Fruit Field Day. Aug. 1, 2013. 200 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Precision Crop load Management Workshop. Champlain Valley Spring Workshop. May 15, 2013. 30 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Precision Crop load Management Workshop. Geneva Workshop. May 9, 2013. 50 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Precision Crop Load Management. Cornell Fruit In-depth School 2013, Geneva, NY. Mar. 15, 2013. 220 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Precision Crop load Management. University of Chile Fruit Growers Conference. Sept. 11, 2013. 100 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Precision Crop load Management. University of Chile Fruit Growers Conference. Sept. 13, 2013. 100 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Precision Harvest Management. Cornell Fruit In-depth School 2013, Geneva, NY. Mar. 16, 2013. 220 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Precision Nutrient Management. Orleans County Field Workshop. April 15, 2013. 100 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Precision Orchard Management. Cornell Fruit In-depth School 2013, Geneva, NY. Mar. 15, 2013. 220 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Preparing fresh apple, peach and pear orchards for mechanical harvesting. Annual Meeting of the American Society for Horticultural Science, Palm Desert, CA July 23, 2013. 100 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Pruning and Training Apple Trees. Champlain Valley Spring Field Workshop. April 9, 2013. 40 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Summer Pruning with Machines. Champlain Valley Field Workshop. July 11, 2013. 30 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. Summer Pruning with Machines. Geneva Fruit Field Day. Aug. 1, 2013. 200 people.


Robinson, T.L. 2013. The effect of summer hedging of Tall Spindle apple trees on growth, fruit quality and flowering. Annual Meeting of the American Society for Horticultural Science, Palm Desert, CA July 24, 2013. 50 people.


Robinson, T.L. and A.N. Lakso. 2013. Precision Irrigation of Apple Orchards. Hudson Valley Fruit School. Feb. 12, 2013. 250 people.


Robinson, T.L. and A.N. Lakso. 2013. Precision Irrigation of Apple Orchards. NY State Horticultural Expo. Jan 24, 2013. 200 people.


Robinson, T.L. and M. Miranda Sazo. 2013. Our Version of the Fruiting Wall with Tall Spindle Trees. NY State Horticultural Expo. Jan 23, 2013. 200 people.


Robinson, T.L., A.N. Lakso, and L. Dominguez. 2013. Precision Irrigation Management. Cornell Fruit In-depth School 2013, Geneva, NY. Mar. 15, 2013. 220 people.


Robinson, T.L., A.N. Lakso, D. Greene, and S. Hoying. 2013. Precision Chemical Thinning. Cornell Fruit In-depth School 2013, Geneva, NY. Mar. 15, 2013. 220 people.


Robinson, T.L., M. Miranda Sazo and C. Kahlke. 2013. Control of internal flesh pigmentation of apples with Retain. Meeting of International Plant Growth Regulator Society, Orlando, FL. July 29, 2013. 100 people.


Robinson, T.L., M. Miranda Sazo and P. Wafler. 2013. Harvest Mechanization: Challenges and Outlook. Cornell Fruit In-depth School 2013, Geneva, NY. Mar. 15, 2013. 220 people.


Robinson, T.L., M. Miranda Sazo, W. Cowgill and L. Huffman. 2013. Effect of Promalin, Benzyl Adenine and Cyclanalide on lateral branching of apple trees in the nursery and the orchard Meeting of International Plant Growth Regulator Society, Orlando, FL. July 29, 2013. 100 people.


Robinson, T.L., S. Hoying, M. Miranda Sazo, A. DeMarree, and L. Dominguez. 2013. Apple Orchard Systems of the Future. Cornell Fruit In-depth School 2013, Geneva, NY. Mar. 15, 2013. 220 people.


S. Johnson, K. Day and DeJong, T. NC140 field meeting. UC Kearney Agricultural Center, Parlier, May 29, 2013, 65 attendees.


Stasiak, M. 21 March 13. Apple Rootstocks and the Orchard of the Future. UW Peninsular Research Station Fruit School. Sturgeon Bay, WI. Audience commercial fruit growers, attendance 50.


Stasiak, M. 23 July 13. NC140 Rootstock Trial Tour. WAGA Summer Apple Field Day. Sturgeon Bay, WI. Audience apple growers, attendance 90.


Strang, J. 5 January 2013. Apple Rootstocks. Kentucky Fruit & Vegetable Growers Conference, Lexington, KY. grower audience. attendance 50.


Wolfe, D. 27 June 2013. Apple and peach rootstock trials in Kentucky. UKREC Horticulture Field Day. homeowner / grower audience. attendance 20.

Impact Statements

  1. Over the last 30 years, fruit growers in North America have steadily transitioned from large canopied orchards to newer higher density orchards that use less land surface, increased production efficiency, and accommodate automation utilizing new technology in management. New rootstocks have largely been the impetus behind this transition as identified by NC-140 research in identifying superior performing rootstocks, their propagation and commercialization. The outcome of this work has given consumers supplies of sustainably grown quality fresh and processed fruit.
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Date of Annual Report: 01/06/2015

Report Information

Annual Meeting Dates: 11/10/2014 - 11/12/2014
Period the Report Covers: 10/01/2013 - 09/01/2014

Participants

Autio, Wesley (autio@umass.edu) – University of Massachusetts; Basedow, Michael (mxb1072@psu.edu) – Pennsylvania State University; Black, Brent (brent.black@usu.edu) – Utah State University; Blatt, Suzanne (Suzanne.Blatt@agr.gc.ca) – Agr. Agri. Food Canada (AAFC); Chavez, Dario (dchavez@uga.edu) – University of Georgia; Clements, Jon (jon.clements@umass.edu) – University of Massachusetts; Cline, John (jcline@uoguelph.ca) – University of Guelph; Cochran, Diana (dianac@iastate.edu) – Iowa State University; Coneva, Elina (edc0001@auburn.edu) – Auburn University; Cowgill, Win (cowgill@NJAES.Rutgers.edu) – Rutgers; Crasswelle, Rob (rmc7@psu.edu) – Pennsylvania State Univeristy; Einhorn, Todd (todd.einhorn@oregonstate.edu) – Oregon State University; Elkins, Rachel (rbelkins@ucanr.edu) – University of California; Fallahi, Esmaeil (efallahi@uidaho.edu) – University of Idaho; Fazio, Gennaro (gf35@cornell.edu) – Cornell University; Gainza, Felipe (fgainza@ceaf.cl) – Cornell University; Hampson, Cheryl (Cheryl.Hampson@agr.gc.ca) – Agriculture & Agri-Food Canada; Hirst, Peter (hirst@purdue.edu) – Purdue University; Hoover, Emily (hoove001@umn.edu) – University of Minnesota; Kalcsits, Lee (lee.kalcsits@wsu.edu) – Washington State University; Kon, Thomas (tmk243@psu.edu) – Pennsylvania State University; Kushad, Mosbah (kushad@illinois.edu) – University of Illilnois at Urbana-Champaign; Lang, Gregory (langg@msu.edu) – Michigan State University; Lavely, Emily (elavely.psu@gmail.com) – Pennsylvania State University; Litus, Greg (greg.litus@colostate.edu) – Colorado State University; Lockwood, David (dlockwood@utk.edu) – University of Tenneesee; Marini, Richard (rpm12@psu.edu) – Pennsylvania State University; Melgar, Juan (jmelgar@clemson.edu) – Clemson University; Munoz, Carlos (carlosmunozschick@u.uchile) – University of Chile; Neilsen, Denise (denise.neilsen@agr.gc.ca) – Agr. Agri Food of Canada; Parker, Michael (mike_parker@ncsu.edu) – North Carolina State University; Peck, Greg (greg.peck@vt.edu) – Virginia Tech; Perry, Ron (perryr@anr.msu.edu) – Michigan State University; Reighard, Gregory (grghrd@clemson.edu) – Clemson University; Robinson, Terence (tlr1@cornell.edu) – Cornell University; Stasiak, Matt (mstasiak@wisc.edu) – University of Wisconsin; Walsh, Chris (cswalsh@umd.edu) – University of Maryland; Warmund, Michele (warmundm@missouri.edu) – University of Missouri; Wolfe, Dwight (dwolf0@uky.edu) – University of Kentucky; Yao, Shengrui (yaos@nmsu.edu) – New Mexico State University

Brief Summary of Minutes

Accomplishments

Impact Nuggets


Knowledge gained on 14 peach rootstocks tested under Alabama environmental conditions will help to sustain the peach industry with a long-term economical impact in increased yield efficiency and survival. New dwarfing peach root continue to demonstration excellent potential in CA. Oak root rot continues to hamper sweet cherry rootstock trial in CA. Detailed and objective evaluation of new rootstocks in NC 140 trials has provided KY growers with the information needed to select the most appropriate rootstocks for their needs as they become commercially available. Planting of 200 acres of trees in MA on dwarfing rootstock occurred during 2014 based on results of NC-140. On this acreage, pruning and harvest labor declined by 50%, fruit quality and size increased by 20%, profit increased by 50%, and because of reduced canopy volume, pesticide use declined by 70%. The demonstration of precocious yields and labor efficiencies with novel high density “fruiting wall” training systems for sweet and tart cherries has stimulated global, North American and commercial grower orchard trials in Michigan. The uniform apple rootstock trials in MN have allowed growers in USDA hardiness zone 4 to evaluate new rootstocks for planting in commercial operations. Through Rutgers Cooperative Extension outreach, 98% of all New Jersey orchards use apple, pear, peach and cherry dwarfing rootstocks as a direct result of NC-140 research and extension over the past 30 years. New disease resistant dwarf and semi-dwarfing apple rootstocks from the Geneva apple rootstock-breeding program which are being evaluated in NC 140 are being planted by growers in New York. These new Geneva rootstocks should provide fresh and processing growers with greater tolerance to rootstock fire blight and greater economic success with new orchards. NC 140 trials conducted in Nova Scotia have provided growers with extra information for selection of rootstocks for new Honeycrisp apple plantings. Sweet cherry and pear trials have provided confirmation to growers of length of time to achieve yields and challenges with production in Nova Scotia. NC-140 plantings are regularly used as demonstration plots for visiting apple growers, nursery operators, extension personnel, and research scientists in Ontario, Canada. The research data collected in these trials help to establish base-line production and economic records for the various orchard system/rootstock combinations that can be used by orchardists in Ontario. Several European peach rootstocks on trial in NC 140 have been found to be non-adaptable to South Carolina’s soil pathogens and/or climate conditions. NC 140 rootstock trials have been critical to growers in Utah in seeking peach rootstocks which are more tolerant of alkaline soils and in moving away from Lovell and Nemaguard standard rootstocks. Wisconsin apple growers are showing increasing interest in the planting of super spindle and tall spindle systems. Results from past and current NC140 trials in Wisconsin have been critical in demonstrating the productivity of dwarfing rootstocks and their applicability in high density planting systems.


New Facilities and Equipment


An upgraded apple fruit washing and packing line was installed in NJ, including a donated bin dumper, at the Rutgers University Snyder Farm. A peach orchard systems trial (not part of NC140) was planted in 2014 based partially on data from the 2009 NC140 trial. Plant cameras were installed to continuously record tree growth under different training systems in the 2013 pear trial. Mid-day stem water potential (MSWP) is measured weekly using pressure chambers for the 2005 and 2013 pear trials. Light interception is measured annually using a light bar mounted on a Kawasaki Mule in the 2013 pear trial. A series of 21 trail cameras were established to capture hourly images of Golden Delicious/G.16 trees associated with fruit growth and development. During the 2014 growing season, over 100,000 images have been collected. In addition, a deer fence was installed to protect fruit plantings at the Purdue University’s Meigs farm. A deer fence was installed in 2014 to protect the orchard plantings in KY. The ORSI Cross model self-propelled, self-leveling platform was deployed in ME to study harvest and pruning labor efficiency in high density trials. Orchard climate modification systems (automated retractable roof, manual row covers) were tested to protect high density sweet cherry trees from frost, rain, wind, hail, birds, and some diseases in plots in MI. During 2014, a multi-plate modular differential thermal analysis (DTA) system was built for evaluating peach bud hardiness in UT.


Unique Project Related Findings


Low survival rates by the end of the fifth season were recorded in AL for peach on Mirobac and Krymsk®1 rootstocks. Trees on Empyrean®2 also had low survival. Guardian®, Lovell, KV010-123 and BH-5 grafted trees had 100% survival. Fire blight losses of trees on M.9 and M.26 rootstocks in NC 140 trials in KY offer further confirmation concerning current extension recommendations to growers with regards to these two rootstocks. Peach on Prunus americana continues to be the most productive dwarfing rootstock in a NC 140 trial in MA, equaling the per-tree productivity of standard rootstocks and producing fruit of comparable size. MSU-developed cherry rootstock selections exhibit vigor reduction and precocity comparable to Gisela 3 and Gisela 5 rootstocks for tart and sweet cherry scion varieties in preliminary trials in WA and MI. Preparations have begun to include these in 2017 NC140 coordinated comparative trials for sweet and tart cherry. Krymsk® 1 rootstock reduced peach tree vigor by 40% as compared standard Lovell rootstock in Missouri. The problems of tree survival in high winds of Cripp’s Pink on G41and G935 in MD were unexpected and point to the need to test a wider range of new cultivars, especially in southern areas with longer growing seasons. In the 2010 apple trial in NJ, 14 new rootstocks had equal or greater cumulative yields than the standard dwarfing stock, M9-337 from 2012-2014 including 8 CG stocks from the Cornell breeding program. B.9, the most popular rootstock in Ohio, is not vigorous enough to fill the space in the tall spindle system in year 5 with Honeycrisp as the scion. Sixteen new Prunus rootstocks released for peach were field screened and after 6 years of testing, several are comparable to commercial standards, Lovell and Guardian® in SC. During the severe winter of 2013-14 in WI, multiple events of low winter temperature, coupled with high solar flux, resulted in southern trunk exposure damage. This allowed for southwest trunk injury (SWI) ratings to be recorded.


Accomplishment Summaries


Objective 1. To evaluate the influence of rootstocks on temperate-zone fruit tree characteristics grown under varying environments using sustainable management systems.


Projects in various stages of data collection, evaluation and planning include the following in association with years of plot establishment and identification of trial coordinators ():


2003 Apple Physiology (Rich Marini)
2003 Dwarf Apple Rootstock (Rich Marini)
2005 Pear Rootstock (Rachel Elkins)
2009/2014 Peach Physiology (Rich Marini)
2009 Peach Rootstock (Greg Reighard)
2010 Apple Rootstock (Wes Autio)
2010 Sweet Cherry Rootstock and Training Systems (Greg Lang)
2013 Pear Training/Rootstock/Spacing (Todd Einhorn)
2014 Apple Rootstock (John Cline)
2015 Organic Apple Rootstock (Terence Robinson)
2016/17 Tart Cherry Rootstock x Harvest System (Matt Stasiak/Greg Lang)
2016/17 Sweet Cherry Rootstock (Greg Lang)
2016/17 Pear Interstem/Quince Rootstock (Todd Einhorn)
2018 Apricot Rootstock (Terence Robinson)


Apple Sub-Committee (Chair, Terence Robinson, NY)


The 2003 Dwarf Rootstock Trial was established in the spring of 2003 with 15 cooperators. During the past several years seven cooperators dropped out for various reasons. All eight remaining cooperators received trees on 11 core rootstocks; four of cooperators received an additional seven rootstocks; and two cooperators received 12 additional rootstocks. The scion cultivar is ‘Gibson Golden Delicious’. Each cooperator received 8 trees per rootstock for most rootstocks, but most got only 7 trees of 5 rootstocks and three got only 6 trees of one rootstock. At each location the experimental design was a generalized randomized complete block design with 2 trees of each rootstock randomized within each of 4 blocks per location. Trees were trained to the Vertical Axis system. The 10-year summary was published in the April 2014 edition of the Journal of APS. Conclusions are: 1. CG.3041and CG.5935 are candidates to replace M.9 because it had better tree survival in locations where East Malling rootstocks typically have high tree mortality and had YE (Yield Efficiency) higher than or equal to M.9. CG.3041 was slightly less vigorous than CG.5935 at most locations. 2. Based on results from only two locations, CG.5179 is in the M.9 size class, but did not perform better than M.9 NAKBT337 in terms of tree survival or YE. 3. B.62396 had good tree survival, and high YE and should be evaluated further as a potential replacement for M.9. 4. Based on tree survival and YE, J-TE-H should be evaluated further as a possible replacement for M.26. 5. CG.6210 is similar in vigor to M.26, with similar tree survival, but higher YE. CG.6210 may be a replacement for M.26, but CG.5935 seems even better. 6. CG.5179 was evaluated at only two locations, and performed similar to M.9 and should be evaluated further.


For the 2003 Apple Physiology Trial, Golden Delicious on three rootstocks (M.26 EMLA, M.9 NAKBT337 and G.16) was planted at 12 locations in 2003. At each location there were 10 trees per rootstock in a completely randomized design. Each year when there was adequate bloom, two trees per rootstock were thinned to various crop densities (CD). Each year trunk cross-sectional area (TCA), yield, number of fruit, and bloom density were recorded. Three papers were published in the Journal of the American Pomological Society to evaluate the effect of location and rootstock on the relationship between CD and average fruit weight (FW), annual trunk growth and return bloom. These data were reanalyzed for a presentation for the ISHS symposium in Geneva, NY. The focus of this study was to determine the interactive effects of early season temperatures, crop density and rootstock on average fruit weight. The summary of the results that will be published in Acta Hort. Are as follows:
1. Over the 7-years of the trial crop density (CD) ranged from 1.0 to 15.0 fruit/cm2 and growing degree days (GDD) during the first 60 days after bloom varied from 445 to 780. 2. The 3-way interaction of rootstock x CD x GGD2 was significant (R2 = 0.42, P <0.0001) so models were developed for each rootstock. 3. FW was negatively related to CD and there was a quadratic relationship for GDD. For G.16 and M.9, FW peaked at 650 GDD, but for M.26 FW peaked at 700 GDD. 4. FW increased at a greater rate with increasing GDD for heavy-cropped trees than for light-cropped trees. For all rootstocks, FW was most affected by CD at low values of GDD.


The 2010 NC-140 Apple Rootstock Trial includes 10 Budagovsky, 16 Geneva, 3 Pillnitz, and 3 Malling (controls) rootstocks. Fourteen locations use Honeycrisp as the scion cultivar, and 7 locations use Aztec Fuji. All trees were supported to approximately 3.5 m and grown as Tall Spindles. At the end of 5 growing seasons and across all locations, the largest Honeycrisp trees are on B.70-20-20. This rootstock results in a tree much too vigorous for high-density planting. The smallest trees are on B.71-7-11. This rootstock results in a Honeycrisp tree which is too weak for commercial use. Yield efficiency did not vary greatly among rootstocks, except that the most vigorous (e.g., B.70-20-20) are very inefficient. Fruit size has been good for all Honeycrisp trees in this trial, except for those from trees on PiAu 9-90. In the Fuji trial, some trees were lost in the first season due to damage in the nursery, but since that time, trees have grown very well. At the end of 5 growing seasons, largest Fuji trees were on B.70-20-20 and the smallest were on B.71-7-22. As with Honeycrisp, both rootstocks would be consider unacceptable. Generally, yield efficiency was negatively related to tree size. Fruit size was relatively consistent, except fruit from trees on B.7-20-21 were much smaller than those from all others.


The 2014 Apple rootstock planting was established in 15 locations in the United States (AL, ID, IN, MA, ME, MI, MN, GA, NJ, NY, PA, UT, VA, WA, WI), two in Canada, and one in Mexico (http://bit.ly/1zv3wCc). The trial consists of the following rootstocks: B.10, G.11, G.202, G.214, G.30, G.41, G.5890, G.935, G.969, M.26 EMLA, M.9 T337, V.1, V.5, V.6, V.7. The trial is being coordinated by John Cline who has also agreed to analyze the data. This trial has two cultivars: Aztec Fuji (AL, ID, GA, NJ, ON, PA, UT) and Honeycrisp (ID, IN, MA, ME, Mexico, MI, MN, NJ, NY, Ontario, PA, VA, WA, WI), planted to a ‘tall spindle’ systems at a 5 x 12 feet, and 4 x12 feet spacing, respectively. Trees are planted using a randomized block design with single trees serving as experimental units. Each site selected a pollinizer variety since some sites are very limited in adapted varieties. Trees were established in the spring of 2014. The trees were propagated by Willow Drive Nursery, WA. Data protocols have been established for 2014 and 2015. In 2014, the following data were recorded: 1) initial trunk diameter measured at planting 30cm above graft union; 2) number of side branches >10 cm at planting; 3) trunk circumference in the fall of 2014; 4) height of the graft union above soil; 5) tree status at the end of the 2014 growing season.


For the 2015 Organic Apple Rootstock Trial, trees have been dug at Wafler Nursery. The trial will be planted at 14 locations and will evaluate 9 Geneva rootstocks and 1 Malling rootstock. Modi is the cultivar and Liberty will be the pollenizer. The design is five blocks in two-tree sets and will require 1/10 acre. Organic certification is optional, but orchard management must be organic. Land does not have to be organically certified prior to planting.


Cherry Sub-Committee (Chair, Greg Lang, MI)


The 2010 Sweet Cherry Rootstock x Canopy Training System Coordinated Trial began with 13 sites; these have dwindled to 5 due to diseases, cooperator retirements or transitions, deer damage, etc. Work has begun on the first trial paper (Training Systems Establishment, Years 1-4) with adequate data expected from CA, MI, NY-Geneva, NY-New Paltz, NS, and BC. Of this group, CA likely will drop out for the next phase (Initial-Maturation Yields – Years 5-8) due to excessive mortality from Armillaria. Yields are highly variable by site and lots of lost data because of birds, deer, Armillaria, frost damage, bacterial canker, and trial coordinator retirements. Since most training systems under test are new and novel, questions about proper training and pruning with respect to the spacing and range of rootstock vigor in the trial – perhaps some excessive shading causing some yields to diminish.


Two 2010 Tart Cherry Rootstock x Canopy Training System Independent Trials were established in UT (Brent Black) and MI-Traverse City (Greg Lang/Nikki Rothwell/Ron Perry). The focus is on examining rootstock x canopy training interactions to develop hedgerow-type trees for over-the-row mechanical harvest. Gi.3 was about equal to Gi.5 in adaptability, which were better than Gi.6 and all were better than Mahaleb.


For the 2016 Tart Cherry Rootstock x Harvest System, Matt Stasiak (WI) will be the trial organizer, while Greg Lang will organize tree procurement and the trial will be pushed to 2017 because of nursery issues. The trial will have 5 Michigan State rootstocks, 3 Gisela stocks (3, 5, 12), Krymsk 6, and Mahaleb. Trial sites are UT (2), WI (2), ON, MI, NY, and possibly PA and MD. The tart cherry trees will be trained for over-the-row mechanical harvesting. For the 2016 Sweet Cherry Rootstock coordinated by Greg Lang (MI), it will be pushed back to 2017 because of nursery issues. It will have 5 Michigan State rootstocks, 3 Gisela stocks (3, 5, 12), Krymsk 6, MxM14, and possibly some WeiGi stocks (originated from Gisela program with advanced selections sent to Weihenstephan research station; working with a Dutch nursery). Trial sites include OR, CA, WA, ID, MI, NY, and BC with Benton as a scion. Trees will be trained as 2 or 3 systems at each site.


Pear Sub-Committee (Chairs, Todd Einhorn, OR; Rachel Elkins, CA)


For the 2005 Pear Trial coordinated by Rachel Elkins, a summary of the original nine trials (Sacramento Delta (Bartlett) and North Coast (Bartlett, Bosc), CA; Chihuahua, Mexico (Bartlett); Hood River, OR (Anjou); Geneva, NY (Bartlett, Bosc); Cashmere, Tonasket and Yakima, WA (Anjou, Bartlett, Bosc), shows six completed the entire 10 year duration: one Anjou (OR), three Bartlett (CA, MX, NY), two Bosc (CA, NY). The others were abandoned for various reasons upon decision by the cooperators, but five-year summaries were published in Acta Hort (2010). 2005-2013 results were presented at the ISHS Pear Symposium in Leuven, Belgium. Data from 2005-2014 will be summarized for the Journal of the American Pomological Society. Based on results from CA, NY and NY, OHXF 87 performed best for very vigorous, non-precocious Anjou. For less vigorous, more precocious Bartlett, results differed by site: the vigorous but precocious Horner 4 was best on California’s warm North Coast based on consistently large fruit size with Pyro 2-33 also quite acceptable but with somewhat smaller fruit. The less vigorous Pyro 2-33 was best in cooler NY. Season-long mid-day stem water potential measurements suggest that Horner 4 maintained good water status during the hottest and driest summer months while the less vigorous rootstocks were stressed, which may partially explain these varying results. For Bosc, of intermediate precocity, OHxF87 was best in CA and WA (Horner 4 was least efficient due to excessive vigor) but was not tested in NY where 708-36 had the highest yield efficiency in NY. Based on this trial, Horner 4 trees are being propagated by commercial nurseries for wider trial planting as replants (vigorous but also precocious) and for semi-high density plantings. OHxF 87 and Pyro 2-33 are also being planted, along with OHxF 97, the standard replacement for Winter Nelis and P. betulaefolia. The committee will determine potential further data collection possibilities for the existing 2005 trial trees, e.g. water relations measurements and crop load adjustment.


The 2013 pear training/rootstock/spacing trial coordinated by Todd Einhorn just completed its second season. Cooperators are OR (2 sites; Bartlett and Anjou), NY (Bosc), and CA (Bartlett). Trees were grown by Willow Drive Nursery in WA. Data were confounded by different variables namely three rootstocks: OHxF87, OHxF69, Pyrodwarf 233; three training systems: Upright V; Bi-Axe (Bi-baum); Central Axe; and three spacings: 3, 4.5, and 6 feet. Due to the tighter spacing , the spaces were filled by the 2nd leaf. Data still being organized, but Pyrodwarf 233 is smaller than OHxF69 + OHxF233. Bi-Axis trees have smaller TCSA than single axis trees and there are no differences in spacing so far.


The planned 2016 or 2017 Quince Interstem Trial by Todd Einhorn is still in its initial stages. This new trial consists of quince selections that were tested for freezing tolerance. Suggested spacing is 1-1.5 m x 3.5 - 4 m. Standards would be all commercially available Quince (A, C, BA29) and OHF87. The trial will be looking for cold hardy candidates and 22 are thought to be as hardy as OHxF. The original trees were in micro-propagation when they got infected with thrips so a 2nd try at micro-propagation of 15 cultivars is in the works with Richard Bell doing fireblight tests. Also, Amelanchier rootstocks might be available. Interested states include CA, NY, OR, NS, and WA.


Peach Sub-Committee (Chairs, Greg Reighard, SC; Rich Marini, PA)


The 2009/2014 Peach Physiology Trial was originally coordinated by Scott Johnson to evaluate the effect of early-season temperatures on fruit weight for trees with light crops, and those data have been published. At the 2013 NC-140 meeting the group decided to continue the trial to study the interactive effects of early-season temperature, cultivar and crop density (CD) on average fruit weight. Five cooperators (Elina Coneva, Essie Fallahi, Mike Newell, Greg Reighard, and Dwight Wolfe) expressed interest in participating. There are 10 single-tree replicates of three cultivars (Redhaven, Cresthaven, Crimson Lady) at each location. Trees were thinned early in the season to develop a range of CDs and days from bloom to harvest, averaged fruit weight and growing degree days were recorded. A preliminary look at the 2014 data from the two locations indicates that at South Carolina, the interaction between CD and cultivar was not significant (0.31), but the slopes were -19, -13 and -32 for Cresthaven, Crimson Lady and Redhaven. R2 values were 0.44, 0.72, and 0.71, respectfully for the same cultivars. Maryland did not have Crimson Lady and the cultivar x CD interaction was not significant (P=0.32) indicating that the slopes were not different. However, slopes were 0.76 and -134 for Cresthaven and Redhaven, respectfully, and these slopes did not significantly differ from zero. The reason that these seemingly different slopes were not significantly different was because there was great variation in the data and the R2s were only 0.0001 (P=0.994) and 0.2 (P=0.189), respectively.


In the 2009 Peach Rootstock trial, there were significant differences in tree size, survival, yields and yield efficiency among rootstocks within and across 13 locations. Generally, peach seedling rootstock cultivars were the most productive except in high pH soils where hybrids have performed better. Prunus persica and almond hybrids produced the most vigorous trees in all locations. Dwarfing rootstocks included Krymsk®1, Prunus americana and Controller 5. Tree mortality varied greatly with site, but plum species rootstocks, Imperial California, Mirobac, Tetra, and Krymsk®1 tended to have more tree death at some sites.


Objective 2. To develop improved rootstocks for temperate-zone fruit trees using state-of-the-art genomic tools in breeding programs.


Rootstocks from the California peach breeding program have been patented and released with several released in 2014. The Geneva NY apple rootstock program released one new rootstock in 2014. Quince selections in OR are being screened as potential size-controlling pear rootstocks. Pyrus germplasm was established in a collection in WA to evaluate for size control, disease resistance and abiotic stress tolerances of pear trees. Germplasm will also be used for future pear breeding. Field testing of elite cherry genotypes continued in WA and MI. Peach rootstocks are being developed with marker-assisted breeding in South Carolina and conventional breeding in Georgia to reduce impact of Peach Tree Short Life decline for the Southeastern U.S. The Pear Genomics Research Network (PGRN) was formed and accompanying website created, http://ucanr.edu/sites/peargenomics/, that will be updated as research progresses (OR, WA, CA). A cherry rootstock selection program at MSU has identified 5 elite genotypes, Cass, Clare, Lake, Crawford, and Clinton, from the sour cherry scion breeding program, that confer significant vigor control, precocity, and high productivity to sweet and tart cherry scions. These are being propagated for widespread future NC-140 coordinated evaluation (MI). The Geneva, NY apple rootstock program released one new rootstock, G814. A paper was published on shoot regeneration in Guardian® rootstock for adaptation to in vitro regeneration systems in peach in SC. UT has received salt tolerant stone fruit rootstock progeny from IPPFBE for testing in trials. Genomics and transcriptomics approaches are being tested in WA to understand rootstock/scion interactions to ensure the compatibility of new rootstocks.

Objective 3. To accelerate adoption of new rootstocks (a) by improving propagation techniques and (b) by acquiring new rootstocks from worldwide sources.

In New York, the propagation of several Geneva rootstocks has been improved significantly by the use of tissue culture plants as mother plants for stoolbeds, especially with G.41. This has resulted in a mini-boom of planting of Geneva 41 stoolbeds. We estimate that 150,000 feet of stoolbeds of G.11 and G.41 and about 50,000 feet of G.935 have been planted. This has resulted in a production of 1.0 million liners of G.11 in 2014 and 1.5 million liners of G.41. Cornell had signed licenses with several additional rootstock producers in 2014. Licensed rootstock producers of Geneva® rootstocks are: Willow Drive Nursery, Willamette Nursery, Treco Nursery, Kit Johnston Farms, Copenhaven Nursery, Cameron Nursery, Gold Crown Nursery, KCK Farms, VanWell Nursery, Helios Nursery, ProTree Nursery, North American Plants, Mori Nursery, Ontario Canada and Viveros Sacramento, Chihuahua, Mexico. In Washington, Stefano Mussachi (WA) is introducing 13 out of 32 dwarfing pear genotypes from the breeding program at the University of Bologna, Italy. They are being processed in vitro through the National Clean Plant Network at Prosser. They would be released after 2 years (2016). The CA and PNW pear industry funded research to improve top and root growth of multiple potential clonal rootstocks using improved nutrient complexes. Results are being made available to nurseries. Several Prunus rootstocks have been sourced from Europe for peach, sweet cherry and tart cherry research in ONT, Canada.


Objective 4. To better understand the impacts of biotic and abiotic stresses on scion/rootstock combinations in temperate-zone fruit trees.


Biotic stresses. Apple rootstock tolerance to replant disease continues in NY to categorize 36 genotypes as resistant, intermediate or susceptible. The 2006 apple replant trial continued in some sites. A 2006 apple fumigation trial in NJ and MA continued. A 2009 peach replant study continued in NC. Russian and Geneva apple rootstocks were evaluated for fireblight tolerance in NY. In VA, 10 rootstocks showed differing susceptibility when inoculated with fireblight bacteria. Research is being conducted on regional and rootstock differences in apple cultivar volatiles and their impact on apple maggot and apple sawfly host selection at NS, Canada. Studies are beginning in VA to plant a test of rootstock susceptibility to Tomato Ring Spot Virus. Gi3 was more susceptible to colonization with root lesion nematodes than Gi5 and Gi6 trees. Peach Tree Short Life decline can be attenuated using rootstocks that can prolong tree and orchard life in GA and SC.


Abiotic stresses. Evaluation of peach rootstock tolerance to soil alkalinity continued in Utah. Apple rootstock tolerance to soil pH is also being evaluated in NY. Cold Hardiness Testing of Apple Rootstock Cultivars and Selections (Collaboration with USDA ARS Geneva and the Univ. of Guelph) is continuing in ME. Cold hardiness of quince selections for pear continued in OR. In IA and MO, a study to determine the relationship of blackheart and tree performance continued. Rootstock treatments affected tree and/or bud survival in the 2009 peach rootstock trial in SC, MO and UT due to cold winter temperatures. Nutritional studies are finding differences among cherry rootstocks in BC. Mineral nutrient absorption is being studied in ID among apple rootstocks. Studies being conducted on UT on iron deficiency in peaches utilizing the 2009 NC 140 peach rootstock trial to see if rootstocks influence iron levels in plant tissue of Redhaven scion. ‘Honeycrisp’ trees on 31 different apple rootstocks showed different abilities to acquire macro and micronutrients in BC, Canada. Cold hardiness was measured in a collection of Geneva and Vineland apple selections, and in several cultivars in October, January and April in ME. The level of cold hardiness in Oct., Jan. and April was determined in 18 apple cultivars and selections in order to identify genotypes likely to result in tree deaths. Nutrient acquisition and partitioning to foliage in ‘Honeycrisp’ apple was examined in 2014 across the range of rootstocks in the 2010 NC140 trial; results currently are being analyzed and interpreted at MI. With minimum winter temperatures in MN of-30C, in the 2010 uniform planting with Honeycrisp as the scion, all rootstocks survived and produced fruit in 2014. Peach rootstocks provided differences in cold hardiness of scion tissue MO and UT. Apple Replant Trials with Gala in NC demonstrate that M.7 survival and performance is superior in fumigated replant sites. Apple rootstocks with weak unions were vulnerable to severe damage following damage caused by Hurricane Arthur in NS, Canada. Peach rootstocks were evaluated and found to differ in survival following the very wet 2013 season and cold winter of 2013-2014 seasons in SC. Tomato Ringspot Virus susceptibility is being studied in a VA NC 140 apple rootstock trial. Cold injury of apple scion tissue was evaluated in WI following the winter of 2013/14. Cold hardiness studies are being studied of quince trees as rootstock candidates in OR.


Objective 5. To enhance the sustainability of temperate fruit farming through development and distribution of research-based information utilizing eXtension.


Members of our research group have been working on making research-based information available to anyone who would like to use it through eXtension (MN, PA, MA, NY, NC, MO, OH, WV, IN, VA). We completed our databases for apple rootstocks and cultivars and can be viewed at at http://www.extension.org/apples. This project was funded through the USDA-SCRI program and was completed in August 2014. We have linked to the primary website for the research group, www.nc140.org. This site continues to be our primary outreach component serving as an important collaboration tool for cooperators. Members of the research group communicate through a list serve, and upload/download project files to password-protected directories (NJ, MA). We have used the site to allow for easier collaboration and comparison of replicated rootstock trials. Reports, presentations, and videos that update NC140 cherry, apple, and stone fruit rootstock research and extension at MSU are regularly posted on www.cherries.msu.edu, www.hrt.msu.edu/greg-lang, and www.giselacherry.com. The NC-140 web site, www.nc140.org continues to be our primary outreach component serving as an important collaboration tool for cooperators. Members of the research group communicate through a list serve, and upload/download project files to password-protected directories (NJ, MA). Requirements for web page design for regional projects have been met as outlined by the NIMMS and the North Central Regional Association of Agricultural Experiment Station Directors (NCRA). Articles, photographs and reports were archived throughout the year. In 2014, there were 3,868 unique visitors with 5,719 page views. Countries accessing in order: USA, Mexico, Canada, China, Chile, Germany, Iran, India, Turkey, Ukraine, Australia. NC-140 also maintains its own Email distribution list for internal communication. The posting Email address is nc140@virtualorchard.net


PLEASE SEE THE ATTACHMENT IN THE PUBLICATIONS FILE FOR LATEST EXTERNAL FUNDING LEVERAGED BY NC140 FOR 2013/2014.

Publications

Books

Ayala, M., J.P. Zoffoli, and G.A. Lang. 2014. Proceedings of the 6th International Cherry Symposium. Acta Hort. 1020 (536 pages).


Ward, D., W.P. Cowgill Jr., J.L. Frecon, G.C. Hamilton, J.R. Heckman, L.S. Katz, N. Lalancette, B.A. Majek, D. Polk. 2014. "New Jersey Commercial Tree Fruit Production Guide." Rutgers Cooperative Extension Bulletin E002. 229 pp.


Refereed Journal Articles


Arrington, M., Kerman, A., Pasa, M., and Einhorn, T. 2014. Root pruning reduces vigor in high-density ‘d’Anjou’ pear orchards. HortScience 49 (9) S158-159.


Autio, W., T. Robinson, D. Archbold, W. Cowgill, C. Hampson, R. Quezada, and D. Wolfe. 2013. 'Gala' apple trees on Supporter 4, P.14, and different strains of B.9, M.9, and M.26 Rootstocks: Final 10-year report on the 2002 NC-140 Apple Rootsotck Trial. J. Amer. Pomol. Soc. 67:62-71.


Duyvelshoff, C. and J. A. Cline. 2013. Ethephon and Prohexadione-Calcium Influence the Flowering, Early Yield, and Vegetative Growth of Young ‘Northern Spy’ Apple Trees. Scientia Horticulturae 151:128-134.


Fallahi, E., B. Fallahi, and B. Shafii. 2013. Irrigation and Rootstock Influence on Water Use, Tree Growth, Yield, and Fruit Quality at Harvest at Different Ages of Trees in ‘Pacific Gala’ Apple. HortScience. 48:588-593.


Fallahi, E. and T. Eichert. 2013. Principles and Practices of Foliar Nutrients with Emphasis on Nitrogen and Calcium Sprays in Apple. HortTechnology. 23(5): 542-547.


Fallahi, E., K. Arzani, and B. Fallahi. 2013. Long-term leaf mineral nutrition in ‘Pacific Gala’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) as affected by rootstock type and irrigation system during six stages of tree development. Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology 88 (6) 685–692.


Fallahi, E., D. Bakhshi, and B. Fallahi. 2013. Postharvest Fruit Quality and Growth of ‘Pacific Gala’ Apple Trees at Different Ages as Influenced by Irrigation and Rootstock. International Journal of Fruit Science. 13 (4): 478-491.


Fallahi, E., B. Fallahi, and B. Shafii. 2013. Water Use, Mineral Nutrition, Tree Growth, Yield, and Fruit Quality of ‘Fuji’ and ‘Gala’ Apples under Various Irrigation Systems and Rootstocks. Acta Horticulturae. 984:57-68.


Fazio, G., Y. Wan, D. Kviklys, L. Romero, R. Adams, D. Strickland and T. Robinson. 2014. Dw2 a New Dwarfing Locus in Apple Rootstocks and its Relationship to Induction of Early Bearing in Apple Scions. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 139 (2):87-98.



Frett, T. J., G. L. Reighard, W. R. Okie and K. Gasic. 2014. Mapping quantitative trait loci associated with blush in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch]. Tree Genetics & Genomes 10:367-381.



Kviklys, D., Robinson, T.L. and Fazio, G. 2014. Apple rootstock evaluation for apple replant disease. International Horticulture Congress. Brisbane Australia.


Lang, G.A., G.-Q. Song, K.D. Sink, A.E. Walworth, M.A. Cook, and R.F. Allison. 2014. Transgenic gene silencing confers increased resistance to Prunus necrotic ringspot virus in cherry rootstocks. Acta Hort. in press.


Lang. G.A. 2014. Growing sweet cherries under plastic covers and tunnels: physiological aspects and practical considerations. Acta Hort. 1020:303-312.


Lang, G.A., S. Blatt, C. Embree, J. Grant, S. Hoying, C. Ingels, D. Neilsen, G. Neilsen and T. Robinson. 2014. Developing and evaluating intensive sweet cherry orchard systems: The NC140 regional research trial. Acta Hort. 1058:113-120.


Lang, G., Blatt, S., Grant, J., Hoying, S., Ingels, C., Neilsen, D., Neilsen, G., and Robinson, T. 2014. Innovative high-density sweet cherry training systems: Five years of comparative trials across North America. International Horticulture Congress. Brisbane, Australia. Acta Hort. In press.


Marini, R.P., W.R. Autio, B. Black, J. Cline, W.R. Cowgill, Jr., R.M. Crassweller, P.A. Domoto, C. Hampson, R. Moran, R.A. Quezada, T. Robinson, D.L. Ward, and D. Wolfe. 2013. Return Bloom on 'Golden Delicious' Apple Trees as affected by Previous Season's Crop Density on Three Rootstocks at 11 Locations. J. Amer. Pomology Society 67:72-79.


Marini, R., Black, B., Crassweller, R., Domoto, P., Hampson, C., Moran, R., Robinson, T., Staskiak, M., and Wolfe, D. 2014. Performance of ‘Golden Delicious’ apple on 23 rootstocks at eight locations: a ten-year summary of the 2003 NC-140 dwarf rootstock trial. Journal of the American Pomological Society 68(2):54-68.


Marini, R.P., B. Black, R.M. Crassweller, P.A. Domoto, C. Hampson, R. Moran, T. Robinson, M. Stasiak, and D. Wolfe. 2014. Performance of ‘Golden Delicious’ apple on 23 rootstocks at 8 locations: a ten-year summary of the 2003 NC-140 dwarf rootstock trial. J. Amer. Pom. Soc. 68:54-68.


Moran, R.E. 2014. Growth and yield of 'Honeycrisp' apple trees with preplant inoculation with mycorrhizae and soil-incorporated compost. J. of the Amer. Pomological Society 68(1): 2-13.


Neilsen, G. and Hampson, C. 2014. ‘Honeycrisp’ apple leaf and fruit nutrient concentration is affected by rootstock during establishment. Journal of the American Pomological Society 68(4): 178-189.


Racsko, J., P. Francescatto, R. Fritts, J. Lopez, P. Petracek, G. Clarke, M. Dussi, A. Kaszas, T. Meulia, and D. Miller. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) delays flower senescence and increases fruit set and yield in sweet cherry. Accepted for publication – HortSci (In Press).


Reighard, G.L. 2014. Peach Genomics. International Innovation:Ideas in Bloom. Vol. 135:61.


Reighard, G.L. 2014. Breeding in the Brawn. International Innovation:Ideas in Bloom. Vol. 135:62-63.


Robinson, T.L. and L.I. Dominguez. 2014. Comparison of the Modified Spanish Bush and the Tall Spindle cherry production systems. Acta Hort. 1058:45-53.


Robinson, T. and S. Hoying. 2014. Training system and rootstock affect yield, fruit size, fruit quality and crop value of sweet cherry. Acta Hort. 1020:453-462.


Robinson, T., G. Bujdoso and G. Reginato. 2014. Influence of pruning severity on fruit size of ‘Sweetheart’, ‘Lapins’ and ‘Hedelfingen’ sweet cherry grown on Gisela rootstocks. Acta Hort. 1020:441-451.


Robinson, T.L., G. Fazio and H.S. Aldwinckle. 2014. Characteristics and performance of four new apple rootstock from the Cornell-USDA apple rootstock-breeding program. Acta Hort. 1058:651-656.


Robinson, T.L., S. Hoying, M. Miranda-Sazo, L.Dominguez and J.C. Fachinello. 2014. Yield, fruit quality and mechanization of the tall spindle apple production system. Acta Hort. 1058:95-103.


San, B., Z. Li, Q. Hu, G.L. Reighard and H. Luo. 2014. Adventitious shoot regeneration from in vitro cultured explants of peach rootstock Guardian™ is significantly enhanced by silver thiosulfate. Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture Vol. 119 (1) October 2014. DOI 10.1007/s11240-014-0645-7. 9 p.


Sauerteig, K. A. and J.A. Cline. 2013. Mechanical blossom thinning of ‘Allstar’ peaches influences yield and quality. Scientia Horticulturae 160:243-250.


Schupp, J.R. and T.M. Kon. 2014. Mechanical blossom thinning of ‘GoldRush’ / M.9 apple trees with two string types and two timings. J. Amer. Pomological Soc. 68:24-32.


Zhao, Z., P. H. Heinemann, J. Liu, J. R. Schupp and T. A. Baugher. 2014. Design, fabrication and testing of a low-cost apple harvest-assist device. ASABE paper no. 141839738. Amer. Soc. Agricultural and Biological Engineers. 13 pp.


Zhebentyayeva, T. N., S. Fan, A. Chandra, D. G. Bielenberg, G. L. Reighard, W. R.Okie and A. G. Abbott. 2014. Dissection of chilling requirement and bloom date QTLs in peach using a whole genome sequencing of sibling trees from an F2 mapping population. Tree Genetics & Genomes 10:35-51.


Symposium Proceedings


Fazio, G. and T. Robinson. 2014. Relationship of apple rootstock dwarfing loci (Dw1, Dw2) with scion leaf and fruit nutrient status. International Symposium on Physiological Principles and Their Application to Fruit Production: Program and Abstracts. p.51-52.


Marini, R.P., W. Autio, R. Crassweller, R. Moran, T. Robinson, J. Cline, D. Wolfe and R. Parra-Quezada. 2014. The interactive effects of early season temperatures, crop density and rootstock on average fruit weight of ‘Golden Delicious’ apple. International Symposium on Physiological Principles and Their Application to Fruit Production: Program and Abstracts. p.40.


Neumüller, M., Dittrich, F., Reindl, M., Siemonsmeier, A., Hadersdorfer, J., Treutter, D., and Einhorn, T. 2014. Amelanchier selections as fully dwarfing and winter hardy pear rootstocks with high tolerance to iron chlorosis. ISHS 12th International Pear Symposium, Leuven, Belgium, July 14-18, 2014.


Robinson, T.L. 2014. Can We Manage Light Interception Levels Above 75% in Apple Orchards? International Symposium on Physiological Principles and Their Application to Fruit Production: Program and Abstracts. p.29-30.


Robinson, T.L. and L. Dominguez. 2014 Yield and Profitability of High Density Pear Production with Pyrus Rootstocks. 12th International Pear Symposium 2014 Program and Abstracts. p 60-61.


Robinson, T.L., S. Blatt, and C. Embree. 2014. Performance of Pyrus Rootstocks in Eastern North America. 12th International Pear Symposium 2014 Program and Abstracts. p 50.


Robinson, T.L., S. Hoying, M. Miranda Sazo and M. Fargione. 2014. Performance of Geneva Rootstocks Trained to 4 Production Systems with 2 Initial Tree Types. HortScience 49(9)Supplement:S185 (Abstr.)


Thompson, A. and G. Peck. 2014. Does Rootstock and Fertilizer Choice Affect Apple Orchard Productivity and Soil Community Ecology? HortScience In Press. (abstr.).


Tiago, M., Rufato, A., Rufato, A., Kretzschmar, A., Robinson, T.L. and Sander, G. 2014. New rootstocks for apple orchards in southern Brazil conditions: Results for the first 2 years of evaluation. International Horticulture Congress. Brisbane, Australia.


Poster Presentations


Elkins, R.B., Parra-Quezada, R., Robinson, T.L., Einhorn, T., and Castagnoli, S. 2014. Evaluation of Pyrus rootstocks to improve pear tree precocity and productivity. ISHS 12th International Pear Symposium, Leuven, Belgium, July 14-18, 2014. Role: Coauthor [Poster] Abstr. p.51.


Popular Articles


Autio, W., Winfred P. Cowgill, Jr., J.Clements, R.Magron, J.Krupa S.Figler, 2013. Third-leaf Results from the 2010 NC-140 Apple Rootstock Trial in Massachusetts and New Jersey. Horticultural News, vol 93, No. 3, 7-8.


Baugher, T. A., C. Lara, J. Schupp and H. E. Winzeler. 2014. Competitive orchard systems and technologies. PA Fruit News 94 (2): 23.


Baugher, T., J. Schupp, C. Lara and C. Watkins. 2014 Cropload and fruit nutrient studies in commercial Honeycrisp orchards to determine best practices for minimizing bitter pit. PA Fruit News 94(1): 37-40.


Cline, J. A. and K. Carter. Performance of Size Controlling Peach Rootstocks for the Ontario Tender fruit industry. Interim report to the Niagara Peninsula Fruit and Vegetable Growers’ Association. November 2013. 5 p.


Cline, J., 2014. Rootstock Performance when Growing 'Honeycrisp'. Newsletters.
Cline, J. A. and J. Zandstra. 2014. Rootstock Performance when Growing ‘Honeycrisp’. Orchard Network 18(1):2-3.


Cline, J., 2013. A Brief Summary of Selected Apple Research Projects Supported by the OAG and/or OMAFRA at the University of Guelph, Simcoe. Orchard Network 17(4):2-3


Cowgill, W. Rutgers Fruit Focus Newsletter- 10 issues in 2014 Crassweller, R., D. Smith, J. Schupp, E. Winzeler & M. Schupp. 2014. Rootstock Research Update, 2013. PA Fruit News 94(1):59-63


Crassweller, R., D. Smith. 2014. Second Generation Apple Training System Trials – 2014. PA Fruit News 94(1): 64 – 67.


Elkins, R. 2014. Improving economic and environmental sustainability in California pear production through changes in rootstock use: the NC-140 Regional Rootstock Project. 2013 California Pear Research Report, California Pear Advisory Board, Sacramento, California, p. 101-113.


Elkins, R. 2014. Evaluation of 1- to 2-year-old ‘Bartlett’ pear trees on three selections of Old Home x Farmingdale rootstocks. 2013 California Pear Research Report, California Pear Advisory Board, Sacramento, California, p. 115-119.


Elkins, R. 2014. Evaluation of the effect of Amelanchier sp. and Quince Eline as rootstocks on 1- to 2-year-old European pear trees. 2013 California Pear Research Report, California Pear Advisory Board, Sacramento, California, p. 121-132.State Report Template NC 140.


Lang, G. 2014. Considerations for high tunnel sweet cherries. American/Western Fruit Grower 134(9/10):48-49.


Lang, G. 2014. Avoiding cherry fruit cracking is a balancing act. American/Western Fruit Grower134(5):52-53.


Miranda Sazo, M. and T. Robinson. 2014. Fill the Space and Get the Most of NY1 and NY2 Trees this Season Lake Ontario Fruit Newsletter 2014(9):1-2.


Moran, R., F. Geng, G. Fazio and J. Cline. 2014. Identifying Cold Hardy and Tender Rootstocks. Compact Fruit Tree 47(1):21-22.


Parker, M.L. 2014. How Do Newer Dwarfing Rootstocks Perform in NC? Southeastern Apple Growers Meeting Proceedings. pp. 43-46.


Peck, G. and K. Yoder. 2014. 2013 Progress Report to the Virginia Apple Research Program: Rootstock Effects on Growth and Yield of Gala, Fuji, and York apples. Virginia Fruit 85(1):13-15 (Apr 2014).


Peck, G. and A. Thompson. 2014. 2013 Progress Report to the Virginia Apple Research Program: Developing regionally-specific recommendations for high-density apple plantings. Virginia Fruit 85(1):12 (Apr 2014).


Peter, K. A., N. Halbrendt and J. Schupp. 2014. Impact of summer disease management on storage rot of apple. PA Fruit News 94 (1): 18-19.


Robinson, T., G. Fazio and H. Aldwinckle. 2014. Characteristics of New Apple Rootstock from the Cornell-USDA Apple Rootstock Breeding Program. Compact Fruit Tree 47(3).


Robinson, T., S.A. Hoying, and L. Dominguez. 2014. High Density Planting Systems and Rootstocks for Sweet Cherries in the Northeast. Compact Fruit Tree 47(2):6-10.


Schupp, J., T. Kon, E. Winzeler, M. Schupp, P. Heinemann, J. Liu, Z. Zhang, T. Baugher and C. Lara. 2014. Labor Efficient apple and peach systems for profitability. PA Fruit News 94 (1): 30-35.


Warmund, M. 2014. Low temperatures injure peach floral buds. MEG Newsletter. Vol. 20. No. 2.


Other Creative Works


Hoover, E., et al. 2014. extension.org/apples


Hoover, E., et al. 2014. Commercial Fruit Extension (fruit.cfans.umn.edu)


Peck, G., C. Miles, J. King, T. Bradshaw, N. Rothwell and I. Merwin.2014. An Introduction to Hard Cider in the U.S. eXtension, http://www.extension.org/pages/70601/an-introduction-to-hard-cider-in-the- us#.U438Wibn-Ul.


Wolfe, D. D. Archbold, J. Johnston, and G. Travis. 2014. Rootstock Effects on Apple and Peach Tree Growth and Yield. Fruit and Vegetable Crops 2013 Research Report. University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station publication. PR-673:9-11. http://www2.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/PR/PR673/PR673.pdf


Scientific and Outreach Oral Presentations.


Ayala, M. and G.A. Lang. 2014. Carbon Partitioning in Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) on Precocious, Productive Clonal Rootstocks, ISHS Symposium on Physiological Principles and Their Application to Fruit Production, Geneva, NY, Mar. 25-28.


Bittencourt, F., R. Pio, G. L. Reighard, E. A. Chagas, and M. Pasqual. 2014. In Vitro culture of immature peach embryos. ASHS Annual Conference, Orlando, FL, July 28-31, 2014.


Black, B. Fruit tree training, pruning and rootstocks, USU Extension Forestry/Arborist Lunch and Learn in- service training webinar. 30-Apr-2014 (31 participants).


Blatt, SE. 2014. Update on research in the NC-140 Honeycrisp trial. Nova Scotia Fruit Growers Annual Field Tour, August. Attendance: 200


Blatt, SE. 2014. Field tour of NC-140 trials at Kentville, NS. Apple Blossom Hike and Bus Tour, May. Attendance: 60.


Blatt, SE. 2013. Rootstock performance in Honeycrisp. Nova Scotia Institute of Agrologists Field Tour. October. Attendance: 36.


Blatt, SE. 2013. Post-harvest disorders and insect damage influenced by rootstock for Honeycrisp. Nova Scotia Fruit Growers Annual Convention. January, Greenwich, Nova Scotia. Grower and industry audience. Attendance: 240.


Burrell, R. and G.L. Reighard. 2014. Late dormant pruning influences split pit incidence in peach. ISHS International Symposium on Physiological Principles & Their Application to Fruit Production. Geneva, NY. March 26-28, 2014.


Butler, B. Western Maryland Twilight Meeting. August 20, 2014.
Tour of ongoing fruit tree research presented by Bryan Butler and Chris Walsh.
(About fifty persons from MD, PA, VA and WV attended)


Butler, B. Bay Area Fruit School. February 26, 2014 - Apple Rootstock Trials. Bryan Butler - Cold Winter Temperatures and Frost Protection Strategies. Michael Newell (About fifty persons attended)


Cline, J.A. 2013. Rootstocks for apple and peach in Ontario. South West Hort Expo/Essex County Associated Growers. November 20, 2013. Leamington, Ontario.


Cline, J. A. 2014. Use of Plant Bioregulators for Annual Bearing. Georgian Bay Orchard Tour. Ontario Apple Growers.


Cochran, D. August 11 ISU Fruit and Vegetable Field Day, Hort. Station; NC-140 dwarf apple rootstock trial; 90 attendees


Coneva, E. 2014. Peach Rootstock Evaluation. Chilton Area Peach Production Meeting. Clanton, January 27, 2014.


Coneva, E., G. L. Reighard, and J. Pitts. 2014. Peach Rootstock Cultivar Trial in Alabama. Southern Region American Society of Horticultural Science Annual Meeting, Dallas, TX, January 31 - February 2, 2014.


Coneva, E. 2014. New production Technologies in Fruit Crops. Alabama Farmers Federation Organizational Meeting, Montgomery, February 5, 2014.


Coneva, E. 2014. Fruit Crops Research Update. Alabama Fruit and Vegetable Growers Association Annual Meeting, Auburn, February 7-8, 2014.


Coneva, E. 2014 Home and Wildlife Expo, Chilton REC, AL. “NC-140 Tree Fruit Trial Demonstration.” (Attendance 1500+), August 2, 2014.


Coneva, E. and J. Pitts. 2014. Asian Pear Cultivar Evaluation. SE Professional Fruit Workers Conference, Clemson, SC, Sept. 15-17.


Coneva, E. 2014. NC-140 Peach Rootstock Trial. Alabama Wineries and Grape Growers Association Boot Camp, Chilton REC, October 18.


Coneva, E. 2014. NC-140 Apple Rootstock Trial. Alabama Wineries and Grape Growers Association Boot Camp, Chilton REC, October 18.


Coneva, E. 2014. NC-140 Asian Pear Trial. Alabama Wineries and Grape Growers Association Boot Camp, Chilton REC, October 18.


Cowgill, W. North Jersey Fruit Meeting, March 2014; Broadway, NJ, 67 growers


Cowgill, W. North Jersey Twilight Fruit Meeting, April, 08; Rutgers Snyder Farm, Pittstown, NJ
46 growers


Cowgill, W. North Jersey Twilight Fruit Meeting, June 10; Donaldsons Farm, Hackettstown, NJ 68 –


Cowgill, W. South Jersey Twilight- DeEugio's Glassboro, NJ 42 growers


Cowgill, W. North Jersey Twilight Horticultural Research Meeting, Rutgers Snyder Farm, September, 2014– 48 growers


Einhorn, T. 2014. Improving pear fruit quality and orchard efficiency. Western Colorado Horticulture Society’s 2014 Annual Conference, Grand Junction, CO, January 15, 2014. Oral presentation to ~75 members of the Western Colorado fruit industry.


Einhorn, T. 2014. Practical research objectives to improve pear profitability. 2014 Hood River Winter Horticulture Meeting, Hood River, OR, February 7, 2014. Oral presentation to members of the regional fruit industry. Meeting hosted by Steve Castagnoli, Hood River County Extension.


Einhorn, T. 2014. Improving pear fruit quality, production efficiency and grower profitability. DEPI, Tatura Research Center, Victoria, Australia. March 13, 2014 Role: Presenter [Oral].


Einhorn, T. 2014. High-density Pear Plantings. 2014 PNW CSF Tour, Hood River, OR, June 23, 2014. Oral presentation and tour of research plots at MCAREC to international tree-fruit audience. Tour hosted by Mauricio Frias, Private consultant- CSF.


Einhorn, T., Arrington, M., Pasa, M., and Kerman, A. 2014. Root pruning reduced vegetative growth of ‘d’Anjou’ pear trees, but did not consistently improve productivity. ISHS 12th International Pear Symposium, Leuven, Belgium, July 14-18, 2014. Role: Author and presenter [Oral].


Einhorn, T. 2014. MCAREC Field Day- Pear horticultural research. Hood River, OR, July 30, 2014. Oral presentation of my research results to members of the Oregon tree fruit industry. Meeting hosted by MCAREC.


Einhorn, T. 2014. Cultivars, Training Systems and Horticultural Research to improve Pear. Home Orchard Society/North American Fruit Explorers/California Rare Fruit Growers 2014 Conference. Hood River, OR, August 7, 2014. Oral presentation and tour of research plots at MCAREC to members of the Home Orchard Society, North American Fruit Explorers, and California Rare Fruit Growers. Meeting hosted by Joseph Postman (USDA-NCGR).


Einhorn, T. 2014. New rootstocks with potential for pear culture. 5th Technical Meeting of Pear Culture, Lages (SC), Brazil. November 5, 2014 Role: Presenter [Oral].


Einhorn, T. 2014. Practical strategies to improve management and profitability of pear orchards. Washington State Horticultural Association’s 110th Annual Meeting, Wenatchee, WA, December 2, 2014. Oral presentation to members of the Pacific Northwest fruit industry.


Elkins, R., B. Lampinen and T. DeJong. Pear Orchard Systems “Open House”. October 30,
2014, Hopland, Mendocino County, California.


Elkins, R., R. Parra-Quezada, T.L. Robinson, T.C. Einhorn and S. Castagnoli. 2014. Evaluation
of Pyrus rootstocks to improve pear tree precocity and productivity. ISHS XIIth International
Pear Symposium, July 14-18, 2014, Leuven, Belgium (abstract and poster presentation).


Elkins, R. Rootstock vigor in relationship to mid-day stem water potential. UCCE Pear Variety
Field Meeting, June 30, 2014, Walnut Grove, California (hosted by Chuck Ingels).


Elkins, R. Rootstocks and orchard systems for pear. Pomology Extension Continuing Conference
(PECC), March 20, 2014, Davis, California.


Elkins, R. Rootstocks and orchard systems for European pear (two presentations). 2014
Sacramento River District Pear Research Meeting, February 4, 2014, Walnut Grove, California
and 2014 North Coast Pear Research Meeting, February 11, 2014, Lakeport, California.


Elkins, R. Pear production in the Western states; status, challenges, and trends. Mid-Atlantic
Fruit and Vegetable Growers Convention, January 28, 2014, Hershey, Pennsylvania (via Skype).


Fallahi, E. November,5-6, 2013. NC-140 Fuji/Rootstock Report, Annual Conference of the Idaho State Horticultural Society, Nampa, Idaho, Idaho; Attendance 110.


Fallahi, E. November,7-8, 2013. NC-140 Fuji/Rootstock Progress Report. Annual
Conference of NC-140, Meridian, Idaho Attendance 41.


Fallahi, E. March 10, 2014. Training apples on different rootstocks. Idaho Apple growers
March Tour, 56 in attendance.


Fallahi, E. July 20, 2014. Research Update on Apple Rootstock. Idaho State Horticultural
Society Summer Tour, Sunny Slope, Idaho. Grower audience. Attendance 97.5.


Fallahi, E. September 5, 2014. Performance of Apple Rootstocks under Intermountain West Conditions. University of Idaho Pomology Program Fruit Field Day, Growers and public audience. Attendance 1050.


Gasic, K., R. Quick, A. Abdelghafar, T. Frett, B. Rauh, and G. Reighard. 2014. Marker assisted breeding for red skin coloration in peach. Plant & Animal Genome XXII. San Diego, CA. Jan. 11-15, 2014.


Hampson, C. Journée Pomicole. Dec. 2013. Industry meeting for Quebec apple growers. Invited presentation on apple rootstock trial results from British Columbia. Approx. 60 attendees.


Hampson, C. International Dwarf Fruit Tree Association, post-conference tour. Feb. 2014. Approx. 100 attendees. Tour of the 2010 NC-140 apple rootstock trial (Honeycrisp scion).


Hampson, C. Sweet Cherry Training and Systems Trial Approx. 100 attendees. Tour of the 2010 NC-140 apple rootstock trial (Honeycrisp scion).


Hampson, C. BC Tree Fruits Cooperative. May 2014. Bloom-time meeting and field trip. Tour of the 2010 NC-140 apple rootstock trial (Honeycrisp scion). Approx. 40 attendees.


Hanson, E. and G. Lang. 2014. Organic Raspberry and Cherry Production, MSU Organic High Tunnel Field Day, East Lansing, MI, July 16.


Lang, G., T. Wilkinson, and L. Sage. 2014. NC140 Cherry Canopy Training Systems x
Rootstocks Trial: Five-Year Update, Great Lakes Fruit Workers annual conference, Traverse
City, MI, Nov. 2-5.


Lang, G., T. Wilkinson, and L. Sage. 2014. Fruiting Wall Training Systems and High Tunnels for Stone Fruit Production, Great Lakes Fruit Workers annual conference, Traverse City, MI, Nov. 2-5.


Lang, G.A. 2014. Holistic Integration of Organic Strategies and High Tunnels for
Midwest/Great Lakes Fruit Production, USDA-OREI Project Directors meeting, Washington, DC, October 21-22.


Lang, G.A. 2014. Intensive Orchard Systems for High Quality, High Efficiency Sweet Cherry Production, European Cherry COST Project Meeting, Bordeaux, France, Oct. 13-15.


Lang, G., S. Blatt, J. Grant, S. Hoying, C. Ingels, D. Neilsen, G. Neilsen, and T. Robinson. 2014. Innovative High Density Sweet Cherry Training Systems: Five Years of Comparative Trials Across North America, International Horticultural Congress Symposium on Physiology of Perennial Fruit Crops & Production Systems, Brisbane, Australia, Aug. 17-22.


Lang, G.A., L. Sage, and T. Wilkinson. 2014. Ten Years of Studies on Systems to Modify the Sweet Cherry Production Environment: Retractable Roofs, High Tunnels, and RainShelters, International Horticultural Congress Symposium on Physiology of Perennial Fruit Crops & Production Systems, Brisbane, Australia, Aug. 17-22.


Lang, G.A. 2014. Two Decades of Physiology-based Innovations in Sweet Cherry Production, ISHS Symposium on Physiological Principles and Their Application to Fruit Production, Geneva, NY, Mar. 25-28.


Lang, G.A. 2014. How to Produce Cherry Fruit of Superior Size, III Seminario Internacional Cerezas: Innovacion, Mercados y Avances en la Produccion, Curico, Chile, Oct. 28-29.


Lang, G.A. 2014. Avances Fisiologicos y Productivos del Cerezo en lan Ultima Decada,
Avances en la Produccion y Poscoecha de cerezas para Los Desafios Comerciales Futuros
seminario, Santiago, Chile, Oct 2-3.


Lang, G.A. 2014. Protected Fruit Cropping Systems – World Trends, International
Horticultural Congress’ Grower and Industry Breakfast, Brisbane, Australia, Aug. 17-22.


Lang, G.A., M. Miranda-Sazo, and T. Robinson. 2014. Protecting Sweet Cherries From Rain:
Voen and Other Systems, Lake Ontario Fruit Tour, Cornell Extension, Medina, NY, July 24.


Lang, G. 2014. High Density Training Systems and Protected Production of Sweet Cherries
and Stone Fruits, MSU Clarksville Research Center Field Day, Clarksville, MI, July 10.


Lang, G.A. 2014. Covered Cherry Production: Impose Your Own Climate Change,
Summerfruit New Zealand annual conference and workshop, Cromwell, New Zealand, June 4-6.


Lang, G. 2014. Pruning High Density Sweet Cherries, MSUE Cherry Crop Load Management
& Pruning workshop, Traverse City, MI, Apr. 9.


Lang, G.A. 2014. Revolutionary Orchard Systems: Improving Sweet Cherry Production
quality, Consistency, and Efficiency, Norton-Folgate international cherry producers and
marketers conference, Cervinia, Italy, Mar. 30-Apr. 2.


Lang, G.A. 2014. Cherry Orchard Management: Integrated Techniques for Green Markets,
Environmental Sustainability in Cherry workshop, Talca, Chile, Mar. 13-14.


Lang, G.A. 2014. What Have We Learned (Sometimes the Hard Way) in Choosing What,
Where, and How to Plant, International Fruit Tree Association Intensive Cherry Short course,
Kelowna, British Columbia, Feb. 22-23.


Lang, G.A. 2014. Cherry Rootstocks Update, International Fruit Tree Association annual
conference, Kelowna, British Columbia, Feb. 24-26.


Lang, G.A. 2014. Advances in Covered Sweet Cherry Production, New York Fruit &
Vegetable Expo, Syracuse, NY, Jan. 23-24.


Lang, G.A. 2014. Fresh Market Sweet Cherry Production: Options and Opportunities, Ohio
Produce Growers and Marketers Association, Sandusky, OH, Jan. 21-22.


Lavely, E.K., J. Zhang, R.P. Marini, R. Crassweller, and D.M. Eissenstat. 2014. Effect of crop load and nitrogen source on apple root growth. Poster presented at the International Symposium on Physiological Principles and Their Application to Fruit Production, March 27, 2014, Geneva, NY.


Marini, R.P., W. A., R. Crassweller, R. Moran, T. Robinson, J. Cline, D. Wolfe, and R. Parra Quezada. 2014. The Interactive Effects of Early Season Temperatures, Crop Density and Rootstock on Average Fruit Weight of ‘Golden Delicious’ Apple. Paper presented at the International Symposium on Physiological Principles and Their Application to Fruit Production, March 27, 2014, Geneva, NY.


Miller, D. NC-140 apple rootstock plantings at Unit 2, OARDC, Wooster. Talk and tour given to OARDC Advisory Committee. 30 in attendance. 6/6/2014.


Moran, R. 2104. Maine Agricultural Trades Show Pomological Meeting. Research Update, attended by 40 apple growers.


Neilsen, D. International Horticultural Congress, Plant Physiology Symposium. Brisbane, Australia. August, 2014. Oral presentation ‘Dwarfing rootstocks and training systems affect initial growth, cropping and nutrition in ‘Skeena‘ sweet cherry’. Co-authors: Dr. G. Neilsen, Dr. T. Forge and Dr. G. Lang. Approx. 200 participants.


Neilsen, D. International Dwarf Fruit Tree Association, pre-conference cherry day. Kelowna, BC. Feb 22nd, 2014. Approx. 150 attendees. Oral presentation ‘NC140: Improving economic and environmental sustainability in tree fruit production through changes in rootstock use’. Co-authors: Dr. G. Neilsen and Dr. T. Forge.


Neilsen, G. and T. Forge. International Dwarf Fruit Tree Association, post-conference tour. Feb. 2014. Approx. 100 attendees. Tour of the 2010 NC-140 sweet cherry training system x rootstock trial (Skeena scion).


Newell, M. Bay Area Fruit School. February 26, 2014 - Apple Rootstock Trials. Bryan Butler - Cold Winter Temperatures and Frost Protection Strategies. Michael Newell (About fifty persons attended)


Parker, M.L. January 2014. How Do Newer Dwarfing Rootstocks Perform in NC?. Southeastern Apple
Growers Meeting, Asheville, NC. Commercial grower audience. Attendance 120.


Parker, M.L. January 2014. Peach Production Workshop with an emphasis on peach rootstocks and subsequent management. Attendance 50.


Parker, M.L. January 2014. North Carolina Peach Growers Society. Carthage, NC. Commercial grower audience. Attendance 80.


Parker, M.L. February 2014. Matching Your Apple Varieties & Rootstocks to Your Training System. Western District Apple School, Hendersonville, NC. Commercial grower audience. Attendance 110.


Parker, M.L. February 2014. Apple Varieties, Rootstocks and Training Systems for NC. Brushy
Mountain Fruit School, Wilkesboro, NC. Commercial grower audience. Attendance 40.


Peck, G. and K. Yoder. 10 Apr 2014. Breakfast Meeting for Commercial Growers: Tour of the VARP- Funded Rootstock Planting. Winchester, VA. Grower audience. Attendance: 22.


Peck, G. 27 Aug 2014. Virginia Agricultural Council: Tour of the Horticulture Planting and and Future TmRSV-Susceptibility Test Site. Winchester, VA. Grower audience. Attendance: 18.


Peck, G. 6-7 Nov 2014. Hard Cider Production Short Course: From Tree to Bottle. Influence of Orchard Design and Management on Cider Apples: Site Selection, Rootstocks, Cultivars, Training Systems, and Yields. Blacksburg, VA. Producer audience. Attendance: 38.


Peck, G. and K. Yoder. 16 Aug 2014. Open House at the Alson H. Smith, Jr. AREC: Tour of the Horticulture Plantings. Winchester, VA. General public. Attendance: 50.


Reighard, G.L. 2014. Six-year performance and survival of Redhaven on 18 Prunus rootstocks in South Carolina. Southeastern Professional Fruit Workers Conference, Clemson, SC. Sept. 15-17, 2014.


Reighard, G.L., N.A. Mayer, W. Bridges, Jr. and M. Glenn. 2014. Carbon to nitrogen ration in peach bark and incidence of bacterial canker. 29th IHC, Brisbane, Australia, August 17-22, 2014.


Reighard, G.L. and D.R. Ouellette. 2014. Rootstock testing of Prunus species hybrids for peach in South Carolina. ASHS Annual Conference, Orlando, FL, July 28-31, 2014.


Reighard, G.L, L.M. Kenealy, B. Rauh, and W. Bridges, Jr. 2014. Predicting fruit maturity dates for South Carolina peach cultivars. SR-ASHS, Dallas, TX. Jan. 31– Feb. 2, 2014.


Schupp, J. 2014. Peach Training Systems. New England Vegetable and Fruit Conference, Manchester, NH, 17 Dec 2013


Schupp, J. 2014. Performance of Peach Training Systems in the Mid-Atlantic (Ernie Christ Memorial Lecture). Mid Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Conference, Hershey, PA, 29 Jan 2014.


Schupp, J. 2014. On-Farm Peach Rootstock Research. Franklin County Twilight Mtg., Mickey Orchards, Chambersburg, PA, 8 May 2014


Schupp, J. Nursery Defoliation with Combinations of CuEDTA, Urea, Oil, ABA, and ACC. Penn State Fruit Research and Extension Center Plant Protection Field Day, Biglerville, PA, 11 Sept 2014.


Stasiak, M. 2014. Apple Rootstock Update. 2014 Wisconsin Fresh Fruit & Vegetable Conference. Audience commercial apple growers, attendance 800.


Wallis, A. Western Maryland Regional Fruit Meeting. February 20, 2014. Preliminary Results from the Gala, Pink Lady Geneva Rootstock Trial at WMREC - Anna Wallis and Bryan Butler
(About sixty persons attended)


Walsh, C.S. Field performance of Asian pear trees in the hot, humid summer conditions of the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. International Pear Symposium, Leuven, Belgium. July 15, 2014.


Wolfe, D. 19 June 2014. Apple and peach rootstock trials in Kentucky. UKREC Horticulture Field Day. homeowner /grower audience. attendance 20.



Please see attached publications file for latest external funding leveraged by NC140 for 2013/2014.

Impact Statements

  1. Official Statement SAES-422: Over the last 30 years, fruit growers in North America have steadily transitioned from large canopied orchards to newer higher density orchards that use less land surface, increased production efficiency, and accommodate automation utilizing new technology in management. New rootstocks have largely been the impetus behind this transition as identified by NC-140 research in identifying superior performing rootstocks, their propagation and commercialization. The outcome of this work has given consumers supplies of sustainably grown quality fresh and processed fruit.
  2. The NC-140 plantings are regularly used as demonstration plots of new rootstocks for growers, nurserymen, visiting scientists, and graduate students. Rootstock trials have also been conducted on grower?s farms that have yielded invaluable information on adaptability that was not known from experiment station trials. Over the last 20 years, there has been a significant change in rootstock use in the United States and Canada.
  3. Results from NC-140 research continue to accelerate the process of identifying superior performing tree rootstocks and of their propagation and commercialization. Growers in various regions of the North America have benefited by having these rootstocks made available earlier by nursery companies. The NC-140 cooperative plantings have identified the benefits of the disease resistant CG rootstocks for North American sites.
  4. Documents have been uploaded in eXtension associated with rootstocks and apple varieties have become a very popular resource for information for growers throughout the eastern United States (MN, NC) found at www.extension.org/apples.
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Date of Annual Report: 01/19/2016

Report Information

Annual Meeting Dates: 11/02/2015 - 11/04/2015
Period the Report Covers: 10/01/2014 - 09/30/2015

Participants

Brief Summary of Minutes

Accomplishments

Accomplishments Report, 2015 NC 140 Project


 


Impact Nuggets


 



  • The financial benefit to U.S. fruit growers from NC 140 rootstock research findings has accelerated earlier returns, greater yield, and higher fruit quality with a financial impact estimated at $200,000,000 over a 5-year period.


 



  • NC 140 rootstock trials located at research facilities or on grower’s farms have yielded invaluable information on adaptability of new rootstocks for apple, pear, peach, and cherry.


 



  • The NC-140 apple and peach rootstock trials are educational tools for growers in the Southeastern U.S. to facilitate decision making of rootstocks to consider in establishing orchards in new and replant sites where peach tree short life decline devastates the industry.


 


New Facilities and Equipment


 


Over-the-row mechanical harvesters manufactured by Littau Harvesters were rented and tested for high density tart cherry production systems in MI. Battery-powered hand-held pruners and hedgers were used to impose summer and dormant pruning treatments on sweet and tart cherry in MI. A new orchard of 12 acres was set-up for stone fruit research at the University of Georgia, Griffin Campus, GA. A new fence, irrigation system, two greenhouses and expansion of laboratory space in the upgrade to support fruit research in GA. Sophisticated and modern regular and controlled atmosphere cold storage facilities were built at the University of Idaho Parma Research and Extension Center for our apple project, including several NC-140 projects in 2015. An upgraded apple fruit washing and packing line was installed at the Rutgers Snyder Farm, NJ in 2014. A Bartlett Orchard Chariot platform was purchased in 2015 for PA for use by PSU Ag Bio Engineering and Horticulture projects.


 


 


Unique Project Related Findings


 


 


Low survival rates by the end of the sixth season were recorded in AL for peach on four rootstocks where all trees on Mirobac and Krymsk®1 rootstocks are dead and low survival on Emperyan@2 and Controller 5, while all trees on Lovell and Guardian are surviving and productive. The ‘Controller 8 (HBOK 10)’ and ‘Controller 7 (HBOK 32)’ peach rootstocks, with a smaller overall tree size in comparison with the standards, had similar yield efficiency than the commercial standards. In general the Geneva apple rootstocks are more winter-hardy and disease-resistant in British Columbia, which makes them of great commercial interest for high density apple plantings worldwide. Several Geneva and other apple rootstocks, including Geneva 935 and Geneva 41 seem to be suitable for climate and soil conditions of southwest Idaho. Prunus americana as a rootstock for peach continues to be the most productive dwarfing peach rootstock in a trial in MA, equaling the per-tree productivity of standard rootstocks and producing fruit of comparable size. MD observed good survival of Fuji and Gala apple trees on Geneva rootstocks under local conditions. Evaluation of 3 rootstocks (OHxF 87, OHxF 97 and Pyrodwarf) and 2 pear cultivars (Comice and Concorde) under Nova Scotian environmental conditions demonstrated the need for long establishment times to achieve production. Other cultivars and rootstocks should be sought for the pear industry in Nova Scotia. Spring weather conditions significantly reduced maximum fruit sizes compared to previous years in the Peach Physiology trial in SC likely due to above normal post bloom temperatures.


 


 


Accomplishment Summaries


 


Objective 1. To evaluate the influence of rootstocks on temperate-zone fruit tree characteristics grown under varying environments using sustainable management systems.


 


 


Projects in various stages of data collection, evaluation and planning include the following in association with years of plot establishment and identification of trial coordinators:


 


 


2003 Apple Physiology (Rich Marini)


2009/2014 Peach Physiology (Rich Marini)


2009 Peach Rootstock (Greg Reighard)


2010 Apple Rootstock (Wes Autio)


2010 Sweet Cherry Rootstock and Training Systems (Greg Lang)


2013 Pear Training/Rootstock/Spacing (Todd Einhorn)


2014 Apple Rootstock (John Cline)


2015 Organic Apple Rootstock (Terence Robinson)


 


Future plantings for all crops for 2017 and beyond, are in various stages of planning at this time.


 


Apple Sub-Committee (Chair, Stefano Mussachi, WA)


 


The 2010 Apple Rootstock trial was established at 13 locations with Honeycrisp and six locations with Fuji. It includes 28 Budagovsky, Cornell-Geneva, and Pillnitz rootstocks and three commercial controls. After five growing seasons, largest trees were on B.70-20-20; the smallest were on B.71-7-22. Greatest cumulative yield were from trees on CG.4004; the least from trees on B.71-7-22 (Honeycrisp) and B.7-20-21 (Fuji). Most cumulatively yield efficient trees were on G.11 and G.4003 for Honeycrisp and on B.9, G.935N, and M.9 NAKBT337 for Fuji. The largest fruit on average were from trees on B.64-194 for Honeycrisp and from trees on G.41TC for Fuji. Trees on PiAu 9-90 continue to have severe chlorosis in BC, a sickly appearance, and often small fruit size. The 2014 Apple rootstock planting was established in 15 locations in the United States (AL, ID, IN, MA, ME, MI, MN, GA, NJ, NY, PA, UT, VA, WA, WI), two in Canada, and one in Mexico (http://bit.ly/1zv3wCc). The trial consists of the following rootstocks: B.10, G.11, G.202, G.214, G.30, G.41, G.5890, G.935, G.969, M.26 EMLA, M.9 T337, V.1, V.5, V.6, V.7. The trial is being coordinated by John Cline who has also agreed to analyze the data. This trial has two cultivars: Aztec Fuji (AL, ID, GA, NJ, ON, PA, UT) and Honeycrisp (ID, IN, MA, ME, Mexico, MI, MN, NJ, NY, Ontario, PA, VA, WA, WI), planted to a ‘tall spindle’ systems at a 5 x 12 feet, and 4 x12 feet spacing, respectively. Trees are planted using a randomized block design with single trees serving as experimental units. Each site selected a pollinizer variety since some sites are very limited in adapted varieties. Trees were established in the spring of 2014. The trees were propagated by Willow Drive Nursery, WA. Data protocols have been established for 2014 and 2015. This is a young trial with no significant findings being reported at this time. The 2015 Organic Apple Rootstock Trial, was established in 2015 in 13 US and 1 Mexican state and will evaluate 9 Geneva rootstocks and M.9 NAKBT337 as a control. All trees are managed organically and trained as Tall Spindles. Modi is the cultivar and Liberty is the pollinizer. The design is five blocks in two-tree sets and will require 1/10 acre.   Organic certification is optional, but orchard management must be organic. There are no results to report as yet.


 


Cherry Sub-Committee (Chair, Greg Lang, MI)


 


 


The 2010 Sweet Cherry Rootstock x Canopy Training System Coordinated Trial began with 13 sites; these have diminished to 5 due to diseases, cooperator retirements or transitions, deer damage, etc. Sweet cherry performance has varied widely by site and scion cultivar in on-going coordinated trials examining diverse canopy architectures matched with rootstocks of varying vigor levels. Work has begun on the first trial paper (Training Systems Establishment, Years 1-4) with adequate data expected from CA, MI, NY-Geneva, NY-New Paltz, NS, and BC. Since most training systems under test are new and novel, information about proper training and pruning is being developed respect to tree spacing and the range of rootstock vigor in the trial – in some system x rootstock combinations, excessive shading may be causing yields to diminish.


Gi3 combined with Upright Fruiting Offshoots system was insufficiently vigorous for 1.5 x 4 m spacing in British Columbia. Conversely, trees on Gi6 trained to the SSA system in Michigan has been overly vigorous at 0.75 m x 3.5 m. Two 2010 Tart Cherry Rootstock x Canopy Training System Independent Trials were established in UT and MI. The focus is on examining rootstock x canopy training interactions to develop hedgerow-type trees for over-the-row mechanical harvest. Gi.3 was about equal to Gi.5 in adaptability, which were better than Gi.6 and all were better than Mahaleb or Montmorency on its own roots. Yield in 2015 at MI was not recorded due to severe spring frost. For the 2017 Tart Cherry Rootstock x Harvest System trial, Greg Lang has organized tree procurement and will coordinate the trial, which will have 5 Michigan State rootstocks, 3 Gisela stocks (3, 5, 12), Krymsk 6, and Mahaleb. Trial sites are UT (2), WI (2), ON, MI, and NY. The tart cherry trees will be trained for over-the-row mechanical harvesting. The 2017 Sweet Cherry Rootstock trial, coordinated by Greg Lang (MI), will have 5 Michigan State rootstocks, 3 Gisela stocks (3, 5, 12), Krymsk 6, and MxM14. Trial sites include OR, CA, WA, ID, MI, NY, and BC with Benton as a scion. Trees will be trained as 2 or 3 systems at each site. MSU-developed cherry rootstock selections exhibit vigor reduction and precocity comparable to Gisela 3 and Gisela 5 rootstocks for tart and sweet cherry scion varieties in preliminary trials in WA and MI. Preparations have begun to include these in 2017 NC140 coordinated comparative trials for high density sweet and tart cherry production.


 


Pear Sub-Committee (Chairs, Todd Einhorn, OR; Rachel Elkins, CA)


 


 


The 2013 pear training/rootstock/spacing trial coordinated by Todd Einhorn was designed to evaluate the main effects and interactions among rootstock (OH×F 87, OH×F 69 and Pyro 2-33), training system (single axe V, single axe tall spindle, bi-axe vertical), and intra-row spacing (3, 4.5 and 6 ft.) on pear production. Cooperators are OR (Anjou), NY (Bosc), and CA (Bartlett). Across all sites, trees were smallest on Pyro 2-33 and of similar size on OHxF69 and OHxF87.   Individual leaders of bi-Axis trees were significantly smaller than leaders of single axis trees at all sites. Anjou tree size was positively related to in-row spacing. For Bosc (NY) and Bartlett (CA), tall spindle produced the highest yields; Anjou (OR) has not yet begun to crop, but flowering was highest for bi-axis trees. T. Einhorn is coordinating a 2018 rootstock trial to evaluate dwarfing potential and productivity of cold-hardy quince accessions on pear. Cooperators include OR, Nova Scotia, NY, PA, and WA. Ten to 14 genotypes presently in tissue culture will be propagated in 2016 and delivered to a nursery for propagation. Rootstocks will be budded to select scions, with and without interstems. OH×F 87 will serve as the control.    


 


Peach Sub-Committee (Chairs, Greg Reighard, SC; Rich Marini, PA)


 


 


Five-years of data were summarized for the 16 locations of the 2009 peach rootstock trial. Data was analyzed with a first draft manuscript currently in preparation. Fourteen locations provided data for the 5-year report. Prunus persica rootstocks had the highest survival with 5 of the 6 cultivars having 93% or greater survival across all sites. Root suckering was only a problem with P. americana, which had excessive root sprouts under the trees. Largest trees were three Prunus x almond hybrids and Guardian®. Fruit size varied with location and crop load (i.e., some rootstocks had few fruit). KV010127 produced the largest fruit and Controller 5 and Mirobac (a.k.a Replantpac) the smallest fruit across all sites. Cumulative yields were generally highest with the peach rootstocks with Guardian® leading the way. Lowest yields were from plum hybrids and species. Cumulative yield efficiency was highest on the non-peach rootstocks including many of the plum hybrids or species. However, many of these rootstocks produced trees much smaller than the peach and almond hybrid cultivars. These data suggest there were no demonstrated advantages to using clonal interspecific Prunus hybrids for peach production under current cultural practices. The 2009 Peach Physiology Trial is focusing on the interactive effects of early-season temperature, cultivar and crop density on average fruit weight. Five cooperators (AL, ID, MD, SC, and KY). Trees were thinned early in the season to develop a range of crop densities and days from bloom to harvest, average fruit weight and growing degree days. In general, for a given crop density, fruit weight was highest in SC and lowest in KY. Data from other cooperators has not been submitted as of this writing.


 


Objective 2. To develop improved rootstocks for temperate-zone fruit trees using state-of-the-art genomic tools in breeding programs.


 


A cherry rootstock selection program (based on sour cherry scion breeding efforts) at MI has


identified 5 elite genotypes, Cass, Clare, Lake, Crawford, and Clinton, that confer significant


vigor control, precocity, and high productivity to sweet and tart cherry scions. These are being propagated for future NC140 coordinated trial evaluation as well as trials with selected scientists


and growers. In 2014 the Geneva, NY apple rootstock program released one new rootstock, G814. This rootstock has been tested as CG4814. It was evaluated in the 1999 McIntosh semidwarf trial where it was the most efficient semi-dwarfing stock. It has been trialed in a large WA state trial which led to the decision to release this stock at the request of some nurseries for use with Gala. A non-profit foundation (Improving Perrenial Plants for Food and BioEnergy or IPPFBE) based in Richmond, Utah has collected a wide range of fruit tree germplasm, including some Prunus material (peach/nectarine, apricot, almond). This material is being donated to USU with funding to support rootstock research. A new breeding program was initiated in June 2015 at WA (WSU) with a focus on producing dwarfing precocious rootstocks for pear.


 


Objective 3. To accelerate adoption of new rootstocks (a) by improving propagation techniques and (b) by acquiring new rootstocks from worldwide sources.


 


Discussions, led by MI, are on-going to assist in the importation and propagation of several cherry rootstocks, from Germany known as the WeiGi series. These stocks will be tested in future NC 140 cherry rootstock trials. Three Amelanchier rootstock genotypes were developed from intra- and interspecific hybridization (Germany) and tested in two plantings in Hood River, OR using ‘D’Anjou’ as the scion and compared to OH×F 87. Trees were established in a rootstock trial in OR on Amelanchier, which have been found to be are highly dwarfed (i.e., half the size of those on OH×F 87). Amelanchier rootstocks conferred high productivity to ‘D’Anjou’ resulting in ~60 flower clusters and 20 fruits per tree, a 6- and 10-fold increase over OH×F 87 for these factors, respectively. The propagation of several Geneva, NY rootstocks has been improved significantly by the use of tissue culture plants as mother plants for stoolbeds, especially with G.41. This has resulted in an accelerated planting of Geneva 41 stoolbeds. We estimate that 150,000 feet of stoolbeds of G.11 and G.41 and about 50,000 feet of G.935 have been planted. This has resulted in a production of 1.0 million liners of G.11 in 2014 and 1.5 million liners of G.41. Rootpac 20 (Densipac) and Rootpac 40 (Nanopac) from the Spanish Company Agromillora Iberica were obtained by SC for the planned 2017 Peach Systems Trial. Potential new Pyrus seedling rootstocks are being propagated through tissue culture to enable small scale testing of dwarfing capability at WA. Several potential new Pyrus rootstocks were imported from the Musacchi program in Italy to the CPCNW, WA. Once through quarantine and virus testing, these will be propagated for trial.


 


Objective 4. To better understand the impacts of biotic and abiotic stresses on scion/rootstock combinations in temperate-zone fruit trees.


 


Biotic stresses. Nutrient acquisition and partitioning to foliage in ‘Honeycrisp’ apple was examined in 2014 across the range of rootstocks in the 2010 NC140 trial in MI. One aspect of this study is the comparison of 2014 leaf nutrient values with bitter pit incidence ratings in 2013 and 2015. The majority of P. persica rootstocks were found to have survival rates above 75% in GA after five years of establishment, which are comparable to the standard rootstock ‘Guardian’. Prunus hybrids and other Prunus species of rootstocks are not surviving in GA. For peaches grown in the Sandhills region of NC, fumigation is strongly encouraged to minimize the potential for peach tree short life, even when Guardian is used. Prunus rootstocks that had P. dulcis or P. domestica in their lineage have had poor survival in SC, but no rootstocks of 100% P. persica have died. It appears that soil fumigation may be beneficial for apple trees planted in replant sites in NC or the best alternative would be to select alternative rootstocks, especially in not using M.7 in replant sites. In the spring of 2015, 12 plants of two scion varieties, Honeycrisp and Gala, were grafted onto 4 rootstocks (G890, G41, Bud-9 and M9-T337) to study uptake of calcium and nitrogen in WA.


 


Abiotic stresses. Water relations measurements in the 2015 growing seasons in BC indicated that sweet cherry trees on Gi3 rootstock had lower midday stem water potential than Gi5 and Gi6 rootstocks, suggesting a possible limitation to production. As in previous years, Gi3 was more susceptible to colonization with root lesion nematodes than Gi5 and Gi6 trees in 2015. No bacterial canker was found. Quince selections, with eventual use as rootstocks, are being assessed for cold hardiness in OR. Following a 3-year evaluation of cold hardiness on a subset of 60 quince taxa from the USDA- NCGR core collection (Einhorn and Postman, manuscript in preparation), 22 accessions showed less than 50% browning at -30 °C with no detectable differences in acclimation or de- acclimation relative to pear standards. Twelve of these accessions were micropropagated (2014) and grafted to ‘Bartlett’ and ‘D’Anjou’ (with and without interstems) in 2015. Trees will be finished in 2016 and established in Hood River, OR in 2017. In the 2010 Apple Rootstock trial, NS reported a significant delay in harvest this past year due to the weather. Warmer temperatures at night have resulted in delayed coloring of the fruit. Harvest using the dA meter showed wide variation compared with other years. Graft union strength of Geneva rootstocks G. 41, G.935 and M.9 is being studied in UT and NY. A non-profit foundation (Improving Perrenial Plants for Food and BioEnergy or IPPFBE) based in Richmond Utah has collected a wide range of fruit tree germplasm, including some Prunus material (peach/nectarine, apricot, almond). A portion of these are growing under high salt conditions, and the apricot germplasm is showing dramatic differences in susceptibility to salt injury. This material along with some funding for characterization was recently donated to USU.


 


Objective 5. To enhance the sustainability of temperate fruit farming through development and distribution of research-based information utilizing eXtension.


 


The NC-140 web site, http://nc140.org continues to be our primary outreach component


serving as an important collaboration tool for cooperators. Members of the research group


communicate through a list serve, and upload/download project files to password-protected


directories (NJ, MA). We have used the site to allow for easier collaboration and comparison of


replicated rootstock trials. Requirements for web page design for regional projects have


been met as outlined by the NIMMS and the North Central Regional Association of Agricultural


Experiment Station Directors (NCRA). Articles, photographs and reports were archived


throughout the year. Members of our research group have been working on making research-based information available to anyone who would like to use it through eXtension (MN, PA, MA, NY, NC, MO, OH, WV, IN, VA). eXtension is not used in Canada . The database has been completed for apple rootstocks and cultivars and can be viewed at http://www.extension.org/apples. This project was funded through the USDA-SCRI program and was completed in August 2014. We have linked to the primary website for the research group, www.nc140.org. NC-140 also maintains its own Email distribution list for internal communication. The posting Email address is nc140@virtualorchard.net. Reports, presentations, and videos that update NC140 cherry, apple, and stone fruit rootstock research and extension at MI are regularly posted on www.cherries.msu.edu, www.apples.msu.edu, www.hrt.msu.edu/greg-lang, and www.giselacherry.com. These have been cited by fruit growers throughout the United States around the world as valuable sources of information for new orchard planning and production. The Penn State Tree Fruit Website was upgraded with the addition of several posts on cultural practices including information on apple rootstocks, apple cultivars, training systems, calcium nutrient management and Honeycrisp management.


 


Impact Statements


 


Apple rootstock trial coordinator, Richard Marini, Penn State University, used data from the 1994 and 2003 apple rootstock trials to predict and determine rootstock vigor classification. In general, the very vigorous rootstocks differ from non-vigorous rootstocks within 4 years and M.9 can be separated from M.26 in 7 to 8 years. In future NC-140 apple rootstock trials, we should be able to accurately classify rootstock vigor after six or seven years at most locations. This finding will shorten costly field evaluation time to assess rootstock vigor across locations or regions.


 


Peach tree short life is one of the major concerns and limitations in the southeastern U. S. An NC 140 rootstock trial established in the Sandhills region of NC will demonstrate the best rootstocks to cope with this malady. Data generated in this trial identifies several which are not suitable for eastern NC peach growers and several that may be promising for higher density plantings.


 


The uniform apple rootstock trials in MN have allowed growers in USDA hardiness zone 4 to evaluate new rootstocks for planting in commercial operations. This information can also be extended to a larger audience via eApples. This information provides scientist members from other regions of NC 140, incite regarding potential cold hardiness of rootstock candidates.


 


In MA, 200 acres of trees were planted on dwarfing rootstock occurred during 2015 based based on results of NC-140 research. On this acreage, pruning and harvest labor declined by 50%, fruit quality and size increased by 20%, profit increased by 50%, and because of reduced canopy volume, pesticide use declined by 70%.


 


Other Relevant Accomplishments and Activities


 


The NC 140 project was awarded the Experiment Station Section Award for Excellence in Multistate Research in 2015. The award was officially presented at the annual Association of Public and Land Grant Universities annual meeting November 14, 2015. The award recognized this regional project’s contributions for over 40 years to the fruit growers in North America. NC 140 has been critical to the steady transition to higher density orchards, which has benefited consumers with higher quality fruit at reasonable prices. http://agisamerica.org/september-2015-land-grant-institutions-work-across-state-lines-to-increase-fruit-tree-production/. The project was given a $15,000 stipend to go towards project improvements and scholastic endeavors.


 


Fund Leveraging, specifically, collaborative grants between stations and members.


 


NC-140 members have written research proposals and attracted extramural funding associated or directly related to the five objectives of this project from local, regional, national and international funding sources. For fiscal year 2014/2015, funding and matching funds reported by members amounted to $3,701,088 from primarily commodity groups, state and competitive grant sources.


 


Hampson, C.   2015. Costs of supporting the 2010 NC-140 apple rootstock trial and one independent rootstock trial            AAFC BC Growers    $2,000.00


Nielsen, D. 2015. Costs of supporting the 2010 NC-140 cherry rootstock trial        Ag Food Can  $2,000.00


 


Cochran, D. 2015. Optimizing the Cropping Potential and Profitability of Organic and Sustainable Apple Orchards Through the Use of Dwarfing Rootstocks     Iowa Dept Ag $12,700.00


 


Fallahi, E. 2015. Evaluation of leaf minerals and fruit quality attributes of mature ‘Aztec’ Fuji trees on different rootstocks, tree girdling, and canopy designs ID Dept Ag     $53,500.00


 


Fallahi , E. 2015. Selection for suitable rootstocks to improve yield, growth and fruit quality attributes and leaf minerals of ‘Aztec’ Fuji apples. ID Dept Ag, $50,500.00


 


Fallahi, E. 2015. Pest and disease control of rootstock projects. Wilbur Ellis.  $4,000.00


 


Fallahi, E. 2015. Labor and equipment (in-kind) from Idaho fruit industry for operation of various apple rootstock projects. Idaho Fruit Industry.  $5,800.00


 


Fallahi, E. 2015. New cold storage facilities for fruit research Univ Idaho   $800,000.00


 


Hirst, P. 2015. Support tree fruit research      Ostermeyer Endowment         $15,000.00


 


Hirst, P.M., R.E. Foster and J. Beckerman     2015    Return Bloom Fund contributions to support tree fruit research            Indiana Horticultural Society $5,000.00


 


Wolfe, D. 2013-2015. New peach/nectarine cultivar planting Cumberland Valley Nursery  $1,000.00


 


Wolfe, D. 2009-2015. Apricot, peach, nectarine cultivar planting     Gardens Alive $15,000.00


 


Wolfe, D., Ingram, Saha, Dunwell, Strang, Woods. 2015. Infrastructure for Kentucky Horticulture.Technical Staff from KY Agricultural Dvlmnt Board /KY Hort. Council      $550,000.00


 


Lang, G. 2015 Competitive Orchards 2020: Integrating Tree Fruit Cropping Physiology, Canopy Architectures, Climate Modification Technologies, and Pest Management Strategies Project GREEEN    $37,500.00


 


Lang, G. 2015 Apple Rootstock Evaluations. Mich Apple Com       Apple Res Comm        $14,741.00


 


Lang, G. 2015 Sweet Cherry Orchard Designs. Mich Cherry Com Mich Cherry Comm      $10,000.00


 


Lang, G. 2015 Trellised Protected Orchard Systems IFTA   $8,000.00


 


Lang, G. 2015 Fruiting Wall Orchard Systems for Stone Fruits        IFTA   $4,000.00


 


Lang, G. 2015 Fruiting wall and high tunnel stone fruit production  MSHS $7,892.00


 


Lang, G. A. Iezzoni, N. Rothwell, R. Perry, 2014-2015. Propagation of MSU Cherry rootstocks for research trials            GREEEN $14,092.00


 


Lang, G. 2015 In-kind use of apple rootstock plot     Al-Mar Orchards, Flushing     $2,500.00


 


Lang, G. 2015 Electronic pruners       Peach Ridge Orchard Supply $3,500.00


 


Lang, G. 2015 In-kind use of apple rootstock plot     Rasch Orchards           $2,500.00


 


Parker, M. 2013-2015 Developing Management Strategies for Tree Fruit     NCDA&CS Specialty Crop Block Grant $84,000.00


 


Parker, M. 2014. Apple Rootstock Evaluations.        NC Apple Growers Association.        $5,700.00


 


Parker, M. 2015. Support of apple research    NC Legislature/Special Bill funding for apple research         $11,930.00


 


Cowgill, W. 2015 NC 140 rootstock research            NJ Horticultural Society         $4,500.00


 


Cowgill, W. 2015 Rootstock and other plots maintenance    NJ Ag Industry Support- dollars and in kind total     $22,000.00


 


Shengrui Yao, Heyduck, R. and Guldan, S.  2014-2017. Organic apple high density planting in New Mexico, NM Specialty Block Grant $27,242.00


 


Forge, T, Neilsen, D, Wiersma, P, Blatt, S, Song, J, Forney, C, Burgher-MacLellan, K, Kalmokoff, M and Cline, J. 2015-2018. Developing more resilient tree fruit production systems from the ground up:  rootstocks with enhanced tolerance to emerging biotic threats to orchard health            AAFC $518,000.00


 


Miller, D.D. 2015.Fruit research support        Ohio Apple Marketing Program         $10,000.00


Cline, J and J. Zandstra. 2014            . Rootstock research support   Canandian Horticultural Council        $30,000.00


 


Gibeaut, D., T. Einhorn and L. Long 2015. New programs to increase sweet cherry fruit size and improve harvest quality. Wash Tree Fruit Research Com and Oregon Sweet Cherry Com.    $117,973.00


 


Einhorn, T. 2015. Improving fruit set, production efficiency and profitability of pears. NW Pear Bureau and Fresh Pear Research Committee       $41,885.00


 


Whiting, M., T. Einhorn, and I. Hanrahan. 2015. Effect of near-harvest irrigation on fruit quality  Washington Tree Fruit Research Com and Oregon Sweet Cherry Com            $45,833.00


 


Einhorn, T. and B. Tuck. 2015. New and Continuing Pear Rootstock, Training System, and Cultivar        


Evaluations Columbia Gorge Fruit Growers Commission      $94,962.00


 


Autio, W., R. Marini, T. Robinson, G. Reighard, G. Lang, and T.Einhorn. 2015. NC-140 Rootstock Research Trial Coordination   International Fruit Tree Association   $20,000.00


 


Crassweller, R. M. & D. E. Smith. 2015. Apple rootstocks and cultivar evaluations            State Horticultural Association of Pennsylvania Research Committee.  $8,123.00


 


Crassweller, R. M. & D. E. Smith. 2015. Second generation apple system trials      State Horticultural Association of Pennsylvania Research Committee     $9,000.00


 


Crassweller, R. M. 2015. Extending carbohydrate model to PA growers for determining apple tree response to chemical thinners        State Horticultural Association of Pennsylvania Research Committee          $2,569.00


 


Crassweller, R. M. & D. E. Smith. 2015. Nutritional analysis of new apple cultivars in high density plantings. State Horticultural Association of Pennsylvania Extension Committee      $1,702.00


 


Crassweller, R., and J. Schupp. 2015. Rootstock and cultivar evaluations    State Horticultural Association of Pennsylvania Research Committee     $12,799.00


 


Kon, T.M. and J.R. Schupp. 2015. A novel blossom thinning approach for apple: quantifying thermal transfer and damage to non-target tissues. State Horticultural Association of Pennsylvania Research Committee. $14,095.00


 


Kon, T.M. and J.R. Schupp. 2015. Evaluating the pollen tube growth model as a timing aid for blossom thinners in the mid-Atlantic.         State Horticultural Association of Pennsylvania Extension Committee        $2,478.00


 


Krawczyk, G., K. Peter and J. Schupp. 2015.            Effect of exclusion netting on integrated pest and disease management and fruit quality of apples. State Horticultural Association of Pennsylvania Research Committee     $19,554.00


 


Schupp, J. 2015. Testing mechanical and hand artificial spur extinction for Cropload management of apple            State Horticultural Association of Pennsylvania Research Committee. $9,487.00


 


Schupp, J. and T. Baugher. 2015. Cropload and fruit nutrient studies in commercial Honeycrisp orchards to determine best practices for minimizing bitter pit.     State Horticultural Association of Pennsylvania Research Committee. $10,100.00


 


Reighard, G. 2015. Guardian® seed sales      South Carolina Foundation Seed        $173,000.00


 


Reighard, G. 2015. Screening peach rootstocks for adaptability, productivity, and tolerance to Armillaria and bacterial canker.          South Carolina Peach Council research grant . $4,000.00


 


Robinson, T. and B. Black. 2015. Rootstock interactions and their effect on graft union break strength of apple.            International Fruit Tree Association   $10,000.00


 


Black, B. and G. Fazio. 2015. A Comparison of Water Relations Among Fruit Tree Rootstocks    Utah Ag. Experiment Station Grant       $17,946.00


 


Black, B. 2015. A Comparison of Water Relations and WUE Among Fruit Tree Rootstocks          Utah Dept. Ag. & Food, Specialty Crop Block Grant     $31,029.00


 


Peck, G.M. and M. Williams. 2014-2017. Towards ecologically-based fertilizer recommendations that improve soil quality in high-density apple orchards.           USDA-NIFA, Southern Sustainable Agriculture Research and Extension Program (SSARE).            $140,000.00


 


Peck, G.M. and K.S. Yoder. 2014-2016. Advancing Organic Apple Production in Virginia           VA Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services-Specialty Crop Block Grant      $38,166.00


 


Peck, G.M. 2014-2015. Fine-tuning fertilizer recommendations for young apple trees in high-density plantings. Virginia Apple Research Program      $10,000.00


 


Peck, G.M. 2014-2015. Continued Investigations into New Rootstocks, Cultivars, and Training Systems for Virginia. Virginia Apple Research Program. $5,000.00


Peck, G.M. 2014-2015. NC-140 rootstock trial for Central Virginia Virginia Apple Research Program      $6,265.00


 


Yoder, K.S. and G.M. Peck. 2014-2015. Apple rootstock susceptibility to Tomato Ring Spot Virus          Virginia Apple Research Program $8,000.00


 


Yoder, K.S. and G.M. Peck.  2014-2016.      Susceptibility of new apple rootstocks to Tomato Ringspot Virus            Virginia Agricultural Council.  $9,500.00


 


Peck, G.M. 2015-2016. Integrated Approaches for Reducing Synthetic Fertilizer Inputs in Apple Orchards. Virginia Agricultural Council.  $21,683.00


 


Peck, G.M., K.S. Yoder, and D. Carbaugh. 2015-2016. New Rootstocks, Cultivars, and Training Systems for Virginia           Virginia Apple Research Program. $6,000.00


 


Peck, G.M., A.T. Thompson, and D. Carbaugh. 2015-2016. Fine-tuning fertilizer recommendations for young apple trees in high-density plantings: Year Three, 2015. Virginia Apple Research Program           $10,000.00.


 


Musacchi, S., Kate Evans and Karen Lewis. 2013. Rootstock and systems trial      Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission    $58,594.00


 


Musacchi, S., Karen Lewis, Karina Gallardo, Tom Auvil. 2014-2017.          Rootstock and Systems Trial.            Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission. $133,495.00


 


Evans, K. and Amit Dhingra. 2015-2018. Developing the foundation for U.S. pear rootstock breeding     PNW Pear Bureau. $273,253.00


 


































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Author



Date



Title



Source



Amnt



Hampson



2015



Costs of supporting the 2010 NC-140 apple rootstock trial and one independent rootstock trial



AAFC BC Growers



2000



Nielsen



2015



Costs of supporting the 2010 NC-140 cherry rootstock trial



Ag Food Can



2000



Cochran



2015



Optimizing the Cropping Potential and Profitability of Organic and Sustainable Apple Orchards Through the Use of Dwarfing Rootstocks



Iowa Dept Ag



12700



Fallahi



2015



Evaluation of leaf minerals and fruit quality attributes of mature ‘Aztec’ Fuji trees on different rootstocks, tree girdling, and canopy designs



ID Dept Ag



53500



Fallahi



2015



Selection for suitable rootstocks to improve yield, growth and fruit quality attributes and leaf minerals of ‘Aztec’ Fuji apples



ID Dept Ag



50500



Fallahi



2015



Pest and disease control of rootstock projects



Wilbur Ellis



4000



Fallahi



2015



Labor and equipment (in-kind) from Idaho fruit industry for operation of various apple rootstock projects



Idaho Fruit Industry



5800



Fallahi



2015



New cold storage facilities for fruit research



Univ Idaho



800000



Hirst



2015



Support tree fruit research



Ostermeyer Endowment



15000



Hirst, P.M., R.E. Foster and J. Beckerman



2015



Return Bloom Fund contributions to support tree fruit research



Indiana Horticultural Society



5000



Wolfe, D.



2013-2015



New peach/nectarine cultivar planting



Cumberland Valley Nursery



1000



Wolfe, D.



2009-2015



Apricot, peach, nectarine cultivar planting



Gardens Alive



15000



Wolfe, D., Ingram, Saha, Dunwell, Strang, Woods



2015



Infrastructure for Kentucky Horticulture.



Technical Staffing from Kentucky Agricultural Development Board / Kentucky Horticulture Council



550000



Lang, G.



2015



Competitive Orchards 2020: Integrating Tree Fruit Cropping Physiology, Canopy Architectures, Climate Modification Technologies, and Pest Management Strategies



Project GREEEN



37500



Lang, G.



2015



Apple Rootstock Evaluations. Michigan Apple Committee



Apple Res Comm



14741



Lang, G.



2015



Sweet Cherry Orchard Designs. Michigan Cherry Committee



Mich Cherry Comm



10000



Lang, G.



2015



Trellised Protected Orchard Systems



IFTA



8000



Lang, G.



2015



Fruiting Wall Orchard Systems for Stone Fruits



IFTA



4000



Lang, G.



2015



Fruiting wall and high tunnel stone fruit production



MSHS



7892



Lang, G. A. Iezzoni, N. Rothwell, R. Perry



2014-2015



Propagation of MSU Cherry rootstocks for research trials



GREEEN



14092



Lang, G.



2015



In-kind use of apple rootstock plot



Al-Mar Orchards, Flushing



2500



Lang, G.



2015



Electronic pruners



Peach Ridge Orchard Supply



3500



Lang, G.



2015



In-kind use of apple rootstock plot



Rasch Orchards



2500



Parker, M.



2013-2015



Developing Management Strategies for Tree Fruit



NCDA&CS Specialty Crop Block Grant



84000



Parker, M.



2014



Apple Rootstock Evaluations.



NC Apple Growers Association.



5700



Parker, M.



2015



Support of apple research



NC Legislature/Special Bill funding for apple research



11930



Cowgill, W.



2015



NC 140 rootstock research



NJ Horticultural Society



4500



Cowgill, W.



2015



Rootstock and other plots maintenance



NJ Ag Industry Support- dollars and in kind total



22000



Shengrui Yao, Heyduck, R. and Guldan, S.



2014-2017



Organic apple high density planting in New Mexico



NM Specialty Block Grant



27242



Forge, T, Neilsen, D, Wiersma, P, Blatt, S, Song, J, Forney, C, Burgher-MacLellan, K, Kalmokoff, M and Cline, J



2015-2018



Developing more resilient tree fruit production systems from the ground up: rootstocks with enhanced tolerance to emerging biotic threats to orchard health



AAFC



518000



Miller, D.D.



2015



Fruit research support



Ohio Apple Marketing Program



10000



Cline, J and J. Zandstra



2014



Rootstock research support



Canandian Horticultural Council



30000



Gibeaut, D., T. Einhorn and L. Long



2015



New programs to increase sweet cherry fruit size and improve harvest quality



Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission and Oregon Sweet Cherry Commission.



117973



Einhorn, T



2015



Improving fruit set, production efficiency and profitability of pears



NW Pear Bureau and Fresh Pear Research Committee



41885



Whiting, M., T. Einhorn, and I. Hanrahan



2015



Effect of near-harvest irrigation on fruit quality



Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission and Oregon Sweet Cherry Commission



45833



Einhorn, T. and B. Tuck



2015



New and Continuing Pear Rootstock, Training System, and Cultivar Evaluations



Columbia Gorge Fruit Growers Commission



94962



Autio, W., R. Marini, T. Robinson, G. Reighard, G. Lang, and T.Einhorn



2015



NC-140 Rootstock Research Trial Coordination



International Fruit Tree Association



20000



Crassweller, R. M. & D. E. Smith



2015



Apple rootstocks and cultivar evaluations



State Horticultural Association of Pennsylvania Research Committee



8123



Crassweller, R. M. & D. E. Smith



2015



Second generation apple system trials



State Horticultural Association of Pennsylvania Research Committee



9000



Crassweller, R. M.



2015



Extending carbohydrate model to PA growers for determining apple tree response to chemical thinners



State Horticultural Association of Pennsylvania Research Committee



2569



Crassweller, R. M. & D. E. Smith



2015



Nutritional analysis of new apple cultivars in high density plantings.



State Horticultural Association of Pennsylvania Extension Committee



1702



Crassweller, R., and J. Schupp



2015



Rootstock and cultivar evaluations



State Horticultural Association of Pennsylvania Research Committee



12799



Kon, T.M. and J.R. Schupp



2015



A novel blossom thinning approach for apple: quantifying thermal transfer and damage to non-target tissues



State Horticultural Association of Pennsylvania Research Committee



14095



Kon, T.M. and J.R. Schupp



2015



Evaluating the pollen tube growth model as a timing aid for blossom thinners in the mid-Atlantic.



State Horticultural Association of Pennsylvania Extension Committee



2478



Krawczyk, G., K. Peter and J. Schupp.



2015



Effect of exclusion netting on integrated pest and disease management and fruit quality of apples



State Horticultural Association of Pennsylvania Research Committee



19554



Schupp, J.



2015



Testing mechanical and hand artificial spur extinction for Cropload management of apple



State Horticultural Association of Pennsylvania Research Committee



9487



Schupp, J. and T. Baugher



2015



Cropload and fruit nutrient studies in commercial Honeycrisp orchards to determine best practices for minimizing bitter pit.



State Horticultural Association of Pennsylvania Research Committee



10100



Reighard, G



2015



Guardian® seed sales



South Carolina Foundation Seed



173000



Reighard, G



2015



Screening peach rootstocks for adaptability, productivity, and tolerance to Armillaria and bacterial canker



South Carolina Peach Council research grant



4000



Robinson, T. and B. Black



2015



Rootstock interactions and their effect on graft union break strength of apple.



International Fruit Tree Association



10000



Black, B. and G. Fazio



2015



A Comparison of Water Relations Among Fruit Tree Rootstocks



Utah Ag. Experiment Station Grant



17946



Black, B.



2015



A Comparison of Water Relations and WUE Among Fruit Tree Rootstocks



Utah Dept. Ag. & Food, Specialty Crop Block Grant



31029



Peck, G.M. and M. Williams



2014-2017



Towards ecologically-based fertilizer recommendations that improve soil quality in high-density apple orchards



USDA-NIFA, Southern Sustainable Agriculture Research and Extension Program (SSARE).



140000



Peck, G.M. and K.S. Yoder



2014-2016



Advancing Organic Apple Production in Virginia



VA Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services-Specialty Crop Block Grant



38166



Peck, G.M.



2014-2015



Fine-tuning fertilizer recommendations for young apple trees in high-density plantings.



Virginia Apple Research Program



10000



Peck, G.M.



2014-2015



Continued Investigations into New Rootstocks, Cultivars, and Training Systems for Virginia



Virginia Apple Research Program



5000



Peck, G.M



2014-2015



NC-140 rootstock trial for Central Virginia



Virginia Apple Research Program



6265



Yoder, K.S. and G.M. Peck



2014-2015



Apple rootstock susceptibility to Tomato Ring Spot Virus



Virginia Apple Research Program



8000



Yoder, K.S. and G.M. Peck



2014-2016



Susceptibility of new apple rootstocks to Tomato Ringspot Virus



Virginia Agricultural Council.



9500



Peck, G.M



2015-2016



Integrated Approaches for Reducing Synthetic Fertilizer Inputs in Apple Orchards



Virginia Agricultural Council.



21683



Peck, G.M., K.S. Yoder, and D. Carbaugh



2015-2016



New Rootstocks, Cultivars, and Training Systems for Virginia



Virginia Apple Research Program



6000



Peck, G.M., A.T. Thompson, and D. Carbaugh



2015-2016



Fine-tuning fertilizer recommendations for young apple trees in high-density plantings: Year Three, 2015



Virginia Apple Research Program



10000



Stefano Musacchi, Kate Evans and Karen Lewis



2013



Rootstock and systems trial



Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission



58594



Stefano Musacchi, Karen Lewis, Karina Gallardo, Tom Auvil



2014-2017



Rootstock and Systems Trial.



Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission



133495



Kate Evans and Amit Dhingra



2015-2018



Developing the foundation for U.S. pear rootstock breeding



PNW Pear Bureau



273253



Stasiak, M.



2015



Fruit research and outreach support to cover funding for establishment cost of 2015 Organic Apple Rootstock Planting



Door & Kewaunee Co



5000



Total


     

3706088



 

Publications

 


2014-15 Published Written Works


Books


 


Ayala, M., J.P. Zoffoli, and G.A. Lang. 2014.  Proceedings of the 6th International Cherry Symposium. Acta Hort. 1020 (536 pages).


 


Long, L., G. Lang, S. Musacchi, and M. Whiting. 2015. PNW 667 cherry training systems.


Pacific Northwest Ext. Publ. 667:50–56.


 


Ward, D., W.P. Cowgill Jr., J.L. Frecon, G.C. Hamilton, J.R. Heckman, L.S. Katz, N. Lalancette, B.A. Majek, D. Polk. 2014. "New Jersey Commercial Tree Fruit Production Guide." Rutgers Cooperative Extension Bulletin E002. 229 pp.


 


Refereed Journal Articles


Bielenberg, D.L., B. Rauh, S. Fan, K. Gasic, A.G. Abbott, G.L. Reighard, W.R. Okie and C.E. Wells.  2015.  Genotyping by sequencing for SNP-based linkage map construction and QTL analysis of chilling requirement and bloom date in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch]. PLoS ONE, DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0139406.


Butler, B, A Wallis, CS Walsh, E Snyder and T von Thun.  2014.  High-density orchard systems for Maryland; Field testing advanced selections from the Geneva apple rootstock breeding program.  Horticulture Technology Newsletter.  December, 2014: 11-12. 


Duyvelshoff, C. and J. A. Cline. 2013. Ethephon and Prohexadione-Calcium Influence the Flowering, Early Yield, and Vegetative Growth of Young ‘Northern Spy’ Apple Trees. Scientia Horticulturae 151:128-134.


Fallahi, E., C. Rom, B. Fallahi, and Sh. Mahdavi. 2015. Leaf and Fruit Mineral Nutrient Partitioning Influenced by Various Irrigation Systems in‘Fuji’ Apple over Four Years. Journal of the American Pomological Society 69(3): 137-147.


Fallahi, E., B. Fallahi, B. Shafii, and Z. Zamani. 2014. Long-term Yield and Harvest Time Fruit Quality Attributes in Various ‘Fuji’ Apple Strains. Hortscience. 49(3):281-284.


Fallahi, E., B.Fallahi, and B.Shafii. 2014. A Long-time Assessment of Yield and Harvest Quality Attributes Among Five Strains of ‘Fuji’ Apples. European Journal of Horticultural Science. 79(4): 212-217.


Gasic, K., Reighard, G. L., J. Windham and M. Ognjanov. 2015.  Relationship between fruit maturity at harvest and fruit quality in peach.  Acta Hort 1084(2):643-648.


Gasic, K., G. Reighard, W. Okie, J. Clark, T. Gradziel, D. Byrne, C. Peace, T. Stegmaier, U. Rosyara and A. Iezzoni.  2015.  Bacterial spot resistance in peach: functional allele distribution in breeding germplasm.  Acta Hort 1084(1):69-74.


Johnson, R.S., G.L. Reighard, T.G. Beckman, E.D. Coneva, K.R. Day, E. Fallahi, M.J. Newall, T.L. Robinson and D. Wolfe.  2015.  Environmental Effects on Fruit Ripening and Average Fruit Weight for Three Peach Cultivars. Acta Hort 1084(1):453-458.


Kenealy, L., G. Reighard, B. Rauh, and W. Bridges, Jr.  2015. Predicting Peach Maturity Dates in South Carolina with a Growing Degree Day Model.  Acta Hort 1084(2):749-752.


Kon, T.M., and J.R. Schupp. 2015. Pollen tube growth in apple: A Review. J. Amer. Pomological Soc. 69(3):158-163.


Mayer, N.A., G. L. Reighard and W. Bridges..  2015.  Peach rootstock propagation under intermittent mist system.  Acta Hort 1084(1):53-62.


Mayer, N.A., B. Ueno and G. L. Reighard .  2015.  Selection of Prunus mume as rootstocks for peaches on PTSL site.  Acta Hort 1084(1):89-96.


Pokharel, R. R., and G. L. Reighard.  2015.  Evaluation of Rootstock Effect on Tolerance to Iron Chlorosis and Cytospora Canker in Peaches. Acta Hort 1084(1):159-164.


Pokharel, R. R., G. L. Reighard and D. Reich.  2015.  Deficit irrigation for iron chlorosis did not affect fruit production and quality in peach.  Acta Hort 1084(1):409-414.


Pokharel, R. R., and G. L. Reighard.  2015.  Evaluation of biofumigation and soil solarization on peach replant disease.  Acta Hort 1084(2):577-584.


Reighard, G., Bridges, Jr., W., Archbold, D., Wolfe, D., Atucha, A., Pokharel, R., Autio, W., Beckman, T., Black, B., Lindstrom, T., Coneva, E., Day, K., Johnson, R.S., Kushad, M., Parker, M., Robinson, T., Schupp, J. and Warmund, M. 2015. NC-140 Peach Rootstock Testing in Thirteen U.S. States. Acta Horticulturae Acta Hort 1084:225-232 http://www.actahort.org/books/1084/1084_32.htm


Reighard, G.L., W. Bridges, Jr., D. Archbold, A. Atucha, W. Autio, T. Beckman, B. Black, E. Coneva, K. Day, M. Kushad, R. Pokharel, R.S. Johnson, T. Lindstrom, M. Parker, T. Robinson, J. Schupp, M. Warmund and D. Wolfe.  2015.  NC-140 Peach Rootstock Testing in 13 U.S. States.  Acta Hort 1084(1):225-232.


 


Reighard, G.L.  and D.R. Ouellette.  2015.  Manipulating Bloom and Harvest Dates in Peach Using a Strain of PLMVd.  Acta Hort 1084(1):221-224.


 


Reighard, G. L. and B. Rauh.  2015.  Predicting Peach Fruit Size Potential from GDD 30 Days Post-Bloom.  Acta Hort 1084(2):753-758.


 


Sauerteig, K. A. and J.A. Cline. 2013. Mechanical blossom thinning of ‘Allstar’ peaches


influences yield and quality. Scientia Horticulturae 160:243-250.


 


Zhang, Q., M. Han, C. Song, X. Song, C. Zhao, H. Liu, P.M. Hirst and D. Zhang. 2014. Optimizing planting density for production of high-quality apple nursery stock in China. N.Z. J. Crop and Hort. Sci.  43:1-11.


 


Symposium Proceedings


 


Coneva, E. and J. Pitts. 2015. Assessment of Fire Blight Tolerant Asian Pear Cultivars in Alabama. HortScience 50(9):S35. (Abstr.).


Coneva, E Gregory L. Reighard, and J. Pitts. 2015. Peach Rootstock Evaluation in Alabama. HortScience 50(9):S51. (Abstr.).


Coneva, E and J. Pitts. 2015. Evaluation of Fire Blight Tolerant Asian Pear Cultivars for Alabama. NACAA Annual Meeting, Sioux Falls, SD. (Abstr.).


Walsh, C.  2015. Field performance of Asian pear trees in the hot, humid summer conditions of the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States., ISHS Pear Symposium, Leuven Belgium.


Kon, T.M. and J. Schupp. 2015. Apple pollen tube growth and spur leaf injury in response to thermal shock temperature and duration. HortScience 50(9):S110-S111. (Abstr.)


 Kon, T.M., J. Schupp, H.E. Winzeler, and M.A. Schupp. 2015. The effect of mechanical string thinner spindle rotation speed on apple spur bud removal. HortScience 50(9):S358-S359. (Abstr.)


 


Lang, G.A. 2015. Integration of Renewable Canopy Architectures and Precocious


Rootstocks Optimize Sweet Cherry Yields, Fruit Quality, and Labor Efficiency, ASHS


annual conference, New Orleans, LA, Aug. 4-7.


 


Lang, G.A. 2015. Fruiting Wall Canopy Training System Trials in Sweet Cherries,


nectarines, Plums, and Apricots, Great Lakes Fruit Workers annual meeting, Geneva, NY;


Nov. 9-11.


 


Thompson, A. and G. Peck. 2015. The Effects of Rootstock and Fertilizer Selection on Apple Orchard


Productivity and Soil Microbial Ecology. HortScience 50(9): S178. (Abstr.)


 


Poster Presentations


 


Beckman, T.G. Progress in the Development of Moderate-Chill Peach Cultivars for the Southeastern United States. Presented at the Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Annual Meeting. Aug. 4-7, 2015, New Orleans, LA. [poster]


 


Belisle, C., D. Jackson, D.J. Chavez, and K. Adhikari. 2015. A Survey of Fruit Quality Characteristics of Georgia Peach (Prunus persica L.) Cultivars. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Annual Meeting. Aug. 4-7, 2015, New Orleans, LA. [poster].


 


Chavez, D.J. and J. Cook. 2015. Effect of Bloom and Fruit Thinning on Quality Characteristics of ‘Harvester' and ‘Redglobe' Peach Fruit Varieties in Georgia. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Annual Meeting. Aug. 4-7, 2015, New Orleans, LA. [poster].


 


Chavez, D.J. and J. Cook. 2015. The Effect of Gibberellic Acid (GA3) and Aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) on Late-Season Peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] Varieties in Middle Georgia. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Annual Meeting. Aug. 4-7, 2015, New Orleans, LA. [poster].


 


Coneva, E.D., G.L. Reighard, and J. Pitts.  2015.  Peach rootstock evaluation in Alabama. SR-ASHS, Atlanta, GA. Jan. 30 – Feb. 1, 2015. [poster]


 


Coneva, E.D., G.L. Reighard, and J. Pitts.  2015.  Assessing peach rootstocks in Alabama. SE Regional Fruit & Vegetable Conference. Savannah, GA. Jan. 8-11, 2015. [poster]


 


Conlan, E., M.A. Olmstead, J.W. Olmstead, J.G. Williamson, D.J. Chavez, E.D. Smith, O. Lindstrom, and J. Liu. 2015. An Analysis of Historical Freeze Events and Determination of Blueberry and Peach Critical Bud Temperatures to Aid Growers in Freeze-related Risk Assessments. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. Annual Meeting. Aug. 4-7, 2015, New Orleans, LA. [poster].


 


Reighard, G.L., F. Souza and R. Pio.  2015.  Peach cell number and size is affected by crop load, cultivar and GDD.  ISHS Xth Symposium on Modeling in Fruit Research and Orchard Management.  June 2-5, 2015. Montpellier, France. [poster]


 


Reighard, G.L., W. G. Henderson and W. G. Henderson, Jr.  2015.  Irrigation Scheduling Based on Soil Water Volume Increases Profitability of Peach Production.  ISHS Symposium on Innovation in Integrated and Organic Horticulture. June 8-12, 2015.  Avignon, France. [poster]


 


Popular Articles


 


Autio, W., J. Cline, T. Einhorn, G. Lang, R. Marini, G. Reighard, and T. Robinson.  2015.  2014 Progress Report – Brief summaries of NC-140 rootstock trials.  Compact Fruit Tree 48(2): 6-8.


 


Autio, W.R., J.M. Clements, and J.S. Krupa.  2015.  An evaluation of Cornell-Geneva and Budagovsky apple rootstocks with Honeycrisp, the 2010 NC-140 Apple Rootstock Trial after five years.  Horticultural News 95(2):6-11.


 


Autio, W.R., J.M. Clements, and J.S. Krupa.  2015.  An evaluation of Cornell-Geneva and Budagovsky apple rootstocks with Honeycrisp, the 2010 NC-140 Apple Rootstock Trial after five years.  Fruit Notes 80(2):6-11.


 


Clements, J.M. and W.R. Autio.  2015.  Vineland and Geneva rootstocks in the 2014 NC-140 Apple Trial at UMass Cold Spring Orchard.  Horticultural News 95(1):1-3.


 


Clements, J.M. and W.R. Autio.  2015.  Vineland and Geneva rootstocks in the 2014 NC-140 Apple Trial at UMass Cold Spring Orchard.  Fruit Notes 80(1):1-3.


 


Cline, J., 2014. Rootstock Performance when Growing 'Honeycrisp'. Newsletters. Cline, J. A. and J. Zandstra. 2014.Rootstock Performance when Growing ‘Honeycrisp’. Orchard Network 18(1):2-3


 


Cline, J., 2013. A Brief Summary of Selected Apple Research Projects Supported by the OAG and/or OMAFRA at the University of Guelph, Simcoe. Orchard Network 17(4):2-3


 


Cooley, Daniel, J. Clements, W. Cowgill, 2015. An Annual Fire Blight Management Program for


Apples: An Update. Horticultural News 95-2, pgs 18-26


 


Cowgill, W., R. Magron, J.M. Clements, and W.R. Autio.  2015.  Two new NC-140 apple trials:  Vineland and Geneva rootstocks with Honeycrisp and Fuji at Rutgers Snyder Farm.  Fruit Notes 80(3):6-8.


 


Cowgill, W., R. Magron, J.M. Clements, and W.R. Autio.  2015.  Two new NC-140 apple trials:  Vineland and Geneva rootstocks with Honeycrisp and Fuji at Rutgers Snyder Farm.  Horticultural News 95(3):6-8.


 


Crassweller, R. M. & D. E. Smith. 2015. Apple rootstock trials at Rock Springs – 2014. PA Fruit News 95(1):41-45.


 


Crassweller, R. M. & D. E. Smith 2015. Second generation apple training system trials – 2014. PA Fruit News 95(1):49-53.


 


Crassweller, R. 2015. Carbohydrate model results in 2014 for four locations in PA. PA Fruit News 95(2):21-23.


 


Crassweller, R. & D. Smith. 2015. Nutritional analysis of new apple cultivars in high density plantings – 2014. PA Fruit News 95(2):24-26.


 


Baugher, T., A. Anderson, T. Jarvinen, J. Schupp, E. Winzeler and M. Schupp. 2015. Competitive orchard systems and technologies. Pennsylvania Fruit News 95(2):20.


 


Kon, T. and J. Schupp. 2015. Investigating forced heated air treatments as a blossom thinning strategy for apple. Pennsylvania Fruit News 95(1):68-69.


 


Kon, T. and J. Schupp. 2015. Changing orchard design: from 40’ x 40’ to fruiting walls. Crunch Time, Adams County Fruit Grower Association newsletter. July 2015:6-8.


 


Lang, G.A. 2015. How canopy structures affect productivity. American Fruit Grower 135(9):26-


27.


 


Lang, G.A. 2015. Non-tunnel covering systems for sweet cherries. American Fruit Grower


135(5):30-32.


 


Miller, D.D. 2015. Apple Rootstock Trial Results in Ohio. Ohio Produce Growers and Marketers Association Quarterly 2015 (1)


 


Peck, G. 2015. 2014 Progress Report to the Virginia Apple Research Program: NC-140 Rootstock Trial


for Central Virginia. Virginia Fruit 91 (1):7 (Apr 2015).


 


Peck, G. and K. Yoder. 2015. 2014 Progress Report to the Virginia Apple Research Program: Continued


Investigations into New Rootstocks, Cultivars, and Training Systems for Virginia. Virginia Fruit


91(1):8-12 (Apr 2015).


 


Schupp, J., E. Winzeler, M. Schupp, T. Kon, T. A. Baugher, T. Jarvinen, A. Anderson and A. Tabb. 2015. Labor Efficient Apple and Peach Systems for Profitability. Pennsylvania Fruit News 95 (1):26-29.


 


Schupp, J., E. Winzeler, M. Schupp and T. Kon. 2015. Peach Rootstock Trials: A 2014 Update.


 Pennsylvania Fruit News 95 (1):46-48.


 


Thompson, A. and G. Peck.. 2015. 2014 Progress Report to the Virginia Apple Research Program: Finetuning fertilizer recommendations for young apple trees in high-density plantings. Virginia Fruit


85(1):3-6 (Apr 2015).


 


Yoder, K. and G. Peck. 2015. 2014 Progress Report to the Virginia Apple Research Program: Apple


Rootstock Susceptibility to Tomato Ring Spot Virus (TmRSV). Virginia Fruit 91 (1):13-14 (Apr 2015).


 


Winzeler, H. E. and J. R. Schupp. 2015. Potential for using Mid-Atlantic processing fruit in hard cider production. Pennsylvania Fruit News 95(2):29-30.


 


Other Creative Works


Coneva, E.and J. Pitts. 2015. Update on Peach Rootstock Evaluations in Alabama. Alabama IPM Communicator. Alabama Cooperative Extension System (ACES).


Coneva, E. and J. Pitts. 2015. Update on Peach Rootstock Evaluations in Alabama. Alabama Fruit and Vegetable Growers Association (AFVGA) Newsletter.


Coneva, E.2015. Update on Peach Rootstock Evaluations in Alabama. Timely Information Sheet. Alabama Cooperative Extension System. Horticulture Series.


Kon, T. and J. Schupp. 2015. Think warm thoughts. Pennsylvania Fruit Times. http://extension.psu.edu/plants/tree-fruit/news/2015/think-warm-thoughts-possible-frost-event-s-in-the-forecast April 23, 2015.


 


Kon, T. and J. Schupp. 2015. An In-Depth Look at Bloom. American Fruit Grower http://www.growingproduce.com/fruits/apples-pears/an-in-depth-look-at-bloom/


 


Schupp, J. 2015. Promoting return bloom of apple. Pennsylvania Fruit Times. http://extension.psu.edu/plants/tree-fruit/news/2015/promoting-return-bloom-of-apple-trees?utm_campaign=Fruit+Times&utm_medium=email&utm_source=newsletter&utm_content=newsletter_title


 


Schupp, J. 2015. Is everything (still) just peachy? http://extension.psu.edu/plants/tree-fruit/news/2015/is-everything-still-justpeachy? March 6, 2015


 


Winzeler, H. E. and J. R. Schupp. 2015. Potential for using Mid-Atlantic processing fruit in hard cider production. Pennsylvania Fruit Times http://extension.psu.edu/plants/tree-fruit/news/2015/potential-for-using-mid-atlantic-processing-fruit-in-hard-cider-production-an-analysis-of-tannin-content-titratable-acidity-levels-ph-and-soluble-solids-content March 12,2015


 


Wolfe, D. D. Archbold, J. Johnston, and G. Travis. 2015. Rootstock Effects on Apple and Peach Tree Growth and Yield. Fruit and Vegetable Crops 2014 Research Report. University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station publication. PR-688:8-9. http://www2.ca.uky.edu/agc/pubs/PR/PR688/PR688.pdf


 


Scientific and Outreach Oral Presentations.


 


Beckman, T.G. “Performance of MP-29 Rootstock in Grower Trials”. Presented at the SE Prof. Fruit Workers Meeting. Oct. 6-8, 2015, Montgomery, AL.


Black, Brent. 2015. 2009 Redhaven planting (South Shore Farms).  Annual winter tour (21 Jan. 2015) of the Utah State Horticulture Association (USHA). 


Black, Brent. 2015. A progress report of apple and cherry rootstock trials. Annual USHA winter meetings (22 Jan. 2015). 


Black, Brent. 2015. Cherry rootstocks in the 2010 high density tart planting USHA summer tour (30 June 2015).


Blatt, SE. 2015. “Rootstocks and fireblight and spotted wing… oh my!   Updates on a few things of interest.” Nova Scotia Fruit Growers Association Annual Convention, Greenwich, Nova Scotia, January.


Blatt, SE. 2015.Nova Scotia Fruit Growers Association Field Tour.  August 2015.  Discussion of ongoing rootstock trials and introduction of Modi trial.


Chavez, D.J. 2015. Peach Research at UGA: Listening, Learning, and Preparing for the Future. Invited guest lecture. SE Reg. Fruit & Veg. Conference. Jan. 8-11, 2015. Savannah, GA.


Chavez, D.J. and J. Cook. 2015. Effect of Progibb (gibberellic acid, GA3) and Retain (aminoethoxyvinylglycine, AVG) on peach varieties in middle Georgia. Presented at the SE Prof. Fruit Workers Meeting. Oct. 6-8, 2015, Montgomery, AL.


Cline, J. A. 2014. Use of Plant Bioregulators for Annual Bearing. Georgian Bay Orchard Tour. Ontario Apple Growers.


Cochran, D.R. 2015. NC-140 2010 Dwarf apple rootstock trial. Iowa State University Fruit and Vegetable Field Day, Hort Station. August 10, 2015, 150 attendees.


Coneva, E. 2015. Peach Rootstock Evaluation. Chilton Area Peach Production Meeting. Clanton, January 27, 2015.


Coneva, E. and J. Pitts. 2015. Evaluation of Fire Blight Tolerant Asian Pear Cultivars for Alabama. NACAA Annual Meeting, Sioux Falls, SD, July 13-17, 2015.


Coneva, E. and J. Pitts. 2015. Evaluation of Fire Blight Tolerant Asian Pear Cultivars for Alabama. AACAAS Annual Meeting, Auburn, AL, June 3-5, 2015.


Coneva, E. and J. Pitts. 2015. Fire Blight Tolerant Asian Pear Cultivars for Alabama. Southeast Regional Fruit and Vegetable Conference, Savannah, GA, Jan. 8-10, 2015.


Coneva, E. Gregory L. Reighard, and J. Pitts. 2015. Assessing Peach Rootstocks in Alabama. Southeast Regional Fruit and Vegetable Conference, Savannah, GA, Jan. 8-10, 2015.


Coneva, E. and J. Pitts. 2015. Fire Blight Resistant Apple Rootstock Trial in Alabama. Southeast Regional Fruit and Vegetable Conference, Savannah, GA, Jan. 8-10, 2015.


Coneva, E 2015 Home and Wildlife Expo, Chilton REC, AL. “NC-140 Tree Fruit Trial Demonstration.” (Attendance 2000+), August 8, 2015.


Cowgill, W. 2014. North Jersey Fruit Meeting, Broadway, NJ, 67 growers


Cowgill, W. 2015. North Jersey Twilight Fruit Meeting, May, 07; Rutgers Snyder Farm, Pittstown, NJ


52 growers


 


Cowgill, W. 2015. North Jersey Twilight Horticultural Research Meeting, Rutgers Snyder Farm, September 15, 2015– 68 growers


 


Einhorn, T. 2015.  The use of PGRs, root pruning and new, dwarfing rootstocks to balance vigor and production. Washington State Horticultural Association’s 111th Annual Meeting, Yakima, WA, December 9, 2015. Oral presentation to members of the Pacific Northwest fruit industry.


 


Einhorn, T. 2015. Practical strategies to improve management and profitability of pear orchards.


Washington State Horticultural Association’s 111h  Annual Meeting, Yakima, WA, December 9, 2015. Oral presentation to members of the Pacific Northwest fruit industry.


 


Einhorn, T. 2015. Management strategies to exploit stresses. WSU Fruit School, Apple and Pear Horticulture, Wenatchee, WA, November 18, 2015. Oral presentation of my research results to members of the PNW tree fruit industry. Meeting hosted by WSU Extension.


 


Einhorn, T. 2015. Managing growth and development of sweet cherry. IV International Seminar on Cherries, Curico, Chile, October 20, 2015. Oral presentation of my research results to members of the Chilean tree fruit industry. Meeting hosted by Patricio Espinosa, PEC.


 


Einhorn, T. 2015. MCAREC Field Day- Pear horticultural research. Hood River, OR, July 21,


2015. Oral presentation of my research results to members of the Oregon and WA tree fruit industry. Meeting hosted by MCAREC.


 


Einhorn,  T.  2015.  Using  rootstocks,  cultivars,  training  systems,  root  pruning  and  PGRs  to achieve early production in pear. 2015 Hood River Winter Horticulture Meeting, Hood River, OR, February 6, 2015. Oral presentation to members of the regional fruit industry. Meeting hosted by Steve Castagnoli, Hood River County Extension.


 


Einhorn, T. and Gibeaut, D.  2015. Water, PGRs and Freeze: 2014 Sweet Cherry Update.  2015


Cherry Research Review and MCAREC Update, the Dalles, OR, February 5, 2015. Oral presentation of research results to members of the regional fruit industry. Meeting hosted by MCAREC and Lynn Long, OSU Wasco County Extension.


 


Einhorn, T. 2015. Techniques to promote early bearing and vigor control of pear trees.   2015


North Central Washington Pear Day, Wenatchee, WA, January 21, 2015. Oral presentation of research results to over 200 members of the North Central Washington and  greater  regional  fruit  industry.  Meeting  hosted  by  Tim  Smith,  WSU  Chelan /Douglas/Okanogan County Extension.


 


Einhorn, T. 2015. Sweet Cherry Research Update:    Cold hardiness, Water management, and


PGRs.  2015 North Central Washington Stone Fruit Day, Wenatchee, WA, January 20,


2015. Oral presentation of research results to over 200 members of the North Central Washington and greater regional fruit industry. Meeting hosted by Tim Smith, WSU Chelan /Douglas/Okanogan County Extension.


 


Einhorn, T. 2015.  OSU Horticultural Update.  72nd Annual Cherry Institute, Yakima, WA, January 16, 2015. Oral presentation of research results to several hundred industry members, and regional peers.


 


Fallahi, E. November, 2014. NC-140 Fuji/Rootstock Progress Report. Annual conference of NC-140, Clemson, South Carolina, attendance 41.


 


Fallahi, E., November 20-21, 2014. NC-140 Fuji/Rootstock Report. Annual Conference of the Idaho State Horticultural Society, Nampa, Idaho; Attendance 110.


 


Fallahi, E. March 5, 2015. Training on Growing Apples on Different Rootstocks. Idaho apple growers. March Tour, 56 in attendance.


 


Fallahi, E. August, 28, 2015. Performance of Apple Rootstocks under Intermountain West Conditions. University of Idaho Pomology Program Fruit Field Day, Growers and Public audience. Attendance 980.


 


Hannan, J. and D.R. Cochran. 2015. NC-140 2015 Organic apple rootstock trial. Wills Family Orchard, Adel, IA. July 13, 2015, 20 attendees.


 


Kon, T.M. and J.R. Schupp. 2015.  Apple pollen tube growth and spur leaf injury in response to thermal shock temperature and duration. The American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA


 


Kon, T.M., J.R. Schupp, H.E. Winzeler, and M.A. Schupp. 2015. The effect of mechanical string thinner spindle rotation speed on apple spur bud removal. The American Society for Horticultural Science Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA


 


Kon, T.M. and J.R. Schupp. 2015. Thinning apple early: risks, rewards, and alternative strategies. Penn State Fruit Research and Extension Center Field Day, Biglerville, PA. 09 July.


 


Kon, T.M. and J.R. Schupp. 2015. Apple crop load management: is mechanical thinning effective? In-Depth Tree Fruit Meeting, Winchester, VA. 23 Apr.


 


Kon, T., J. Schupp, M. Schupp, and H.E. Winzeler. 2015. Investigating forced heated air treatments as a blossom thinning strategy for apple. The Mid-Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Convention, Hershey, PA. 28 January.


 


Lang, G.A. 2015. Small-Scale Cherry Production, Big Market Opportunities, Indiana


Horticultural Congress, Indianapolis, IN; Jan 21.


 


Lang, G.A. 2015. High Tunnel Cherries and Other Stone Fruits - Impose Your Own


Climate Change?, Indiana Horticultural Congress, Indianapolis, IN; Jan 22.


 


Lang, G.A. 2015. Impose Your Own Climate Change: Different Covering Strategies Affect


Stone Fruit Growth, Yield, Fruit Quality, and Diseases, SW Hort Days, Benton Harbor, MI;


Feb 5.


 


Lang, G.A. 2015. Stone Fruit Game-Changers: Fruiting Wall Training Systems and High


Tunnels, Ontario Fruit & Vegetable Conference, Niagara Falls, ON; Feb 19.


 


Lang, G. 2015. Pruning High Density Sweet Cherries, MSUE Cherry Crop Load Management


& Pruning workshop, Traverse City, MI, Apr. 23.


 


Lang, G.A. 2015. How Studies in Plant Physiology Change Sweet Cherry Production, MSU


Science Festival, East Lansing, MI; Apr 18.


 


Lang, G. 2015. High Density Training Systems and Protected Production of Sweet Cherries


and Stone Fruits, MSU Clarksville Research Center Field Day, Clarksville, MI, June 23.


 


Lang, G.A. 2015. Advances in Management and Production of Cherries with Row Covers,


High Tunnels, and Greenhouses, IV International Cherry Seminar, Curico, Chile; Oct 20.


 


Miller, D.D. 2015. Apple Rootstock Trial Results in Ohio. Ohio Produce Growers and Marketers annual meeting, Jan. 19, 2015. Kalahari Convention Center, Sandusky, OH. Attendance 50.


 


Miller, D.D. 2015. 2010 NC-140 Rootstock Planting. Fruit Growers Marketing Association annual meeting, Aug. 25, 2015. Bachman’s Sunny Hill Fruit Farm, Carroll, OH. Attendance 60.


 


Parker, M.L. Keys to maximizing orchard productivity in the SE. 2015. Southeastern Apple Growers Meeting Proceedings. pp. 51-56.


 


Parker, et. al., 2015 Integrated orchard management guide for commercial apples in the Southeast. Edited by J. Walgenbach. NC Cooperative Extension Service, Raleigh. AG-572. 88 pp.


 


Parker, M.L. January 2015. Keys to Maximizing Orchard Productivity in the SE. Southeastern Apple Growers Meeting, Asheville, NC. Commercial grower audience. Attendance 125.


 


Parker, M.L. January 2015. Peach Production Orchard Tour and Workshop with an emphasis on peach rootstocks and subsequent management. Attendance 55.


 


Parker, M.L. January 2015. North Carolina Peach Growers Society. Carthage, NC. Commercial grower audience. Attendance 80.


 


Parker, M.L. February 2015. Western District Apple School, Hendersonville, NC. Commercial grower audience. Attendance 110.


 


Parker, M.L. February 2015. Keys to Maximizing Orchard Productivity in the Brushy Mts., Wilkesboro, NC. Commercial grower audience. Attendance 40.


 


Peck, G. 2015. Designing and Establishing a Hard Cider Orchard. Delivered at CiderCON 2015, Chicago, IL. Producer audience. Attendance: 65.


 


Peck, G. 10-13 Feb 2015. Winter Fruit Schools. Tall Spindle Orchard Systems in Virginia. Delivered at


five separate locations. Producer audience. Attendance: 250.


 


Peck, G. 25 Aug 2015. Commercial Organic Apple Production Field Day. Site Selection and Orchard


Design. Winchester, VA. Producer audience. Attendance: 50.


 


Peck, G. 25 Aug 2015. Commercial Organic Apple Production Field Day. Cultivar and Rootstock


Selection. Winchester, VA. Producer audience. Attendance: 50.


 


Rahn, Z., J. Schupp, H.E. Winzeler, and T. Kon. 2015. Fire blight resistant pear varieties: fruit quality and sensory evaluation. The Mid-Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Convention, Hershey, PA. January 28.


 


Reighard, G.L.  2015.  Crop load management: Cultivar and thinning considerations.  SE Regional Fruit & Vegetable Conference. Savannah, GA. Jan. 9, 2015.


 


Reighard, G.L. and G. Henderson.  2015.  Aminoethoxyvinylglycine delays maturity and increases firmness in late season peaches.  SR-ASHS, Atlanta, GA. Feb. 1, 2015.


 


Reighard, G.L.   2015.  Crop load management: cultivar and thinning considerations in a high chill year. Peach Update Meeting.  Edgefield, SC.  February 19, 2015. 


 


Reighard, G.L.  2015.  Crop load management: cultivar and thinning considerations in a high chill year.  Oconee Fruit Grower Meeting.  Walhalla, SC.  February 18, 2015.


 


Reighard, G.L., T. Feng, K. Gasic, F. Souza and R. Pio.  2015.  Cell division and enlargement in peach mesocarp cells affected by time of thinning.  IN: Workshop on Molecular Physiology & Genetics of Fruit Growth & Development.  August 6, 2015.  ASHS Annual Conference, New Orleans, LA.


 


Reighard, G.L., T. Feng, and K. Gasic.  2015.  Early fruit  thinning enhances upregulation of genes for cell division and growth in peach.  Southeastern Professional Fruit Workers Conference, October 6-8, 2015.  Montgomery, Al.


 


Schupp, J. R. 2015. Pruning by the Numbers. The Mid-Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Convention, Hershey, PA. January 27.


 


Schupp, J. R. 2015. Peach Pruning and Training. The Mid-Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Convention, Hershey, PA. January 28.


 


Schupp, J. R. 2015. Peach Rootstock Trials. The Mid-Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Convention, Hershey, PA. 28 January.


 


Schupp, J. 2015. Managing high density apple and peach plantings with advanced horticultural techniques. Penn State Fruit Research and Extension Center Field Day, Biglerville, PA. 09 July.


 


Schupp, J., H. E. Winzeler, T. Baugher, L. Kime, T. Kon, and M. Schupp. 2015. Peach Systems Trial: 8 year summary. The Mid-Atlantic Fruit and Vegetable Convention, Hershey, PA. January 28.


 


Schupp, J. 2015. Growing apples of consistent size and quality. North Carolina State University Cooperative Extension Winter Apple School, Flat Rock, NC. 4 Feb.


 


Schupp, J. 2015. Does water quality affect the efficacy of NAA stop drop sprays? North Carolina State University Cooperative Extension Winter Apple School, Flat Rock, NC. 4 Feb.


 


Schupp, J. 2015. Apple pruning demonstration. North Carolina State University Cooperative Extension Winter Apple School, Flat Rock, NC 5 Feb.


 


Schupp, J. R. 2015. Effect of water quality on Stop Drop Efficacy.  Adams County Fruit Growers Winter Fruit School, Biglerville, PA.  16 February


 


Schupp, J. 2015. Peach rootstocks: Current options and upcoming developments. Michigan Spring Peach Update. Benton Harbor, MI. 10 March.


 


Schupp, J. R. 2015. The Penn State Fruit Research Center: A university – grower interface. Nuffield Scholars. 13 March


 


Walsh, C. 2015. Cumberland-Shenandoah Fruit Workers Conference.  December 2014


 


Walsh, C. 2015. Preliminary Results from the Gala, Pink Lady Geneva Rootstock Trial at WMREC


 


Walsh, C. 2015. Field-testing advanced selections from the Geneva apple rootstock breeding program 2014 Updates.


 


Walsh, C. 2015. Anna Wallis, Brian Butler and Chris Walsh (Attendance, 60).


 


Walsh, C. 2015. Western Maryland Twilight Meeting.  August 2015


 


Walsh, C, B. Butler, K. Peter. 2015Tour of ongoing fruit tree research.  (Attence, 70 from MD, PA, VA and WV) 


 


Wolfe, D. 25 June 2015. Apple and peach rootstock trials in Kentucky. UKREC Horticulture Field Day. Homeowner / grower audience. Attendance 20.


 


Yoder. K. 25 Aug 2015. Commercial Organic Apple Production Field Day. Disease Management.


Winchester, VA. Producer audience. Attendance: 50.


          


 


 


 

Impact Statements

  1. In MA, 200 acres of trees were planted on dwarfing rootstock occurred during 2015 based based on results of NC-140 research. On this acreage, pruning and harvest labor declined by 50%, fruit quality and size increased by 20%, profit increased by 50%, and because of reduced canopy volume, pesticide use declined by 70%.
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Date of Annual Report: 01/04/2017

Report Information

Annual Meeting Dates: 11/09/2016 - 11/10/2016
Period the Report Covers: 10/01/2015 - 09/30/2016

Participants

Autio, Wesley (autio@umass.edu) – University of Massachusetts;Black, Brent (brent.black@usu.edu) – Utah State University; Blatt, Suzanne (Suzanne.Blatt@agr.gc.ca) – Agr. Agri. Food Canada (AAFC); Carter, Kathryn (Kathryn.Carter@Ontario.ca) – Ontario Ministry of Agriculture; Chavez, Dario (dchavez@uga.edu) – University of Georgia; Cheng, Lailliang (LC89@Cornell.edu) – Cornell University; Clements, Jon (jon.clements@umass.edu) – University of Massachusetts; Cline, John (jcline@uoguelph.ca) – University of Guelph; Cochran, Diana (dianac@iastate.edu) – Iowa State University; Cowgill, Win (cowgill@NJAES.Rutgers.edu) – Rutgers; Cramer, Maria (Mariacramer5610@gmail.com) - Pennsylvania State University; Crassweller, Rob (rmc7@psu.edu) – Pennsylvania State University; De Macedo, Tiago (macedoafonso@yahoo.com.br) – Cornell University; Dominguez, Leo (lid6@cornell.edu) – Cornell University; Elkins, Rachel (rbelkins@ucanr.edu) – University of California; Fallahi, Esmaeil (efallahi@uidaho.edu) – University of Idaho; Fazio, Gennaro (gf35@cornell.edu) – Cornell University; Foster, Jessica (jessica.foster@uvm.edu) – University of Vermont; Francescatto, Poliana (gf35@cornell.ed) – Cornell University; Hoover, Emily (hoove001@umn.edu) – University of Minnesota; Kalcsits, Lee (lee.kalcsits@wsu.edu) – Washington State University; Kon, Tom (tom_Kon@ncsu.edu) – North Carolina State University; Kushad, Mosbah (kushad@illinois.edu) – University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Lang, Gregory (langg@msu.edu) – Michigan State University; Lavely, Emily (emily.lavely@psu.edu) - Pennsylvania State University; Lordan-Sanahuja, Jaume (jl3325@cornell.edu) – Cornell University; Marini, Richard (rpm12@psu.edu) – Pennsylvania State University; Minas, Ioannis (ioannis.mias@colostate.edu) – Colorado State University; Moran, Renae (rmoran@maine.edu) – University of Maine; Musacchi, Stefano, (stefano.musacchi@wsu.edu) –Washington State University; Neilsen, Denise (denise.neilsen@agr.gc.ca) – Agri Food of Canada; Neilsen, Gerry (denise.neilsen@agr.gc.ca) – Agri Food of Canada; Parker, Michael (mike_parker@ncsu.edu) – North Carolina State University; Peck, Greg (gmp32@cornell.ed) – Cornell University; Perry, Ron (perryr@anr.msu.edu) – Michigan State University; Reighard, Gregory (grghrd@clemson.edu) – Clemson University; Schupp, Jim (jrs42@psu.edu) – Pennsylvania State University; Smith, Don (des220@psu.edu) – Pennsylvania State University; Stasiak, Matt (mstasiak@wisc.edu) – University of Wisconsin; Warmund, Michele (warmundm@missouri.edu) – University of Missouri; Wolfe, Dwight (dwolf0@uky.edu) – University of Kentucky; Yao, Shengrui (yaos@nmsu.edu) – New Mexico State University; Yoder, Keith (ksyoder@vt.edu) Virginia Tech University.

Brief Summary of Minutes

Accomplishments

Impact Nuggets



  • Sweet cherry performance has varied widely by site and scion cultivar in on-going coordinated trials examining diverse canopy architectures matched with rootstocks of varying vigor levels. Some radical canopy architectures are proving to be both yield-efficient and labor-efficient.



  • Stooling or layering beds are still the main method for propagation of apple rootstocks. Research performed at Geneva to improve rooting of Geneva rootstocks has resulted in the application prohexadione calcium sprays by several U.S. nurseries. In addition, commercial stool beds established by planting tissue culture material in a double row configuration have increased productivity of new beds and quality of liners available to the industry. A significant portion of apple rootstocks in 2016 was produced with in-vitro methods and by cuttings. While more expensive than propagation beds, these methods induced more primary roots and increased transplant survival and vigor.



  • In a collaborative project including Utah State University, Cornell and USDA, researchers found that some apple scions with G.41 rootstock form brittle graft unions, regardless of grafting method. The brittleness is associated with high rigidity, but is not associated with any detectable change in hydraulic resistance across the union. BA applications directly to the graft union increased break strength. Apogee similarly increased strength, but also reduced scion growth.



  • For stone fruit, Controller 9 and Controller 6 rootstocks are receiving increased attention for peach and nectarine plantings in California.  Several large acreage plots have been planted and nurseries are having difficulty satisfying the demand for trees.  There is increased interest in growing “pedestrian” orchards that can be managed without ladders.


New Facilities and Equipment


A new house was constructed for graduate students and visiting scientists at the Fruit Research and Education Center, Biglerville, PA, with funding ($250,000) from the State Horticultural Society of Pennsylvania. The University of Maine purchased a FLIR E5 infrared camera, ΔA Meter, Truroni Campbell weather station instruments for relative humidity, air temperature, soil temperature and soil moisture for apple rootstock research. In Michigan, orchard covering systems were tested to protect high density sweet cherry trees from frost, rain, wind, hail, birds, and some diseases. An over-the-row mechanical harvester was tested for high density tart cherry production. Battery-powered handheld pruners and hedgers were used to impose dormant and summer pruning treatments in cherries.  Approximately two acres of orchard was established in 2016 at the University of Guelph, Simcoe Research Station. This included a new peach rootstock experiment, a new hard cider orchard, and orchard for future plant physiology research. In Utah a GPS-based trailer mounted ceptometer has been assembled for mapping light interception in tart cherry orchards. This will be used to compare pruning and training strategies in both conventional and high density plantings.


Unique Project Related Findings


On the alkaline soils of Utah, peach trees on Krymsk1, Krymsk 86, Mirobac, Br. Hybrid 5 and Penta had greener leaves than trees on Lovell.  Of the 16 peach rootstocks in a Georgia trial, only Guardian and Controller 8 have no tree mortality. In Illinois and Massachusetts, Prunus Americana had very high numbers of root suckers. In Missouri, peach trees on the plum rootstock, Penta, bloomed earlier than trees on the other rootstocks.  In South Carolina Rootpac 20 (Densipac) and Rootpac 40 (Nanopac), from the Spanish Company Agromillora Iberica, were planted in 2 locations and after 3 years, trees are dying due to Pseudomonas syringae.


In an apple demonstration trial planted in northern Maine (zone 3) in 2014, trees on G.30, G.11, G.202 and V.1 lacked sufficient hardiness to survive early spring freezing temperatures (-29 C). In Michigan ‘Honeycrisp’ trees on PiAu51-1, B.70-20-20 and B.70-20-21 had the most bitterpit, whereas trees on G.935, G.4003, G.214 and B.9 had low levels of bitterpit. In Minnesota, ‘Honeycrisp’ yields were negatively related to the severity of zonal chlorosis, but trees on CG.5067 had high chlorosis and high yield. In New York, trees of the nonvigorous cultivar ‘SnapDragon’ CG.5257 had the highest yields and also had a spreading growth habit.


Five new dwarfing rootstocks from the Michigan cherry rootstock program are being propagated for the 2017 NC140 coordinated trial. In British Columbia, the UFO training system for sweet cherry had the highest yield and renewal pruning and spur pruning have been used to balance tree vigor and maintain fruit size. In New York, pear yields were negatively related to tree spacing and trees on OHxF69 planted at 3’ between trees and trained as Tall Spindle had the highest yields. In California, Horner-4 pear rootstock has performed uniquely well. Despite its vigor and resulting potential size it is very precocious and productive and it is being tested under a wider range of conditions, such as heavier, wetter soils.


Accomplishment Summaries


Objective 1.  To evaluate the influence of rootstocks on temperate-zone fruit tree characteristics grown under varying environments using sustainable management systems.


Projects in various stages of data collection, evaluation and planning include the following in association with years of plot establishment and identification of trial coordinators:


2009/2014 Peach Physiology (Rich Marini)


2009 Peach Rootstock (Greg Reighard)


2010 Apple Rootstock (Wes Autio)


2010 Sweet Cherry Rootstock and Training Systems (Greg Lang)


2013 Pear Training/Rootstock/Spacing (Todd Einhorn)


2014 Apple Rootstock (John Cline)


2015 Organic Apple Rootstock (Terence Robinson)


2017 peach rootstock Trial (Greg Reighard)


2017 Sweet cherry Rootstock trial (Greg lang)


2017 Tart cherry Rootstock Trial (Greg Lang)


2018 Apple Rootstock Trial (Stephano Musacchi)


2018 Apricot Rootstock Trial (Gregg Lang)


2019 Pear Rootstock Trial (Todd Einhorn)


Future plantings for all crops for 2018 and beyond, are in various stages of planning at this time.


Apple Sub-Committee (Chair, Stefano Mussachi, WA)


The 2010 Apple Rootstock trial was established at 13 locations with Honeycrisp and six locations with Fuji.  It includes 28 Budagovsky, Cornell-Geneva, and Pillnitz rootstocks and three commercial controls.  After seven growing seasons, largest trees were on B.70-20-20 and B.64-194; the smallest were on B.71-7-22.  Greatest cumulative yield were from trees on CG.4004; the least from trees on B.71-7-22 (Honeycrisp) and B.67-5-32 (Fuji).  Most cumulatively yield efficient trees were on G.11 and G.4003 for Honeycrisp and on B.9, G.935N, and CG.5087 for Fuji.  The largest fruit on average were from trees on B.64-194 for Honeycrisp and from trees on G.41N for Fuji.   Trees on PiAu 9-90 had the highest chlorosis in BC and trees on B.73-150 had the lowest chlorosis. The 2014 Apple rootstock planting was established in 15 locations in the United States (AL, ID, IN, MA, ME, MI, MN, GA, NJ, NY, PA, UT, VA, WA, WI), two in Canada, and one in Mexico (http://bit.ly/1zv3wCc). The trial consists of the following rootstocks: B.10, G.11, G.202, G.214, G.30, G.41, G.5890, G.935, G.969, M.26 EMLA, M.9 T337, V.1, V.5, V.6, V.7. The trial is being coordinated by John Cline who has also agreed to analyze the data. This trial has two cultivars: Aztec Fuji (AL, ID, GA, NJ, ON, PA, UT) and Honeycrisp (ID, IN, MA, ME, Mexico, MI, MN, NJ, NY, Ontario, PA, VA, WA, WI), planted to a ‘tall spindle’ systems at a 5 x 12 feet, and 4 x12 feet spacing, respectively. Trees are planted using a randomized block design with single trees serving as experimental units. Each site selected a pollinizer variety since some sites are very limited in adapted varieties. Trees were established in the spring of 2014. The trees were propagated by Willow Drive Nursery, WA. Data protocols have been established for 2014 and 2015. This is a young trial with no significant findings being reported at this time. The 2015 Organic Apple Rootstock Trial, was established in 2015 in 13 US and 1 Mexican state and will evaluate 9 Geneva rootstocks and M.9 NAKBT337 as a control.  All trees are managed organically and trained as Tall Spindles. Modi is the cultivar and Liberty is the pollinizer.  The design is five blocks in two-tree sets and will require 1/10 acre.   Organic certification is optional, but orchard management must be organic. After two seasons, trees on G.41 and G.202 had larger trunks than trees on G.16 and G.222.


Cherry Sub-Committee (Chair, Greg Lang, MI)


The 2010 Sweet Cherry Rootstock x Canopy Training System Coordinated Trial began with 13 sites; these have diminished to 5 due to diseases, cooperator retirements or transitions, deer damage, etc. Sweet cherry performance has varied widely by site and scion cultivar in on-going coordinated trials examining diverse canopy architectures matched with rootstocks of varying vigor levels. Work has begun on the first trial paper (Training Systems Establishment, Years 1-4) with adequate data expected from CA, MI, NY-Geneva, NY-New Paltz, NS, and BC. Since most training systems under test are new and novel, information about proper training and pruning is being developed respect to tree spacing and the range of rootstock vigor in the trial – in some system x rootstock combinations, excessive shading may be causing yields to diminish. The focus of canopy management is to optimize light distribution and minimize shade, promote balanced cropping and renew the structural fruiting sites. Gi3 combined with Upright Fruiting Offshoots system was insufficiently vigorous for 1.5 x 4 m spacing in British Columbia. Conversely, trees on Gi6 trained to the SSA system in Michigan has been overly vigorous at 0.75 m x 3.5 m. Two 2010 Tart Cherry Rootstock x Canopy Training System Independent Trials were established in UT and MI. The focus is on examining rootstock x canopy training interactions to develop hedgerow-type trees for over-the-row mechanical harvest. Trees were mechanically harvested in 2016. The 2017 Sweet Cherry Rootstock trial, coordinated by Greg Lang (MI), will have 5 Michigan State rootstocks, 3 Gisela stocks (3, 5, 12), Krymsk 6, and MxM14. Trial sites include OR, CA, WA, ID, MI, NY, and BC with Benton as a scion.  Trees will be trained as 2 or 3 systems at each site. MSU-developed cherry rootstock selections exhibit vigor reduction and precocity comparable to Gisela 3 and Gisela 5 rootstocks for tart and sweet cherry scion varieties in preliminary trials in WA and MI. Preparations have begun to include these in 2017 NC140 coordinated comparative trials for high density sweet and tart cherry production.


Pear Sub-Committee (Chairs, Todd Einhorn, OR; Rachel Elkins, CA)


The 2005 pear Rootstock Trial was terminated in 2014 and results were published in ACTA Hort. However the trees in California are being used for crop load adjustment experiments and only trees on 708-36 and Pyrodwarf had larger fruit following fruit thinning after June drop.The 2013 pear training/rootstock/spacing trial coordinated by Todd Einhorn was designed to evaluate the main effects and interactions among rootstock (OH×F 87, OH×F 69 and Pyro 2-33), training system (single axe V, single axe tall spindle, bi-axe vertical), and intra-row spacing (3, 4.5 and 6 ft.) on pear production.  Cooperators are OR (Anjou), NY (Bosc), and CA (Bartlett). Across all sites, trees were smallest on Pyro  2-33. For Bartlett and Bosc, trees on OHxF87 were smaller than on OHxF69. Trunks of bi-ais trees were half the size of single axis trees. For Anjou, but not the other cultivars, tree size was positively related to in-row spacing.  Yields of fourth-leaf trees were low at all sites (0.8 kg/tree) and not consistently affected by the any one of the factors evaluated. T. Einhorn is coordinating a 2018 rootstock trial to evaluate dwarfing potential and productivity of cold-hardy quince accessions on pear. Cooperators include OR, Nova Scotia, NY, PA, and WA. Ten to 14 genotypes presently in tissue culture will be propagated in 2016 and delivered to a nursery for propagation. Rootstocks will be budded to select scions, with and without interstems.  OH×F 87 will serve as the control.


Peach Sub-Committee (Chairs, Greg Reighard, SC; Rich Marini, PA)


The first five years of data for the 2009 peach Rootstock Trial were summarized and a draft of a manuscript will be completed in January 2017.  After seven years, 13 sites remain in the trial. Tree survival was highest for peach seedling rootstocks at all lcoations, whereas survival of non-peach species and hybrid rootstocks was poor to fair at five locations. Imperial California had the lowest survival. Prunus Americana seedlings produced large numbers of root suckers.


Largest trees were three Prunus x almond hybrids and Guardian®.  Fruit size varied with location and crop load (i.e., some rootstocks had few fruit).  KV010127 produced the largest fruit and Controller 5 and Mirobac (a.k.a Replantpac) the smallest fruit across all sites.  Cumulative yields were generally highest with the peach rootstocks, especially Guardian®.  Lowest yields were from plum hybrids and species.  Cumulative yield efficiency was highest on the non-peach rootstocks including many of the plum hybrids or species.  However, many of these rootstocks produced trees much smaller than the peach and almond hybrid cultivars.  These data suggest there were no advantages to using clonal interspecific Prunus hybrids for peach production under current cultural practices. The clonal P. persica rootstocks ‘Controller 8’ and ‘Controller 7’ are the most promising of the size-controlling rootstocks tested. The 2009 Peach Physiology Trial is focusing on the interactive effects of early-season temperature, cultivar and crop density on average fruit weight. Five cooperators (NY, ID, MD, SC, and KY). Trees were thinned early in the season to develop a range of crop densities and days from bloom to harvest, average fruit weight and growing degree days. At a given crop density, Cresthaven fruit weight was lower for KY and NY than for MD, SC and ID. For Redhaven, fruit weight was related linearly to crop density and curvilinearly to growing degree days. An additional year of data is needed to develop models.


Objective 2. To develop improved rootstocks for temperate-zone fruit trees using state-of-the-art genomic tools in breeding programs.


A new breeding program was initiated in June 2015 at Washington State University to develop dwarfing precocious pear rootstocks.  A cherry rootstock selection program (based on sour cherry scion breeding efforts) at MI has identified 5 elite genotypes, Cass, Clare, Lake, Crawford, and Clinton, that confer significant vigor control, precocity, and high productivity to sweet and tart cherry scions. These are being propagated for a 2017 NC140 coordinated trial evaluation as well as trials with selected scientists and growers. In 2016, the apple rootstock breeding program at Geneva, N.Y. released G.213 rootstock in Brazil and the U.S. This rootstock produces a tree similar in size to M.9 Nic29 with good yield efficiency, resistance to fire blight and wooly apple aphids and some tolerance to replant disease. In Brazil this rootstock increases bud break in low chill environments. In the nursery it induces more feathers that other commercial rootstocks. In the stool bed the shanks are straight but may possess some spines if the bed receives too much fertilizer and has not been planted in high density. As part of the recently funded Root 2 Fruit SCRI project, NC140 members are initiating research involving DNA sequencing to evaluate rootstocks for nutrient uptake capacity and tolerance to biotic stresses. The second year of a multistate/agency genomics project to genotype the entire NCGR Corvallis pear germplasm collection was completed. The effort is detailed at http://ucanr.edu/sites/peargenomics/. PGRN members collaborated on a multistate/agency (UC, WSU, OSU, USDA Kearneysville, USDA-NCGR Corvallis) SCRI pre-proposal to coordinate and develop a pear rootstock improvement program (submitted November 2016). Target traits are size control, fire blight and Armillaria resistance, and iron chlorosis.


Objective 3. To accelerate adoption of new rootstocks (a) by improving propagation techniques and (b) by acquiring new rootstocks from worldwide sources.


Discussions, led by MI, are on-going to assist in the importation and propagation of several cherry rootstocks (Gi13 and Gi17), from Germany known as the WeiGi series as well as potential apricot rootstocks. These stocks will be tested in future NC 140 cherry rootstock trials. Three Amelanchier rootstock genotypes were developed from intra- and interspecific hybridization (Germany) and tested in two plantings in Hood River, OR using ‘D’Anjou’ as the scion and compared to OH×F 87. Trees were established in a rootstock trial in OR on Amelanchier, which have been found to be are highly dwarfed (i.e., half the size of those on OH×F 87). Amelanchier rootstocks conferred high productivity to ‘D’Anjou’ resulting in ~60 flower clusters and 20 fruits per tree, a 6- and 10-fold increase over OH×F 87 for these factors, respectively. Some of the When brittle apple cultivars are budded onto some of the Geneva rootstocks, nurseries and orchardists have lost trees to breakage at the union. Using laser ablation tomography PA researchers found that weak and strong combinations both contained areas of poor xylem differentiation at the graft union. Researchers in UT found that application of plant growth regulators to the graft union of nursery trees increased break strength of trees.


Objective 4. To better understand the impacts of biotic and abiotic stresses on scion/rootstock combinations in temperate-zone fruit trees.


Biotic stresses. Tree nutrition influences tree growth and fruit quality. Bitter pit severity of HomeyCrisp was recorded at by several locations. At MN bitter pit was severe, but was not influenced by rootstock.  In MI trees on G.41 had the greatest bitter pit, whereas trees on V.1, and M.9T337 had little bitter pit. In ID trees on B.20-20-21, G.11 and CG.5087 had high leaf N, whereas trees on B.64-194 and B.70-20-20 had high leaf K. Bitter pit will be evaluated by more collaborators in 2017. The majority of trees on P. persica, but not Prunus hybrids and other Prunus species of rootstocks, survived in GA. In the Sandhills region of NC, fumigation is strongly encouraged to minimize the potential for peach tree short life, even when Guardian is used. Prunus rootstocks that had P. dulcis or P. domestica in their lineage survived poorly in SC, but no rootstocks of 100% P. persica have died.  Soil fumigation may be beneficial for apple trees planted in replant sites in NC or the best alternative would be to use alternative rootstocks, such as G.30 or G.210 rather than M.7 in replant sites. In the spring of 2015, 12 plants of two scion varieties, Honeycrisp and Gala, were grafted onto 4 rootstocks (G890, G41, Bud-9 and M9-T337) and grown in the greenhouse to study uptake of calcium and nitrogen in WA. Isotope tracers, whole plant mass balance uptake and distribution models will be combined with metabolomics and genomic profiling.


Abiotic stresses. In British Columbia, cherry rootstocks and training systems had little effect on stomatal conductance, but Gi3 and Gi5 had lower midday stem water potential than Gi6 trees on four of eight sampling dates. Gi3 was more susceptible to colonization with root lesion nematodes than Gi5 and Gi6 trees. No bacterial canker was observed. In Nova Scotia, water relations were assessed in both 2010 Honeycrisp and 2010 Sweet Cherry rootstock trials. Sweet cherry showed water stress initially and 3 weeks prior to harvest; Gi3 had higher values than Gi5 and Gi6. At the start of harvest TSA trees were more water stressed than UFO trees. Following harvest, when rainfall was well below the monthly average for August and September, Gi3 was most water stressed. Honeycrisp trees were measured 10 weeks before harvest and into the harvest season. HoneyCrisp water relation were affected little by rootstock in 2016


Objective 5. To enhance the sustainability of temperate fruit farming through development and distribution of research-based information utilizing eXtension.


The NC-140 web site, http://nc140.org continues to be our primary outreach component serving as an important collaboration tool for cooperators. Members of the research group communicate through a list serve, and upload/download project files to password-protected directories (NJ, MA). We have used the site to allow for easier collaboration and comparison of replicated rootstock trials. Requirements for web page design for regional projects have been met as outlined by the NIMMS and the North Central Regional Association of Agricultural Experiment Station Directors (NCRA). Articles, photographs and reports were archived throughout the year. Members of our research group have continued to make research-based information available to anyone who would like to use it through eXtension (MN, PA, MA, NY, NC, MO, OH, WV, IN, VA).  eXtension is not used in Canada . The database has been completed for apple rootstocks and cultivars and can be viewed at http://www.extension.org/apples. This project was funded through the USDA-SCRI program and was completed in August 2014.  We have linked to the primary website for the research group, www.nc140.org. For 2016 eApples content constituted 1.1% of all views on eXtension. NC-140 also maintains its own Email distribution list for internal communication. The posting Email address is nc140@virtualorchard.net. Reports, presentations, and videos that update NC140 cherry, apple, and stone fruit rootstock research and extension at MI are regularly posted on www.cherries.msu.edu, www.apples.msu.edu, www.hrt.msu.edu/greg-lang, and www.giselacherry.com. These have been cited by fruit growers throughout the United States around the world as valuable sources of information for new orchard planning and production. The Penn State Tree Fruit Website was upgraded with the addition of several posts on cultural practices including information on apple rootstocks, apple cultivars, training systems, calcium nutrient management and Honeycrisp management.


Other Relevant Accomplishments and Activities


The NC 140 project was awarded the Experiment Station Section Award for Excellence in Multistate Research in 2015. The award was officially presented at the annual Association of Public and Land Grant Universities annual meeting November 14, 2015. The award recognized this regional project’s contributions for over 40 years to the fruit growers in North America. NC 140 has been critical to the steady transition to higher density orchards, which has benefited consumers with higher quality fruit at reasonable prices. http://agisamerica.org/september-2015-land-grant-institutions-work-across-state-lines-to-increase-fruit-tree-production/. The project was given a $15,000 stipend to go towards project improvements and scholastic endeavors. The majority of the stipend will be used to provide scholarships to graduate students to attend the 2017 NC-140 meeting in North Carolina and make short research presentations. This is an important activity to train the next generation of pomologists by providing an opportunity for graduate students to learn about multi-state projects, specifically the NC-140, and to tour research plantings. 


 

Publications

2015-16 Published Written Works


 Books


Crassweller, R.M., T.A. Baugher, R.P. Marini, and J.R. Schupp. 2016. P.1-89. In: G. Krawczyk (ed.) Penn State Tree Fruit production Guide for 2016-2017.  Penn State Extension AGRS-045.


2016 Integrated Orchard Management Guide for Commercial apples in the Southeast. Edited by J. Walgenbach. NC Cooperative Extension Service, Raleigh. AG-572. 88 pp.


Refereed Journal Articles


Chavez, D.J., T.G. Beckman, and J.X. Chaparro. 2016. Identifying the North American plum species phylogenetic signal using nuclear, mitochondrial, and chloroplast DNA markers. Journal American Society Horticultural Science 141: In press.


Fazio, G., T.L. Robinson, and H.S. Aldwinckle, 2015. The Geneva apple rootstock breeding program. Plant Breeding Reviews 39:379-424.


Geng, F., R. Moran, M. Day, W. Halteman and D. Zhang. 2016. Increasing shoot elongation and proliferation of ‘G.30’ and ‘G.41’ apple by chilling explants and plant growth regulators. HortScience 51:899-904.


Law, T.L. and G.A. Lang. 2016. Planting angle and meristem management influence sweet cherry canopy development in the “Upright Fruiting Offshoots” training system. HortScience 51:1010-1015. http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/content/51/8/1010.full


Lang, G.A. 2016. Cherry rootstock. pp. 631 in: Gasic, K. and J.E. Preece. Register of New Fruit and Nut Cultivars: List 48. HortScience 51:620-652. http://hortsci.ashspublications.org/content/51/6/620.full


Marini, R.P., W.R. Autio, B. Black, J. Cline, W.P. Cowgill, Jr., R.C. Crassweller, C. Hampson, M.M. Kushad, R. Moran, M. Parker, R.L. Perry, G.L. Reighard, T. Robinson, D. Wolfe. 2016. Time Required for Classifying Rootstock Vigor in Multi-location Rootstock Trials. J. Amer. Pomol. Soc. 70(2):82-91.


Shin, S., P. Zheng, G. Fazio, M. Mazzola, D. Main, and Y. Zhu, 2016. Transcriptome changes specifically associated with apple (Malus domestica) root defense response during Pythium ultimum infection. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology 94:16-26.


Tworkoski, T., G. Fazio, and D.M. Glenn, 2016. Apple rootstock resistance to drought. Scientia Horticulturae 204:70-78. 24


Tworkoski, T. and G. Fazio, 2016. Hormone and growth interactions of scions and sizecontrolling rootstocks of young apple trees. Plant Growth Regulation.


Ayala, M. and G.A. Lang. 2015. 13C-Photoassimilate partitioning in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) during early spring. Ciencia e Investigacion Agraria 42:191-203. http://www.rcia.uc.cl/index.php/rcia/article/view/1508


Marini, R.P., W.R. Autio, B. Black, J. Cline, W.P. Cowgill, Jr., R.C. Crassweller, C. Hampson, M.M. Kushad, R. Moran, M. Parker, R.L. Perry, G.L. Reighard, T. Robinson, D. Wolfe. 2016. Time Required for Classifying Rootstock Vigor in Multi-location Rootstock Trials. Journal American Pomological Society. 70(2):82-91.


Symposium Proceedings


Fazio, G., Lordan, J., Francescatto, P., Cheng, L., Wallis, A., Grusak, M.A., Robinson, T.L.,Honeycrisp Apple Fruit Nutrient Concentration Affected By Apple Rootstocks, XI International Symposium on Integrating Canopy, Rootstock and Environmental Physiology in Orchard Systems. ISHS, Bologna, Italy.


Lang, GA, Blatt, S, Forge, T, Lordan, J, Neilsen, D, Reig, G and Robinson, T. 2016. Integrating sweet cherry canopy architectures and rootstocks in difference environments: the NC-140 trial results from Michigan, New York, British Columbia and Nova Scotia. ISHS Orchard Systems Symposium, Bologna, Italy. August 2016.


Reighard, G.L. 2016. Rootstock performance in the 2009 NC-140 peach trial across 11 States. ISHS 11th International Symposium on Integrating Canopy, Rootstock and Environmental Physiology in Orchard Systems. August 28 – Sept. 2, 2016. Bologna, Italy.


Fisk, C., C. Tu, D. Ritchie, M. Parker and G. Reighard. 2016. Rootstock effect on soil ecology in a young peach orchard. ISHS 11th International Symposium on Integrating Canopy, Rootstock and Environmental Physiology in Orchard Systems. August 28 – Sept. 2, 2016. Bologna, Italy.


Parker, M., D. Ritchie, G. Reighard, B.Clark and R. Marceau. 2016. Peach rootstock differences in tree survival from bacterial canker in the Southeastern United States. ISHS 11th International Symposium on Integrating Canopy, Rootstock and Environmental Physiology in Orchard Systems. August 28 – Sept. 2, 2016. Bologna, Italy.


Reighard, G., D.J. Chavez, et al. 2016. Rootstock performance in the 2009 NC-140 peach trial across 11 states. XI International Symposium on Integrating Canopy, Rootstock and Environmental Physiology in Orchard Systems.


Lang, G.A. 2016. Comparison of Intensive Sweet Cherry Tree Architectures to Optimize Fruit Quality and Labor Efficiencies. 2nd International Stone Fruit Conference, Netherlands, May, 2016


Lang, G.A. et al. 2016. The NC140 Trial Results from Michigan, New York, British Columbia, and Nova Scotia. ISHS Canopy Systems, Rootstocks, and Environmental Physiology Symposium, Bologna, Italy, Aug. 28-Sept 2.


Lang, G.A. 2016. Integrating Canopy Architectures and Rootstock Traits to Optimize Fruit Production in Different Environments. ISHS Canopy Systems, Rootstocks, and Environmental Physiology Symposium, Bologna, Italy, Aug. 28-Sept 2.


Lang, G. A. 2016. Experiences with New Sweet Cherry Training Systems. Tubitak Cherry Research Conference, Samsun, Turkey, Sept.   Lordan, J., Fazio, G., Francescatto, P., Robinson, T.L., 2016. Effects of Apple (Malus ×domestica) Rootstocks on Vigor and Yield Scion Response, XI International Symposium on Integrating Canopy, Rootstock and Environmental Physiology in Orchard Systems. ISHS, Bologna, Italy.


Poster Presentations


Popular Articles


Autio, W.R., J.S. Krupa, J.M. Clements, and W.P. Cowgill Jr. 2016. Evaluation of peach rootstocks: 2009 NC-140 Peach Rootstock Trial through seven growing seasons. Fruit Notes 81(3):1-3. http://horticulturalnews.org/96-3/Cover813.html


Autio, W.R., J.S. Krupa, J.M. Clements, and W.P. Cowgill Jr. 2016. Evaluation of peach rootstocks: 2009 NC-140 Peach Rootstock Trial through seven growing seasons. Horicultural News 96(3):1-3. http://horticulturalnews.org/96-3/Cover96-3.html


Autio, W.R. 2016. Rootstock Trial through seven growing seasons. Fruit Notes 81(3):1-3. http://horticulturalnews.org/96-3/Cover813.html


Crassweller, R. and D. Smith. 2016. Honeycrisp rootstock trial early results. Pennsylvania Fruit News 96(1):36-38.


Crassweller, R. and D. Smith 2016. 2015 Results of apple training system trials. Pennsylvania Fruit News 96(1):39-41.


Crassweller, R. and D. Smith. 2016 Nutritional analysis of new apple cultivars in high density plantings. Pennsylvania Fruit News. 96(2):21-22


Schupp, J. 2016. Prune mature trees to improve light distribution. Fruit Growers News 55(1):8-9


Baugher, Jarvinen, Dugan, and Schupp. 2016. Can a Rules-Based Apple Pruning System Improve Labor Efficiency without Affecting Orchard Productivity? PA Fruit News 96 (2):16-17.


Fazio, G., L. Cheng, M.A. Grusak, and T.L. Robinson, 2015. Apple rootstocks influence mineral nutrient concentration of leaves and fruit. New York Fruit Quarterly 25:11-15.


Hein, T. 2016. Smaller sweet cherry trees. Fruit and Vegetable Magazine, (in press).


Blatt, S. and D. Neilsen. 2016. Putting the cherry on top. AgrInfo, Issue 6, October 2016. http://www.agr.gc.ca/eng/about-us/publications/agri-info-newsletter/?id=1419351635969


Lang, G.A. 2016. Evaluating sweet cherry training systems for precision orchards. American Fruit Grower 136(1):26-27.


Lang, G. 2016. Una mirada a los sistemas de cobertura de cerezo en el mundo. Redagricola 80:34-38.


Tepe, E., E. Hoover, et al., 2016. extension.org/apples


Tepe, E., E. Hoover, et al., 2016. Commercial Fruit Extension (fruit.cfans.umn.edu)


Tepe E. and E. Hoover, 2016. Growing Fruit in the Northern Garden (available free on iBooks)


Warmund, M. 2016. The dangers of drought on fruit crops. M) Environment and Garden newsletter. June 2016. http://ipm.missouri.edu/MEG/archive/2016/v22n6.pdf.


Warmund, M. 2016. Split Pits in Peaches. Environment and Garden newsletter. July 2016. http://ipm.missouri.edu/MEG/archive/2016/v22n7.pdf.


Wolfe, D., D. Archbold, J. Johnston, and G. Travis. 2016. Rootstock Effects on Apple and Peach Tree Growth and Yield. Fruit and Vegetable Crops 2015 Research Report. University of Kentucky College of Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station publication. PR-688:9-12. http://www2.ca.uky.edu/agcomm/pubs/PR/PR706/PR706.pdf


Peck, G. and K. Yoder. 2016. 2015 Progress Report to the Virginia Apple Research Program: Continued Investigations into New Rootstocks, Cultivars, and Training Systems for Virginia. Virginia Fruit 97(1):7-11. (Apr 2016).


Thompson, A. and G. Peck. 2015. 2014 Progress Report to the Virginia Apple Research Program: Fine-tuning fertilizer recommendations for young apple trees in high-density plantings. Virginia Fruit 97(1):12-18 (Apr 2016).


Other Creative Works


Basedow, M., R. Crassweller, J. Schupp and T. Baugher. 2016. Bench Grafting https://youtu.be/ADIIcQGwAWA


Basedow, M., J. Schupp, R. Crassweller, and T. Baugher. 2016. Bark Grafting. https://youtu.be/MQFuJGngs.3M


Lang, G.A. 2016. Cherry training systems – from traditional to transformative? American Fruit Grower 136(11):15-16. http://www.growingproduce.com/fruits/stone-fruit/cherry-trainingsystems-from-traditional-to-transformative/


Lang, G.A. 2016. Take a close look at the Tall Spindle Axe. American Fruit Grower 136(8):18-http://www.growingproduce.com/fruits/stone-fruit/take-a-closer-look-at-the-tall-spindle-axetraining-system/


Blatt, S. 2016. CBC News: Nova Scotia researchers growing dwarf cherry trees. http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/nova-scotia/dwarf-cherry-trees-growing-1.3687577.  


Crassweller, R., L. Kime, and J. Harper. 2016. Agricultural Alternatives: Apple Production. Publication UA428. (complete revision) also on internet at http://extension.psu.edu/business/ag-alternatives/horticulture/fruits/apple-production


North Carolina State University produced 2 videos on apple rootstocks and higher density training systems.


Scientific and Outreach Oral Presentations


Adams, S. and B. Black 27 Jan 2016. “Apple and Peach Rootstock Update.” A presentation at the Northern Utah Fruit Meeting. Brigham City, UT (50 attendees).


Adams, S. and B. Black. 18 February 2016. “Nursery Tree and Rootstock Considerations.” A presentation in the Small Acreage Tree Fruit Basics session at the Utah Urban and Small Farms Conference, West Jordan, UT (45 attendees)


Black, B. and T. Roper. 28 June 2016. NC-140 plantings were featured at the Kaysville Fruit and Vegetable Field day. The tree fruit sessions had over 60 participants.


Autio, W.R. 2016. Update and tour of the current NC-140 trials at the UMass Cold Spring Orchard. Massachusetts Fruit Growers’ Association  Annual Summer Meeting, July 13, 2016.


Beckman, T. 2016. Post-release performance of MP-29, an interspecific plum-peach hybrid rootstock for peach. Annual Meeting of the American Society for Horticultural Science. Aug. 2016, Atlanta, GA.


Blatt, S. 2016. Odds and Ends: Rootstocks, bugs and sterility. Nova Scotia Fruit Growers Association Annual Convention, Greenwich, NS, 28 January 2016. Oral presentation to members of the Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and PEI tree fruit industry.


Blatt, S. 2016. Update on NC-140 Rootstock trials: Honeycrisp, Sweet Cherry and Modi. Oral presentation of my research results to members of the NS, NB and PEI tree fruit industry. Field Orchard Tour hosted by the Nova Scotia Fruit Growers Association, August 2016.


Casamali, B., M. Van Iersel, and D.J. Chavez. 2016. Irrigation and fertilization rates for young peach trees [Prunus persica L. (Batsch)]. Annual Meeting of the American Society for Horticultural Science. Aug. 2016, Atlanta, GA.


Cline, J. A. and D. Plotkowski. 2016. Industry Apple Tailgate Tour of the 2014 NC-140 Apple Rootstock Planting and 2015 European Cider Planting. August 15, 2016. University of Guelph, Simcoe.


Cochran, D.R. 2016.‘Honeycrisp’ apple rootstock trial update. Iowa Fruit and Vegetable Annual Conference, Ankeny, IA, January 29, 2016.


Cochran, D.R. 2016. NC-140 ‘Honeycrisp’ rootstock trial update 2016. Iowa State University Fruit and Vegetable Growers Field Day, Horticulture Research Farm, IA, August 15, 2016.


Cochran, D.R. 2016. Establishing an Orchard. Iowa Small Farms Conference, Scheman Continuing Education Building, Ames, IA, February 13, 2016.


Conlan, E., J. Liu, D.J. Chavez, O. Lindstrom, and M.A. Olmstead. 2016. Peach critical bud temperatures for different phenological bud stages. Annual Meeting of the Florida State Horticulture Society.


Crassweller, R. M. 2016. Cherry Rootstock Update. Presented at Mid-Atlantic Fruit & Vegetable Conference 2/4/16. Hershey, PA.


Elkin, R. 2016.  Rootstocks and orchard systems for European pears; 2014 Sacramento River District PearResearchMeeti(February3, 2016) and 2016 North Coast Pear Research Meeting, Feb. 9, 2016. http://www.calpear.com/research/.


Marini, R.P. 2016. Two Decades of NC140 Trial Results. 2016 IFTA Pre-Conference Intensive Workshop. Grand Rapids, MI. Feb. 6, 2016.


Fallahi, E. 2015. NC-140 Fuji/Rootstock Report. Annual Conference of the Idaho State Horticultural Society, Nampa, Idaho. Nov. 12-13, 2015


Fallahi, E. 2016. Training on Growing Apples on Different Rootstocks. Idaho apple growers March tour. March 8, 2016


Fallahi, E. 2016. Performance of Apple Rootstocks under Intermountain West Conditions. University of Idaho Pomology Program Fruit Field Day. Sept. 16, 2016.


Lang, G.A. 2016. Evolution of Precision Orchard Production Systems. International Fruit Tree Association annual conference, Grand Rapids, MI, Feb. 7-10.


Lang, G.A. 2016. The Fruiting Wall Orchard: Tree Training Results for Sweet Cherries, Nectarines, Apricots, and Plums. ASHS annual conference, Atlanta, GA, Aug. 8-11.


Lang, G.A. 2016. Sweet Cherry Orchard Designs: The Force Awakens, NW Orchard and Vineyard Show, Traverse City, MI; Jan. 12-13.


Lang, G.A. 2016. Update on Apple Rootstock Research at MSU, SW Hort Days, Benton Harbor, MI; Feb 4.


Lang, G. 2016. High Density Training Systems and Protected Production of Sweet Cherries, MSU Clarksville Research Center Field Day, Clarksville, MI, June 22.


Lang, G.A. 2016. Sistemas Intensivos de Producción de Cerezas: Manejo Sustenable. 7th Region Extension (Curico, Chile), Oct. 18-19.


Liu, J., A. Malladi, O. Lindstrom, E. Smith, M. Olmstead, and D.J. Chavez. 2016. Revisiting cold hardiness of peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] in Georgia. Annual Meeting of the American Society for Horticultural Science. Aug. 2016, Atlanta, GA.


Liu, J., A. Malladi, O. Lindstrom, E. Smith, M. Olmstead, and D.J. Chavez. 2016. Differential thermal analyses in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch]. Annual Meeting of the American Society for Horticultural Science. Aug. 2016, Atlanta, GA.  [poster]


Lordan, J., Robinson, T.L., Blatt, S., Francescatto, P., Embree, C., 2016b. Performance of pear rootstocks in North America, ASHS Annual Conference. ASHS, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.


Moran, R., B. Peterson, G. Fazio, and J. Cline. 2016. Seasonal and genotypic variation in cold temperature tolerance of apple rootstocks. Annual Meeting of the American Society for Horticultural Science Conference. Atlanta, GA. Aug. 2016.


Moran, R. 2015. Pruning and Training Apple Trees. Summary of training systems including the use of size-controlling rootstocks for apple. Ehmej, Bcharre, and Jbeil, Lebanon, ME. Oct. 22 - Nov.3, 2015.


Moran, R. 2016. Highmoor Farm Tree Fruit Research Summary. Maine Ag. Trades Show, Augusta, ME, January 14, 2016.


Parker, M.L. January 2016. Peach Production Orchard Tour and Workshop with an emphasis on peach rootstocks and subsequent management. Attendance 50.


Parker, M.L. January 2016. North Carolina Peach Growers Society. Carthage, NC. Commercial grower audience. Attendance 85.


Parker, M.L. February 2016. Western District Apple School, Hendersonville, NC. Commercial grower audience. Attendance 110.


Parker, M.L. February 2016. Maximizing Orchard Productivity in the Brushy Mts., Wilkesboro, NC. Commercial grower audience. Attendance 40.


Reighard, G.L. 2016. Krymsk® and other stone fruit rootstocks. Ontario Fruit and Vegetable Convention, Niagara Falls, Ontario, February 16, 2016.


Reighard, G.L. 2016. Peach rootstocks for efficient orchard training and production systems. IFTA 59th Annual Conference. Grand Rapids, MI. February 8, 2016.


Reighard, G.L. 2016. Nitrogen nutrition and bacterial canker association on replant sites. SE Regional Fruit & Vegetable Conference. Savannah, GA. Jan. 9, 2016.


Thompson A. and G.M. Peck. Fine tuning fertilizer recommendations for young apple trees in high-density plantings. Cumberland Shenandoah Fruit Workers Meeting. 2015.


Peck, G.M. and A.A. Thompson. Soil microbial mediation of mineral uptake by apple rootstock. American Society for Horticulture Science General Meeting. 2016.


Wolfe, D. 2016. Apple and peach rootstock trials in Kentucky. UKREC Horticulture Field Day. June, 25, 2016.


Shengrui Yao. 2016.  Fruit research update at NMSU Alcalde Center (with 2015 organic apple rootstock trial included). Presented at the New Mexico Fruit Growers Annual Workshop on March 4, 2016.


Yoder, K. 13 Aug 2016. Open House at the Alson H. Smith, Jr. AREC: Tour of the Horticulture and Pathology plantings. Winchester, VA. General public. Attendance: 65.


 Fund Leveraging, specifically, collaborative grants between stations and members.


NC-140 members have written research proposals and attracted extramural funding associated or directly related to the five objectives of this project from local, regional, national and international funding sources. For fiscal year 2015/2016, funding and matching funds reported by members amounted to $1,590,140 plus $38,000 in-kind support from primarily commodity groups, state and competitive grant sources.


Autio, W, R Marini, J Cline, G Reighard, G Lang, and T Einhorn. 2016. NC-140 Rootstock Research Trial Coordinators. International Fruit Tree Association. $10,000.


Cline, J. 2016. Canadian Horticultural Council. $30,000


Cochran, D.R. 2016. Dwarfing Rootstocks. Iowa Dept. of Agri. and Land Stewardship Specialty Crop Block Grant. $1,700 in-kind for land and equipment usage plus $11,000.


Elkins, R. 2016. Rootstocks, Orchard Systems, and Cultivars for European Pears. California Pear Advisory Board. $17,973.


Falllahi, E. 2016. Evaluation of leaf minerals and fruit quality attributes of mature ‘Aztec’ Fuji trees on different rootstocks, tree girdling, and canopy designs. Block Grant, Idaho State Department of Agriculture $53,500.


Fallahi, E. 2016. Support in kind for agricultural chemicals from Wilbur Ellis Company, University of Idaho. $6,000.


Fallahi, E. 2015. Labor and equipment (in-kind) from Idaho fruit industry for operation of various apple rootstock projects. Idaho Fruit Industry.  $6,800.00


Cheng et al., 2016. Accelerating the Development, Evaluation, and Adoption of New Apple Rootstock Technologies to Improve Apple Grower Profitability and Sustainability. USDA-SCRISREP. $4,281,618.


Lang, G.A. 2016. Competitive Orchards 2020: Integrating Tree Fruit Cropping Physiology, Canopy Architectures, Climate Modification Technologies, and Pest Management Strategies.  Project GREEEN. $38,800.


Lang, G.A. 2016. Preserving ‘Honeycrisp’ Apple Quality and Profitability. Project GREEEN. $36,500.


Lang, G.A. 2016. Apple Rootstock Evaluations. Michigan Apple Committee. $15,251.


Lang, G.A. 2016. Bitter Pit in ‘Honeycrisp’. Michigan Apple Committee. $12,703.


Lang, G.A. 2016. Sweet Cherry Orchard Designs. Michigan Cherry Committee. $10,000.


Lang, G.A. 2016. Trellised Protected Orchard Systems. International Fruit Tree Association. $9,000.


Lang, G.A. 2016. Fruiting Wall Orchard Systems for Stone Fruits. International Fruit Tree Association. $4,000.


Lang, G.A. 2016. Fruiting Wall and High Tunnel Stone Fruit Production. Michigan State Horticultural Society. $8,124.


Lang, G.A. 2016. (in-kind). Michigan Tree Fruit Commission; $24,500 nursery tree purchases, plot preparation and establishment, irrigation installation, deer fence for new cherry trials.


Lang, G.A. 2016. (in-kind). Michigan Tree Fruit Commission; $124,000 mechanized orchard platforms for orchard research at Northwest Michigan and Clarksville Research Centers.


Lang, G.A. 2016. (in-kind).  Al-Mar Orchards, Flushing, MI; Land use and maintenance for apple rootstock trial. $2,500


Lang, G.A. 2016. (in-kind). Rasch Orchards, Sparta, MI; Land use and maintenance for apple rootstock trial. $2,500


Parker, M.L. NC Legislature/Special Bill funding for apple research - $9,000.


Wolfe, D. 2013-2017. New peach/nectarine cultivar planting. Cumberland Valley Nursery. $1000.


Wolfe, D. 2014-2017. Technical Staffing from Kentucky Agricultural Development Board / Kentucky Horticulture Council grant. Infrastructure for Kentucky Horticulture.  $53,645


New York. 2016. - Evaluation of the Cornell-Geneva Apple Rootstocks and Other Promising Apple Rootstocks. - Sponsored by International Fruit Tree Association ($10,000).


New York. 2016. High-Density Planting Systems and Rootstocks for Sweet Cherries in the East. - Sponsored by International Fruit Tree Association ($9,000).


New York. 2106. Orchard management systems for improved yield and fruit quality – Sponsored by Apple Research and Development Program ($68,000).


Reighard, G. 2016. Guardian® seed sales. South Carolina Foundation Seed. $214,000.


Reighard, G. 2016. “Screening peach rootstocks for adaptability, productivity, and tolerance to Armillaria and bacterial canker”. South Carolina Peach Council research grant. $4,000.


Saski, Gasic, Reighard, et al. 2016. Genomics of Armillaria resistant Prunus genotypes. Wells Fargo Grant $150,000.


Robinson, T. and B. Black. 2015-2016. Scion – rootstock interactions and their effect on graft union break strength of apple. International Fruit Tree Association. $10,000.


Black, B. 2014-2017. A Comparison of Water Relations and WUE Among Fruit Tree Rootstocks. Utah Dept. Ag. & Food, Specialty Crop Block Grant. $31,029.


Shengrui Yao, Robert Heyduck and Steve Guldan. 2014-2017. Organic apple high density planting in New Mexico. Specialty Crop Block Grant through NM Department of Agriculture.  $27,242.


Song, J, Forge, T, Blatt, S, Neilsen D, Forney, C and Burgher-MacLellan, K. 2015-2018 (3 years). Costs of supporting the apple and cherry rootstock trials covered by AAFC’s A-base funding, project J-001036.001: ‘Developing more resilient tree fruit production systems from the ground up: Rootstocks with enhanced tolerance to emerging biotic threats to orchard health”.


Yoder, K.S. 2016-2017. New Rootstocks, Cultivars, and Training Systems for Virginia, project support for 2016. Virginia Apple Research Program. $6,125.


Yoder, K.S. 2016-2017. Apple rootstock susceptibility to Tomato Ring Spot Virus (TmRSV) and latent viruses. Virginia Apple Research Program. $9,500.


Peck, G.M. and M. Williams. 2014-2017. Towards ecologically-based fertilizer recommendations that improve soil quality in high-density apple orchards. USDA-NIFA, Southern Sustainable Agriculture Research and Extension Program (SSARE). $140,000.


Peck, G.M. and K.S. Yoder. 2014-2016. Advancing Organic Apple Production in Virginia. Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services-Specialty Crop Block Grant. $38,166.


Yoder, K.S. and G.M. Peck. 2014-2016. Susceptibility of new apple rootstocks to Tomato Ringspot Virus (TmRSV). Virginia Agricultural Council. $2,000.


Peck, G.M. 2015-2016. Integrated Approaches for Reducing Synthetic Fertilizer Inputs in Apple Orchards. Virginia Agricultural Council. $21,683.


Peck, G.M., A.T. Thompson, and D. Carbaugh. 2015-2016. Fine-tuning fertilizer recommendations for young apple trees in high-density plantings: Year Three, 2015. Virginia Apple Research Program. $10,000.


Stefano Musacchi, Karen Lewis, Karina Gallardo, Tom Auvil. 2014-2017. WA 38 Rootstock and Systems Trial. Washington Tree Fruit Research Commission (WTFRC)  Total Budget: 242,519 US$ personal budget: $133,495.


Kate Evans and Amit Dhingra. 2015-2018. Developing the foundation for U.S. pear rootstock breeding. PNW Pear Bureau.Budget: $273,253.


Stefano Musacchi, Lee Kalcsits, Desmond Layne and Karina Gallardo. 2015-2018. Cosmic CrispTM: Training system and orchard management to optimize vigor control and quality. Specialty Crop Block Grant Program. Total budget $249,191. Personal budget: $104,865.


Stasiak, M. 2016. Door & Kewaunee Co. commercial fruit research and outreach support to cover apple rootstock planting maintenance. $5,000.


Stasiak, M. and Atucha. 2016. Wisconsin Apple Growers Association funding for evaluation of NC140 apple rootstocks in Wisconsin. $3,225.


Crassweller, R.  J. Schupp, D. Smith. 2016. Apple Rootstock and Cultivar Evaluations. (continuing) 50%. SHAP Research CommitteeRMC = $11,635, Total budget = $18,932.


Crassweller, R. and D. Smith. 2016. SHAP Second Generation Apple System Trials. Endowment Committee. Year 9 of 10. RMC = 100%, Total budget = $7,000


Crassweller, R.M. and D. E. Smith. 2016. New Apple Rootstocks’ Influence on Mineral Composition of Leaves and Fruit. SARE On-farm Research/Partnership Project $14,562

Impact Statements

  1. Research performed by NC-140 provided the foundation for the newly funded SCRI project “Roots 2 Fruit”. Most collaborators in this new project are also NC-140 members and some of the existing NC-140 plantings will be used for various aspects of the new project.
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